PHYS 1302- Physics 2 Study Guide for Final Exam
PHYS 1302- Physics 2 Study Guide for Final Exam PHYS 1302
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This 22 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexis Clowtis on Friday May 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PHYS 1302 at University of Houston taught by Mini Das in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 102 views. For similar materials see introduction to physics in Physics 2 at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 05/06/16
PHYS 1302 Final Exam Review Exam 1 Chapter 19, 20, 21, 22 Chapter 19 • Coulomb’s law • 19-2 • Conceptual checkpoint 19-3 • 3 point charges question • Electric field(points in direction of where free positive charge will move) and V • Direction of force • Field is very strong close to charge; electric field density • Gauss’s Law: electric flux through a closed surface is proportional to the charge enclosed by the surface (flux=sum of charges/εo) • Flux: measure of electric field perpendicular to surface Chapter 20 • No potential energy until bring a charge • Work done=-delta u • Parallel plate capacitor • Potential vs potential energy & units • Electric field is a vector, V is a scalar so don’t use magnitude of q for V, you include sign • Equipotential surface; no work needed to move charge around=potential plane • J/C=Volt • electric field)you go from positive end of parallel plate capacitor to negative end (along • Capacitors and dielectrics: capacitance by definition is a positive number (capacity to store charge) C=Q/V Units: Farad [C/V] decreases the field and the potential difference (charges cant completely rearranget themselves) but can polarize molecules in insulator so rearrangement of molecules in opposite direction of E cancels some of E which can actually increase capacitance; if you insert a dielectric material, then charge has to increase because V is held constant • Dielectrics boost capacitance by increasing potential difference; electric field decreases when dielectric put in capacitor • Energy stored=energy density: energy per unit volume Ue=1/2εoE^2 • Electric potential=electric potential energy per unit of charge • Change in electric potential energy is = and opposite of work done • K=kq/r for point charges (scalars so include sign of charge) • Equipotential surface=surface of equal potential so move q around surface, no work Chapter 21 • Resistance, capacitance • Series vs parallel • Voltage across resistance • Capacitance • #4 on exam 1 • Problems worked out in class • I=ΔQ/Δt (amount of charge per unit time) • Emf=electromotive force • Resistance: determined by material, temperature, length (L↑,R↑) • Insulators have a very high resistivity • When a charge moves across a potential difference, its potential energy changes (ΔU=ΔQ*V • Power=work/time=IV [Watts] • Junction rule: at any junction, the current entering the junction must=the current leaving it I1-I2-I3=0 • Loop rule: sum of Vs around closed loop must be 0 (must lose all potential) • Circuits containing capacitors: V=Q/C Chapter 22 • Charge at rest in a B, no force • Charge at rest in a E, force • If there are both, only force due to E • Fnet • E points towards negative charge • Conceptual checkpoint 22-3, ex. 22-2 • Negative charge: take opposite of right hand rule • Earth’s geographic north=magnetic south so magnets’ N will face towards geo north pole of Earth (because its mag. South) • Ampere’s law: B=(μo)I/2πr μo is the permeability of free space • Magnetic force between 2 current loops-add if SAME, subtract if opposite(repel) • F=qvBsinθ (RHR: v pointer, B middle finger, F thumb) • If positive charge is moving with velocity, v, perpendicular to an electric field, it will start bending down (due to E) • q will move down if its just placed there • E is doing work because there’s a change in potential energy of the charge • Magnetic field doesn’t do any work • F=ILBsinθ (I-pointer, B-middle, F-thumbjust replace v with I) • Torque=Fr=IAB on a current loop in magnetic field • If you have a current carrying wire, it is creating a magnetic field around itself • Another right hand rule: fingers curl in direction of magnetic field while thumb points in direction of I • If 2 current carrying wires next to each other are in the same direction, they attract each other Exam 2 Chapter 23, 25, 26, 28 Chapter 23 • Flux-#field lines for given area; induced emf=change in flux • Lenz’s law: an induced current always flows in a direction that opposes the change that caused it • Avg intensity relate to electric field (radiation of sun) • Magnetic flux=BcosθA • Angle is between the magnetic field and the NORMAL of the loop (line through center) • When current carrying loops in magnetic field, F=IB (RHR #1) • You can convert mechanical power into electric power if in magnetic field Chapter 25 • Propagation of electromagnetic waves • Polarizers • Mirror in water vs lens in water • Law of reflection • Distance between slits • Polarization=direction of its electric field • Polarizer can control polarization to just 1 direction and reduces intensity Chapter 26 • Law of reflection: θi=θr • Need a mirror that is approximately ½ your height to see all of you • Mirror image you see is same size as object • Image is upright but appears reversed LR • F=+/- ½ R (+ if concave, - if convex-light hits ( side) • Rays: • P ray- parallelthen through f • F ray- through f then parallel • M ray- throughcenter then bounces directly back • Submerge mirror in water and f DOES NOT CHANGE because it doesn’t depend on the medium • Image forms on same side of mirror than it is real, behind mirror (appears) than it is virtual • Refraction: v=c/n where n is the index of refraction • Snell’s law: n1sinθ1=n2sinθ2 • Bends TOWARDS NORMAL in higher n (if it goes from water to air though for ex. Then it would bend away from the normal) • Critical angle: sinθc=n2/n1 • Lenses: if it’s on the opposite side of f then it is real (real implies inverted) • Concave lens always virtual, convex lens can be real or virtual • Negative magnification=inverted image • If you immerse a lens in water, the focal length will get longer (farther away from the lens) because airglass is a bigger change in n than glasswater Chapter 28 • Wave nature of light • Superposition and interference • light source has to be monochromatic and coherent • L1-L2=mλ constructive • L1-L2=(m-1/2)λ destructive • dsinθ=mλ gives theta to bright fringe (1 - m=1 and so on) • dsinθ=(m-1/2)λ gives theta for a given dark fringe • λ↑=θ↑=fringe spacing↑ • Fringe spacing for red>fringe space blue • If v ↓, then λ↓ so θ↓ so closely spaced fringes • Refracted waves from layers of material: remember FIRST medium is where the light bounces off of, the second medium is where it goes after it bounces (bounce a ball off the ground, the first medium would be the ground, the second would be the air above the ground) • Additional distance traveled by one of the rays can cause a phase change (2d) • If n2>n1 then there is a phase change due to the substance • Ex 28-4 • Resolution: D is diameter of your eye (or aperture of whatever it is) • Tanθ=y/Lwhere L is the distance between the object and the aperture • Theta min=1.22λ/Dn • Sinθ=1.22 λ/D where theta is the angle of the first fringe Exam 3 Chapter 30, 31, 32, 16 Chapter 30 • Photoelectric effect • 30-2 • Number of electrons depends on intensity (more photons more intense) BUT still need min frequency to start emitting photons • Kmax electron=Ephoton-Wo (KE electron depends on energy of photon) • Nucleon=protons and neutrons • Max change in lambda when theta=180 degrees for scattering • Heisenberg uncertainty • Momentum of a photon: p=hf/c=h/ λ Chapter 31 • Balmer: nf=2 • Lyman: nf=1 • Paschen: nf=3 • Energy required to knock off electron from ground state of H atom=13.6 eV • 31-2, 31-4 • Frequency of photon emitted from electron jumping down shells E=hf • If more than 1 electron (bigger atomic number) energy needed to knock off 1 electron is E=-13.6(z-1)^2/n^2 because additional electron acts as a shield for the positive charge of the nucleus • Path length of different shells, electron moves around shell like a wave • Wave nature, interference pattern, why electrons survive in shells Chapter 32 • Radioactivity- relate ½ life to decay rate • A=Z+N • Alpha particles • Curiesdecays per second • Activity of radioactive sample=R=decays/second • N is current # nuclei in sample (changes with time) • Carbon-14 dating (dead stops interacting with atmosphere, carbon 14 not made) • Binding energy: Hmass<proton mass+electron mass because of binding energy • Alpha particle: 2 neutrons, 2 protons so A loses 4 and Z loses 2 (alpha particle=helium) • Beta particle: take out electron(z+1) or positron(Z-1) • Gamma rays: high energy photons • T1/2=ln2/ λ • Number of nuclei that havent decayed (N)=Noe^(- λt) where No is the initial number of radioactive particles Chapter 16 • Heat capacity • Specific heat capacity: smaller mass, bigger change in T; always positive • Conduction, convection, radiation • Conduction: flow of heat via material • Convection: flow of fluid • Radiation: transfer via photons (no medium needed) • Linear expansion coefficient • 16-3 • Increasing length, volume
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