Intro to Social Psych Final Study Guide
Intro to Social Psych Final Study Guide PSYC 3430 - 03
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauren Notetaker on Thursday May 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 3430 - 03 at Tulane University taught by O'Brien, Laurie in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see Intro To Social Psych in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 05/05/16
Social Psych Final Exam Study Guide I believe in you. Goodluck!! Chapter 1: Introduction • Theory – An integrated set of principles that seeks to explain and predict the relationship between two or more events • Hypothesis – An explicit, testable prediction about the conditions under which an event will occur. ◦ Narrower, more precise, derived from theories ◦ Ex: Children exposed to violent TV shows will be more likely to hit their siblings than children exposed to nonviolent TV shows. • Social learning theory suggests ppl learn to b aggressive from viewing violence • Random Sampling – Everyone in population of interest has equal chance of being included ◦ How tulane students feel about lsu • This class would be a convenient sample ◦ Can be difﬁcult, maybe impossible ◦ How women feel about abortion • Can be difﬁcult if you have a big population • Random Assignment – Everyone in experiment has equal chance of being assigned to each group ◦ Wanted to know whether taking 0, 50, 100 mg of caffeine before exam ◦ Random sampling choose individuals of pop, random assignment, once you chose your sample and choose experimental and control group Chapter 2: The Self • Self-concept: – The sum total of an individual’s beliefs about his or her own personal attributes. ◦ In apes • If you put paint on their fur, they recognize themselves in mirror and try to get it off ◦ In children • Self concept is developed over time, not born with it • Infant doesn't recognize self in mirror • Where does self-concept come from? – Introspection – Perceptions of our own behavior – Other people – Autobiographical memories – Culture • Introspection ◦ Nisbett and Wilson, 1977 • Method ▪ Evaluate quality of pantyhose on display table ▪ Which do you prefer? • Product position affect • Ppl tend to choose ones on the right • Gave them 4 of the same one and the majority said they preferred product on the right ◦ Idea: self-knowledge is derived form looking inward ◦ Problem 1: often ppl cant explain own behavior; ppl tend to think duration of negative emotions last longer than they think ◦ Problem 2: ppl cant predict their feelings • What is self-esteem? – How you FEEL about yourself ◦ Affective component ◦ Includes positive and neg self evaluations – Need for positive self-esteem • In general, evidence shows that people tend to have very positive views of themselves – Implicit egotism – Above average effect – Unrealistic optimism ◦ Implicit egotism • Ppl's names inlfuence ppl's choices on where to live and what jobs to take ▪ If name is michelle you're likely to move to michigen to denver ▪ Ppl are attracted to common letters and sounds ◦ Above avg effect • How attractive are you - rate self above avg • Only for positive traits ◦ Unrealistic optomosim • Bad things are less likely to happen to them Chapter 3: Social Cognition • Controlled processing – Conscious, intentional, voluntary, effortful thinking • Automatic processing – Non-conscious, unintentional, involuntary, effortless thinking • Cognitive Misers ◦ Miser - person who is stingy with money ◦ We're stingy with our congnitions; not enough time to thoroughly process all info we take in every day Chapter 4: Attitudes • Positive or negative evaluation – Person – Object – Idea • Where do attitudes come from? – Cognitive dissonancy theory (festinger) ◦ Behavior-attitude mismatch is uncomf ◦ Need to reduce dissonance ◦ Magnitude of dissonance is key ◦ Results in changed attitude • Festinger ◦ Brought participants to lab and had them do a boring task for an hour where they sat at a peg board and turned them; when it was over them told some of the people how expectation inﬂuences task and asked if they would lie and tell them it was interesting; some offered $20 to tell them, others offered $1 and third group didn't lie at all; how much did you enjoy the study? • No lie - low • $20 lie - slightly higher • $1 lie - really high • Argument is that they only got a dollar and were like why did I lie, cognitive dissonance made them convince themselves that it was fun – Self-perception theory ▪ Reran original festinger and Carlsmith study ▪ You just learned about someone else that participated in the study • The ppl who guessed the participants liked the study the most was when they were paid $1 • Both theories now offered an explanation • We use behavior as a que; look to our behavior and infer our attitudes • Observe own behavior • Infer attitude • Offers alternative explanation why you might go through cognitive dissonance – Balance theory • Cognitive consistency between people • Ex: attitude toward a person and the person has an attitude toward something else • Eaerliest consistency theory (Heider) ◦ Consistency within the person ◦ Involves the perceiver, another person, and an attitude object • Ex: jill and dan are friends, jill like saints so he might like them too; multiply the positives or negatives between each to see if it's balanced • Ex: dan and jill are friends, dan hates vikings so jill has to hate to balance • Ex: jill and anna are friends, anna likes falcons and jill doesn’t; unbalanced • In most circumstances, cog diss and self perc theory make same predictions • Critical diff ◦ Cog diss = arousal causes attitude change Chapter 5: Gender, Genes, & Culture • Culture: The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next. • All cultures have norms. – Cultural similarities – Cultural differences • Roles vary across culture ◦ Ideas of an ideal marriage ◦ Number of women in management ◦ Gender typing of jobs ◦ Gender tpying of clothes • Roles vary across time • Gender – The characteristics, whether biological or socially inﬂuenced, by which people deﬁne male and female. Division of labor • In us the proportion of married women in the paid workforce has doubled bt 1960-1998 • Number of women I college now surpasses the number of men • Earnings ◦ Women earn lower salaries Housework/childcare • Housework gap is narrowing ◦ Working women spend less time on housework than homemakers • Hetero men do more housework/childcare if: ◦ They have nontraditional sex role attitude ◦ Are needed because of mother's work schedule ◦ They have incomes similar to wife • Gay couples ◦ Gay men divide up chores based on preference ◦ Lesbian women share tasks • Sex differences – Aggression ◦ Big gender differences in physical aggresion • Ex: FBI crime statistic: 85% of violent crime committed by men ◦ Why differences? ◦ Verbal aggression = no gender difference ◦ Relational aggression = women slightly higher – Non-verbal communication ◦ Meta-analysis revealed that most, but certainly not all, studies show women are better at nonverbal communication ◦ Gender differences are: • Larger for reading facial expressions • Next largest for reading body cues • Smallest for decoding voice tone – Sexuality and mating preferences ◦ Men have more permissive attitudes about casual sex ◦ Differences have decreased since 1960, but still exist ◦ Evidence suggests men stronger sex drive ◦ Women more likely to be attracted to powerful, ambitious, and wealthy partners ◦ men are more likely to be attracted to physically attractive partners Chapter 6: Conformity • Conformity: A change in behavior or belief to accord with others. • Types of conformity: ◦ Acceptance - conforming while really believing in the act ◦ Compliance - conforming without really believing in the act ◦ Obedience - complying as the result of a demand • Important studies of conforming – Sherif’s autokinetic study • Autokinetic effect is an illusion • Dot in middle in dark room; dot didn't move; they asked how far the dot moved • Ppl were asked how far the light moved • Then they were in a group and not individual and at the end they determined it moved 2 inches; ppl adjusted with group norm • One year later - ppl were still inﬂuenced by the group norm • Demonstrates informational inﬂuence – Asch’s line judgment study • Standard line vs comparison lines • Experimental condition - ppl in a group; actual participant was giving response last, listen to three or four ppl that would say answer was 1 (out of three) • 30% ppl would conform to wrong group norm • Normative inﬂuence – Milgram’s obedience study • Studying "effects of punishment on learning" • P learns he will be "teacher" • P's job is to administer shocks of increasing intensity (15v-450v) when confederate makes a mistake • At 150 v c refuses to go on • At 330 v c falls silent • How many ppl go on to 450 v? ◦ 67% • Ppl less likely to obey with background info on conformity • Why do people conform? – Informational social inﬂuence ◦ Desire to be accurate ◦ Results in private acceptance • True acceptance • Change behavior and mind – Normative social inﬂuence ◦ Desire to fulﬁll other's expectations ◦ Results in public conformity • Superﬁcial change in behavior • No opinion change Chapter 7: Persuasion • Persuasion – The process by which a message induced change in beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors. • Conformity and per are related but per is a more deliberate change to change people's attitudes and behavior • Process • Communication of message • Elaboration Likelihood Model – Central Route ◦ Central Route - think carefully and scrutinive of message • High effort processing • Message content ◦ Peripheral route • Low effort processing - switching on auto pilot • Message cues - who is person making arugment (expert), am I in a good mood is this message making me happy? Chapter 8: Group Inﬂuence • Social facilitation theory – Presence of others strengthens dominant responses ◦ Performed better in presence of others; cyclists, kids reeling in ﬁshing line • Social loaﬁng – tendency for people to exert less effort when they pool their efforts toward a common goal than when individually accountable. • Tendency for ppl to exert less effort whwen they pool their efforts toward a common goal than when individually accountable ▪ Cheerleaders to cheer and clap alone or in a group • The more the ppl, the individuals put less effort • Presence of others lets us "off the hook" ▪ Performance of individual undetermined ▪ Reduce individuals' effort toward collective tasks • Social loaﬁng less likely to occur if ▪ Individual performances can be identiﬁed ▪ Task is important ▪ Ppl believe own efforts essential to success ▪ Group expects to be punished for poor performance ▪ Group is small or cohesive Social loaﬁng outside lab : ms i n ummo c r e d n •U ◦ Private plots vs collective plots • In Russia: 1% of land, 27% of output ▪ Private farms only constitute 1% but accounted for 27% of output, more food from smaller amount of land so more individual proﬁts • In Hungary, own 13% of land, 33% of output • Incentives can increase how hard ppl are working • Found in collectivist countries, too (japan, thailand, taiwan, indian, malysia), but less common • Other examples ◦ Public tv, union dues (require ppl to pay, if not required some elect not to do it so creates social loaﬁng) Woodstock • 1969 - 3 days of peace and music • 1999 - 3 days of peace love and rape • Deindividuation – loss of self-awareness and evaluation apprehension; occurs in group situations • Traditional View ◦ Increased arousal + increased anonymity = reduced personal responsibility • Modern view: makes group norms more salient ◦ Positive ◦ Negative • Group polarization – Similarity of members – Discussion strengthens initial leanings When group discussion strengthens an attitude share by group members Chapter 9: Prejudice • Stereotype – A belief about the personal attributes of a group of people • From a purely cognitive perspective, stereotypes are effort-saving generalizations that help us organize info Positive stereotypes • Americans are hard working • Asians are good at math • Black people are athletic or musical • They set up an expectation • Endorsing them is related to endorsing negative Negative Stereotypes • Americans love guns • Fat people are lazy • Black men are violent • Immigrants commit crime • Put down a group Why do we rely on stereotypes? e b o t d n e t •W cognitive misers • Easier to sort things if we use st. • Helps us form impressions, making us feel like we know something about people • S are easy and well learned • Prejudice – Negative feelings toward members of group Prejudice: Overt • Overt prejudice and intergroup conﬂict is prevalent all over the world ◦ Israel and palestine ◦ Civil wars in libya and syria ◦ North korea and south korea ◦ China and other osuth asian nations • In the us overt p. has been on the decline ◦ It's true to say that the treatment of lower groups has improved but doesn't mean they're treated equal or that there's no prejudice toward them • Google researcher, NYT contributor, Seth Stephens-Davidowitz • Uses google searches to study several human behaviors • Has investigated how google searches relate to hate crimes against muslins ◦ Let's us know how often hate crimes will be committed • Conducted a study on things correlated with the result of 2008 pres elec Prejudice: Explicitly and Implicit • Like other attitudes, ex prejudice can be explicitly or implicitly • Ex prej refers to the prej we can consciously report on • Discrimination – Negative behavior toward members of group Ex: Hate crimes againsts muslims, not voting for obama • Reducing Prejudice – Contact hypothesis – Superodinate goals • Superordinate goals: a shared goal that necessitates cooperative effort (sherif and sherif) • Jigsaw classroom (aronson) ◦ Assigned children to diverse 6 member groups ◦ Each member becomes and expert • Subtyping occurs when groups of individuals who do not ﬁt their stereotype are though t of as "exceptions to the rule" • Consequences for Targets – Attributional ambiguity – Stereotype threat • Awareness of the devalued quality of ones social identiy • Experience with prej and discirm • Attributional ambiguity • Stereotype threat ◦ The experience of anxiety in a situation in which a person has the potential to conﬁrm a negative stereotype about his or her social group Chapter 10: Aggression • Aggression – Physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone – Hostile versus instrumental aggression • Hostile aggression ◦ Lash out bc you're angry; primary goal to hurt • Instrumental aggression ◦ Intend to hurt someone in the service of another goal ◦ Ex: terrorism • Aggression is biological ◦ Testosterone plays role ◦ But, testosterone inﬂuenced by situation ◦ Bidirectional relationship bt test and agg • Aggression is cultural Cultural differences • Aggression varies by culture ◦ Type of aggression ◦ Frequency ◦ Attitudes • Aggression varies by subculture ◦ Northern and southern us ◦ Culture honor Culture of honor (cohen) • Responding to insults ◦ Northern vs southern white men ◦ Pass confederate in hallway • Blocking most of aisle and bumped into participant and called them an asshole • Results ◦ Greater effect on southern ◦ Threatened masculinity ◦ Testosterone rises • Wanted to see how assertive the p's would act ◦ Walk down narrow hallway ◦ Had another man who was huge and walked straight down • Situational factors – Pain – Heat – Provocation – Situational Cues ◦ Weapons effect: the tendency of weapons to increase the likelihood of aggression by their mere presence – Frustration ◦ Blocking of expected goal ◦ Produces anger ◦ Sometimes aggression is displaced • Social learning theory – Behavior is learned through the observation of others as well as through direct experience of rewards and punishments. • Bobo doll study (bandura) Chapter 11: Attraction • Who is attractive? – Mere exposure – Similarity – Physical beauty • The role of attachment in love Adult attachment: normative processes • Similarities bt infant and adult attachment: ◦ Proximity seeking ◦ Separation protest ◦ Safe haven ◦ Secure base • Differences bt infant and adult relationships ◦ Mutuality: caregiving and receiving ◦ psychological, not physical, proximity ◦ Integration of sexuality Are attachment styles permanent? • Not rly • Attachment styles are learned and therefore acna be unlearned ◦ After a bad break up a secure person may become insecure ◦ An insecure person in a good relationship may become secure • Avoidant and anxious most liekly to change • In terms of adult attachment styes, anxious individuals seem to be possessive and jelly while avoidant individuals are less invested in relationships and more likely to leave them Chapter 12: Helping • Egoistic helping – Desire to increase own welfare • Altruistic helping – Desire to increase other’s welfare Egoistic-altruism hypothesis • People are motivated to help others in order to relieve their own neg feelings(ex personal distress) • Egoistic helping occurs when ◦ In a bad mood and ◦ Helping will result in mood improvement • Developmental perspective on egoistic helping ◦ 6-8 yr old kids ◦ 15-18 yr old • 4x more likely to donate in sad event than in neutral condition ◦ Think about sad or neutral event and were offered to make a donation • If other available ways to improve mood, we'll take them • Unlikely to help if we think the act of helping won't alleviate • Bystander effect – The ﬁnding that a person is less likely to provide help when there are other bystanders. Chapter 13: Conﬂict • Conﬂict – Two or more people have incompatible goals – Actual or perceived • Social Dilemma • -A conﬂict in which the most beneﬁcial action for an individual, will, if chosen by most people, have harmful effects on everyone. • Social dilemma - a conﬂict in which the most beneﬁcial action for an individual, will, if chosen by most ppl have harmful effects on everyone • The prisoner's dilemma ◦ Y0u and another person have committed a crime ◦ The DA wants more evidence, offers you each a deal ◦ Confess to crime - give DA more info about crime to use to prosecute case • Both confess - 5 years in jail ◦ Refuse to confess • You confess and partner doesn’t - you go free partner goes 10 years ▪ Vice versa • Both refuse to confess - 1 year • • Attempts to resolve a conﬂict – Bargaining – Mediation – Arbitration Peacemaking • Bargaining - seeking an agreement to a conﬂict thorugh direct negotiation bt parties ◦ Trust important • Serotonin and oxytocin play roles • Reactive devaluation - reduced attractiveness of an offer from an opposing side just bc the other side made it ◦ Maoz 2002 • 116 israelis rated an israeli-authored peace plan • Plan described as written by israelis or palestinians (was actuals israeli) • Rate how good for israelis and how good for palestinians ▪ Better for ingroup When bargaining fails • Mediation - an attempt by a neutral third part to resolve a conﬂict by facilitating communication and offer suggestions ◦ Couple goes to marriage counselor ◦ Turning win-lose into win-win ◦ Unraveling misperceptions When mediation fails • Arbitration: resolution of a conﬂict by a neutral third party who studies both sides and imposes a settlement ◦ Arbitrator may choose compromise ◦ Final offer arbitration - arbitrator chooses one of the two ﬁnals offers Chapter 14: The Clinic • Errors in clinical judgments: – Illusory correlations – Hindsight bias – Self-conﬁrming diagnoses • Depressive realism—the tendency of mildly depressed people to make accurate rather than self-serving judgments, attributions, and predictions. • Stress: an unpleasant state of arousal in which people perceive the demands of an event as taxing their ability to satisfy those demands. • Stress effects – Cardiovascular health – Immune system Chapter 15: Psych and Law • The power of eyewitnesses. • Discredited eyewitness and eyewitness had equal power • Eyewitness testimony is subject to error. • Reducing error in eyewitness accounts. How accurate is eyewitness testimony • Buckhout (1974) study of accuracy: ◦ An assault on a professor was staged ◦ 7 weeks later, 60% of witnesses identiﬁed the wrong person • Eyewitnesses are often more conﬁdent than correct Why is eyewitness memory faulty? • The misinformation effect - incorporating "misinformation" into one's memory of an even after receiving misleading info • Memory constructioni (loftus 78) ◦ Ps show series of slides • Pic of blue car at a stop sign or a yield • Do ppl have an accurate memory for seeing stop or yield? • Misleading questions • Identiﬁed which slide they saw • 59% asked misleading question answered wrong • Retelling events commits people to their memory • Feedback to witnesses increases conﬁdence What can be done to reduce error? • Train police interviewers ◦ Don’t interrupt witness ◦ Have witness visualize the scene ◦ Don’t allow leading questions • Minimize false lineup identﬁcaitons ◦ Accurate identiﬁcations are automatic and effortless ◦ Screen out ppl who make false IDs ◦ Ppl do best looking at pics one at a time • Death-qualiﬁcation – A jury-selection procedure used in capital cases that permits judges to exclude prospective jurors who say they would not vote for the death penalty. • A jury selection procedure sued in capital cases that permits judges to exclude prospective jurors who say they would not vote for the death penality • Death penalty supporters ◦ More concerned about crim ◦ Trustful of police ◦ More cynical of defense lawyers ◦ Less tolerant of procedures to protect the accused • Capital case- case where defendant is eligible for death penalty if found guilty; can exclude ppl on jury if they wouldn’t want to decide • Death qualiﬁed jurors more likely to vote guilty • Death qualiﬁcation questions can impact juries • Mock juries ◦ Asking perspective jurors death qualiﬁcation questions makes them more likely to vote guilty • Death qualiﬁed jurors more likely to vote guilty Chapter 16: The sustainable future • World population is growing rapidly. • Crowding – the subjective feeling of unpleasantness due to the presence of other people. Crowding and perceived control • Get ppl to solve puzzles in different environments • It can effect our cog abilites, motivation and persistence • Tried to solve most puzzles when not crowded at all • Percieved control - reminded they could leave room at any time • Noise – May reduce people’s feelings of control • Stressful when we feel we cant control the noise or make it stop • Looked at percentage of errors in problem solving • No one actually pressed the button but had knowledge that if they did itd go away • Materialism – the valuing of money and possessions. – has increased over past 60 years. – Does money = happiness? • Does economic growth improve human morale ◦ No relation Why does materialism fail to satisfy? • Doesn't make you happier in long run • Adaptation level phenomenon - Can apply to temp in room not just money • Adaptation-level phenomenon—the tendency to adapt to a given level of stimulation and thus to notice and react to changes from that level.
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