Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide Psy 3073
Popular in Interpersonal Relations
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Juliane Notetaker on Thursday May 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psy 3073 at Mississippi State University taught by Kimberly Brown in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Interpersonal Relations in Psychology (PSYC) at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 05/05/16
PSY 3073 Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1: The Building Blocks of Relationships o The Nature of Intimacy Intimate relationships have at least seven differences from other relationships: Knowledge (the personal information that partners have of each other) Interdependence (the influence that partners have on each other) Caring (the love that partners feel for one another) Trust (the treatment partners expect from each other) Responsiveness (how supportive partners are to each other’s needs) Mutuality (how partners see themselves as a couple) Commitment (the work partners put into their relationship) o The Need to Belong “the drive to establish intimacy with others” is part of our nature as humans (Miller, p.4). Not many intimate relationships are needed to satisfy our need to belong When this need is satisfied, we have many biological benefits: Healthier, longer lives Wounds heal more quickly Better mental health o The Influence of Culture In 1960, couples would have: gotten married in their early twenties likely not have lived together before marriage not have a baby before marriage wives would have not worked outside of the home In the present day, couples will: wait longer to get married live with each other before marrying have children even without being married have wives that work outside the home Sources of Change Economics Individualism New technology Modern communication Sex ratio: count of the number of men for every 100 women in a specific population o The Influence of Experience Attachment styles: Secure Anxious Avoidant The four types of attachment styles are on page 16 in Table 1.1 o The Influence of Individual Differences Sex differences: biological differences between men and women Gender differences: social and psychological differences influenced by our culture Personality: traits that influence one’s behavior The Big Five Personality Traits o Agreeableness o Extraversion o Conscientiousness o Neuroticism o Openness to Experience SelfEsteem: the evaluations individuals make of themselves o The Influence of Human Nature Men and women deal with different reproductive dilemmas Men deal with the issue of paternity uncertainty Men and women have different preferences in partners depending on whether they wish for a longterm relationship or a shortterm relationship o The Influence of Interaction Relationships are always changing and can be influenced by the trends of the culture they are currently in. o The Dark Side of Relationships Relationships can have many disadvantages: Secrets can be used against one another Loss of personal control Fear that a partner can reject them Chapter 2: Research Methods o Developing a Question Questions emerge from: Personal experience Social problems Previous research Theories o Obtaining Participants Convenience sample (readily available participants) Representative sample (participants who resemble the population) One problem from trying to obtain participants is the volunteer bias o Choosing a Design Correlational designs Positive (both events go up and down) Negative (one event goes up, the other goes down) Experimental designs Experiments are the way to investigate connections between cause and effect using an independent variable to manipulate a dependent variable o The Nature of Our Data Selfreports: a way to study relationships that involves asking people about their experiences with them Selfreports can be: o Questionnaires o Verbal interviews o Unstructured diaries Problems with selfreports are: o People might not be able answer correctly o Faulty memories o Social desirability bias Observations Method of gathering information by watching the test subject directly Chapter 3: Attraction o The Fundamental Basis of Attraction We are drawn to people whose presence we enjoy o Proximity: Liking Those Near Us Proximity often determines if we meet another to form relationships in the first place Proximity influences how familiar people will become with one another A disadvantage of proximity is that we may notice more negative traits as time passes Another disadvantage is the fact that distance/separation can harm the relationship One can enjoy being with their partner if they are nearby o Physical Attractiveness: Liking Those Who Are Lovely Physical attractiveness has a large influence on first impressions Many characteristics can influence physical attractiveness Hormones can affect if we see that someone is attractive to us or not Our standards on what is considered attractive has changed over the years Women who were attractive during the Renaissance would be considered to be fat in the present day People prefer to be in romantic relationships where the partner is just as attractive as they are o Similarity: Liking Those Who Are Like Us We are drawn to partners who have similar interests to us. Opposites do not attract The only time that being with an opposite partner may attract is when they have traits that complement their own traits o Barriers: Liking Those We Cannot Have The Romeo and Juliet effect: The more parents interfere with their teenager’s relationships, the more they are in love with their forbidden partner o What Do Men and Women Want? Warmth and loyalty Attractiveness and vitality Status and resources
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