Geog 104 : Final_Exam_Study_Guide.pdf
Geog 104 : Final_Exam_Study_Guide.pdf 104 - 011
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hertis Mcclanahan on Thursday May 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 104 - 011 at Southern Illinois University Carbondale taught by Trenton W. Ford in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 99 views. For similar materials see Weather Climate Society in GEOG at Southern Illinois University Carbondale.
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Date Created: 05/05/16
GEOG 104 – Weather, Climate, and Society Final Exam Study Guide Concepts to Understand I. Weather Variables 1. Describe the weather station model- Contains symbols and numbers giving detailed weather information for particular locations. 2. Know what pressure isobars are and determine areas of high and low pressure based on a surface weather map- A line on a weather map connecting points of equal pressure. 3. Differentiate between relative humidity and dew point temperature- Relative Humidity: the amount of vapor in the air. It indicates the amount of water vapor present to the maximum possible; reported as a percentage. Dew Point Temperature: the temperature at which saturation will occur, given sufficient cooling. II. Atmospheric Composition and Structure 1. Use the Ideal Gas Law to relate density, pressure, and temperature of a fluid As air density increases while temp is constant, pressure will increase. When density is constant, an increase in temp leads pressure to increase. 2. Distinguish between weather and climate and be able to identify examples of each Weather: short-term phenomena ex: current temp, humidity, wind conditions, amount and type of cloud cover, and presence or absence of precipitation. Climate: characteristic of long-term patterns ex: extreme heat, hail or lighting III. The Sun and Seasons 1. Describe the Earth’s orbit around the Sun and identify the perihelion and aphelion as well as the dates of the two points Orbits 365 days, Perihelion- closer to the sun; January 4, Aphelion- farthest from the sun; July 3 2. Explain what causes the Earth’s seasons Earths axial tilt and revolution and the strength of the seasonality is caused by latitude 3. Identify the solstices and equinoxes, what they represent as far as insolation in the Northern Hemisphere, and the dates of the solstices and equinoxes Solstices: points at which insolation in southern and northern hemisphere is most different; June 21-summer, Dec 21-winter Equinoxes: are the points at which insolation in the hemispheres is equal; March 21- spring, Sept 21- autumn 4. Identify the first 2 laws of thermodynamics and describe how these relate to energy transferred from the Sun to the Earth First law- energy must be conserved Second law- Heat is always transferred from regions of high temp to low temp. ex: radiation 5. Explain why the Sun emits more energy than the Earth using the Stefan-Boltzman Law The intensity of energy radiated by a body increases according to the fourth power of its absolute temp IV. Energy Balance and Budget 1. Understand what albedo is The percentage of insolation reflected by an object or substance 2. Explain the greenhouse effect and how it works to heat the Earth Interactions that warm up the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases permit transmission of solar radiation, but absorb and re-radiate longwave radiation V. Atmospheric Humidity and Clouds 1. Know that the amount of water vapor in the air depends on the air temperature 2. Describe adiabatic processes and explain how they lead to cooling and saturation as air parcels rise through the atmosphere Temp changes without heat added or removed. Takes place cause of compression; you compress air and you increase its temp. dry adiabatic lapse rate: rate at which rising parcel of unsaturated air cools= 1 degree c/ 100m VI. Precipitation Processes 1. Describe the Bergeron Process, where on Earth it initiates precipitation and how the process works Precipitation forms from liquid droplets and ice crystals combine. Saturation vapor over ice is less than liquid water. At the same saturation vapor pressure, the condensation equals evaporation for liquid, but deposition is greater than sublimation for ice. This makes the ice crystal grow and the liquid droplet shrink. MID-LATITUDE VII. Circulation & Pressure Gradients 1. Identify areas of high pressure, low pressure, and strong pressure gradients from a surface weather map 2. Describe why upper-level winds in the mid-latitudes flow primarily from west to east using pressure gradients and the Coriolis force Geostrophic flow: idealized condition in which the upper-level air flows at constant speed and direction, parallel to straight isobars. This occurs when the pressure gradient force equals the Coriolis force…. Occurs only in the upper atmosphere where friction is absent 3. Identify cyclones and anticyclones on a surface weather map, and understand the weather conditions with which each is associated Anticyclones- enclosed areas of high pressure marked by roughly circular isobars. Wind rotates clockwise. Sinking air to the surface. Clear skies, warm temp. Blue H on a weather map Cyclone- closed area of low- pressure at the surface. Wind rotates counter- clockwise. Rising air away from the surface, convergence at the surface, and divergence aloft. Severe weather and precipitation. Red L on surface weather map VIII. Global Circulation 1. Explain the 3-cell model of global circulation and be able to identify the Hadley, Ferrel, and Polar Cells Circulation moves energy from areas of surplus to areas of deficit, balancing energy distribution. Hadley Cell- heat driven circulation that moves air between the tropics and subtropics. Ferrel Cell- circulates air between the subtropical highs and subpolar lows. Polar cell- cold conditions at poles create high surface pressure. 2. Explain how the Hadley cell influences the locations of many of the Earth’s deserts Creates divergence or sinking of air around 30 degree n and 30 degree s. lack of uplift IX. Air Masses & Fronts 1. Describe and differentiate between a cold front and warm front. Understand the weather conditions associated with each Cold Front- wedge of cold air advances toward warm air ahead of front; large temp differences, dew point differences, narrow zones Warm Front- boundary of a warm air mass moving toward a cold one; less intense precipitation than cold fronts 2. Be able to identify a cold front and warm front on a surface weather map X. Mid-latitude Cyclones 1. Understand the lifecycle of a mid-latitude cyclone, from the Polar Front until occlusion Polar front, cyclogenesis, mature cyclone, beginning of occlusion, occlusion 2. Describe the weather conditions with which mid-latitude cyclones are associated Heat wave, cold wave, drought XI. Tornadoes & Thunderstorms 1. Explain the difference between a tornado watch and a tornado warning Tornado watch- conditions are favorable for tornado formation Tornado warning- a tornado has been confirmed via radar or eyewitness XII. Tropical Cyclones 1. Understand the characteristics of a hurricane, including its wind speed, central pressure, size, and primary energy source Wind- >74 mph Pressure- SLP near center around 950 mb Size- average diameter 375 mi Energy source- latent heat 2. Describe the structure of a mature hurricane, its eye, eye wall, and spiral rain bands Eye- area of relatively calm conditions Eye wall- area at the margin of the eye; most intense part 3. Describe the 4 primary ways through which hurricanes cause destructions Wind, Heavy rain, tornadoes, storm surge XIII. Regional Climates 1. Explain a climate normal and how many years of observations it takes to have a climate normal Regional climates typically based on mean annual temp and total annual precipitation. 30 years 2. Describe the 4 factors controlling regional climates: distribution of solar radiation input, uneven distribution of land and ocean, elevation, and atmospheric/oceanic circulation Latitude, specific heat, and pressure/temp differences XIV. Paleoclimate 1. Define paleoclimate and understand why we should study climates of the past Paleoclimate: the climates of the past. Extend instrumental record, understand extent of climate variability, measure climate sensitivity, and understand context of warm earth conditions 2. Understand glacial and interglacial cycles 3. Describe paleoclimate proxies and be able to give examples of what climate information each proxy gives us XV. Climate Change 1. Describe the 4 factors that force climate change and climate variability on Earth 2. Identify each of the 3 Milankovitch Cycles 3. Explain the greenhouse effect and how it occurs. Describe how humans have influenced the Earth’s natural greenhouse effect and what consequence there is to global temperatures 4. Identify and describe 3 feedback mechanisms: ice-albedo, water vapor & cloud, and vegetation feedbacks. Do these feedbacks result in warming or cooling? 5. Explain how climate change over the last 150 years is influenced temperature and precipitation in the Midwest 6. Identify and describe at least one way we can mitigate against climate change in each of these sectors: agriculture, manufacturing, transportation, and buildings
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