BMS260StudyGuide.pdf BMS 260
Popular in Biomedical Sciences
Popular in Biomedical Sciences
This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mikaela Maldonado on Friday May 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BMS 260 at Colorado State University taught by Dr. Russell Anthony in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Biomedical Sciences in Biomedical Sciences at Colorado State University.
Reviews for BMS260StudyGuide.pdf
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 05/06/16
Anatomy of the Digestive System Musculomembranous tube – mouth to the anus 4 major function of the digestive system prehension – taking food in mastication – chewing ; salivation swallowing digestion motility absorption secretion secretion/absorption 1200mL water/day ingested 1500 mL salivary secretions 500 mL bile/1500mL pancreatic secretions 1500 mL intestinal secretions 6500 mL absorbed through small intestine mouth, pharynx, esophagus esophagus – connects the pharynx to stomach both smooth and skeletal muscle smooth – inner circular layer, outer longitudinal layer upper esophageal sphincter – striated muscle salivary glands – 3 pairs in humans helps with mastication/swallowing stomach esophagus fundus cardiac and esophageal regions body secretes mucus, pepsinogen and HCl Antrum Secretes mucus, pepsinogen, and gastrin Smooth muscle Circular Longitudinal Oblique Gastric glands Lymph system is closely associated Gastric pit Opening into gland Mucus cells Parietal (oxynotic) secrete HCl Chief cells – secrete pepsinogen Endocrine cells Stomach could be considered an endocrine gland in secretions back to the blood Small intestine secretions Duodenum Jejenum Ileum Enteric nervous system Autonomic nervous system Myenteric plexus – lays between longitudinal/circular smooth muscle Submucosal plexus- lies between circular and submucosal layers Glands can be outside of gut (pancreas) or within submuscosa (Brunner’s) aka duodenal Crypts of Leiberkhan Secrete enterokinase and some amylase Small intestine has true villi – large intestine doesn’t Duodenum mainly absorbs glucose and amino acids Large Intestine Ileum – cecum (appendix) – ascending – transverse – descending – sigmoid – rectum Does not have true villi Does not have crypts Final absorption of water/electrolytes Non ruminants – caudal fermenters Horse has the largest cecum Dog has the shortest cecum Salivary glands 3 pairs parotid (ear) – serous sublingual (front under tongue) – mixed secretions maxillary/submandibular (back towards jaw) – mixed secretions secretions- serous – mimics blood plasma mucus ruminants have an extra pair inferior molars saliva moistens and lubricates food small digestion of polysaccharides by amylase Pancreas Located underneath the liver Accessory Digestive Organs Pancreas Underneath the liver Endo/exocrine gland Tubular epithelial Endocrine – insulin and glucagon Majority is exocrine Main pancreatic duct – Duct of Wirsung Accessory duct – duct of Santorini Alveoli – cells (pyramid shaped acinar) Exocrine cells secrete enzymes Duct cells secrete bicarbonate Liver 2 lobes right is large left is smaller sits underneath the diaphragm common hepatic duct –central join of many hepatocyte = liver cell gall bladder – stores bile until it is needed secretory organ - bile processes and stores nutrients – glucose in the form of glycogen fat in liver filter and function in the removal of old red blood cells which leader to hemoglobin processing and generation of bilirubin (pigment in bile) synthesis of plasma proteins (albumin, clotting protein, angiotensin) common bile duct empties into the duodenum bile salts will also recycle back to the liver through the hepatic portal vein (75% of the blood to the liver hepatic portal system delivers absorbed nutrients to liver for processing before them enter the general systemic circulation hepatic lobule central vein in the center empty into hepatic vein coalesce into the hepatic portal vein portal triad on the edge hepatic artery 25% of blood and most oxygen portal vein 75% deoxygenated blood branch of bile duct Kuppfer cells Anchored macrophages within liver Sinusoids Bile ducts run through sinusoids Canniculi travel out of liver primarily Salivary glands Acinus region – produce material Glanular portion Serous cells – zymogen portion Mucus cells – lubrication Concentration of Na, K, Cl, HCO3, H20 is very similar to that of blood Amylase Starch splitting enzyme Amylose – simple no branching Amylopectin – branching Cleaves alpha 1.4 linkages Does not cleave alpha 1.6 linkages (gives branch) Does not cleave beta 1.4 linkages – found in cellulose Does not cleave at terminal alpha 1.4 Does not cleave at alpha 1.4 linkages next to a branch point Will end up with Maltose – 2 glucose molecules Maltotriose – 3 glucose molecules Oligosaccharides Stomach Gastric glands Chief cells – pepsinogen Parietal cells -> HCL and intrinsic factor Endocrine cells G cells release gastrin which increase release of HCl D cells release somatostatin – decrease release of HCl Pepsinogen Reacts with HCl to produce pepsin Pepsin Is a protease – cleaves proteins at aromatic amino acids Parietal cells – release HCl – pH of 0.8 – helps to kill bacteria Mucus protects the stomach HCl Activates pepsinogen to pepsin Helps with hydroloysis of protein Fe digestion/absorption Fe 3+ (ferric iron) Needs to be Fe 2+ (ferrous) to be absorbed in the small intestine Protons are actively pumped out through ATPase pump into the lumen Pump inhibitors are Prilosec and pepeid HCO3 goes towards blood Can measure a slight rise in blood pH right after eating Alkaline tide Intrinsic factor Acts as a carrier for vitamin B12 Helps its absorption in ileum HCl production decreases with ages as well as intrinsic factor that leads to a B 12 deficiency Regulation Volume/composition rather than nutritional state of the body Absorb all the nutrients taken in Basic principles of control ENS Submucosal plexus only resides in small/large intestine Myenteric plexus CNS System through regulation of SNS and PNS Gastrointestinal Tract Wall Mucosa Epithelium Lamina propria Muscularis mucosa Submucosa Major blood and lymphatic vessels Submuscosal plexus Muscularis externa Circular muscle Myenteric plexus Longitudinal muscle Serosa Cephalic phase Stimuli – brain – increase enteric neural activity – gastrin secretion – histamine – HCl (increase gastrin)– somastatin – inhibits more HCl Gastric phase stimuli Luminal distension Amino acid and peptides Vagal nerve release of ectylcholine ENS Gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) stimulate to release gastrin Ach inhibits D cells Chemoreceptors – stimulate chief cells (release pepsinogen – protein digestion) Mechanoreceptors – stimulate G cells, parietal cells As the pH drops – stimulate D cells to secrete somatostatin Chyme – products of gastric digestion Intestinal phase Decrease pH, increase fat, a.a., hyper tonicity – neural receptors (ENS) increase secretion of enterogastrones (hormones) Short reflexes decrease emptying Long reflexes increase sympathetic efferents and decrease parasympathetic Enterocytes – epithelial lining of intestine and specialized ones produce cholecystokinin (CCK) CCK paired with secretin inhibit stomach activity Pancreatic secretions Trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen Endoproteases – creates small peptides (also true for pepsin) Carboxypeptidase – exoprotease, cleave off a. a. Enterokinase – cleaves trypsinogen into trypsin Trypsin – activates chymotrypsinogen and procarboxypeptidase Control Increase fatty acids and a.a,, CCK, and enzyme secretion Liver – bile secretion Involved in fate digestion Bile salts – derivative of cholesterol Cholesterol Bilirubin Lecithin (phospholipid) Secretin will stimulate bile production Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, Calcium, iron and folate – absorbed in duodenum Bile acids, B12 – ileum absorbs Proteins Pepsin creates peptide fragments stomach trypsin and chymotrypsin in small amounts Enterocyte absotption of amino acids Apical membrane – Na coupled transport individual a.a. Fragments are digested to a. a. by carboxypeptidase form pancreas and aminopeptidase on luminal side of small intestine Proton cotransport of small peptids (2-3 a. a.) PepT1 is a proton cotransporter Secretions into the lumen of the stomach Gastric pepsin Endoprotease Pancreatic Endoprotease Trypsin Chymotrypsin Carboxypeptidase Exoprotease Brush Border enzymes Microvilli lining the digestive tract Amino peptidase Carboxypeptidase Dipeptidase Amino acid absorption Na+ co transport mechanisms Apical (microvillar) surface Na+ independent transport Basolateral More detrimental side if it malfunctions Peptide transport H+ cotransport of di or tripeptides Limited whole protein absorption M Cells – special enterocytes Carbohydrates Consumed as disaccharides or poly saccharides Sucrose, lactose, maltose, starch, glycogen, etc. Has to be absorbed as monosaccharides in the intestines Starch or pancreatic amylase Starch or glycogen Maltose, maltotriose, and oligosaccharides Some oligosaccharides are Alpha- limit dextrins because they contain a branch point Have to get down to monosaccharides but amylase doesn’t do that … Brush border enzymes come into place here Glucose and galactose Transported by SGLT1 on the apical surface Na+ dependent Fructose 5 carbon sugar transported by GLUT5 facilitated transport mechanism basolateral transport by GLUT 2 lactase breaks down lactose to galactose + glucose Maltase Breaks down maltose to glucose x2 Sucrose – Isomaltase Sucrose to glucose + fructose Maltotriose and alpha limit dextrins to glucose Lactose Deficiency Deficiency in lactose derived glucose/galactose absorption Colonic digestion of lactose -> H2 and CO2 Lipids Dietary lipids include triglycerids, di and mono glycerids, phospholipids and cholesterol Bile salts – help with emulsification Pancreatic lipase Colipase Lipid droplet – micelle Cholesterol, free fatty acids and monoglycerides will diffuse across membrane Enterocyte rebuilds triglycerides Coupled with apolipoproteins (liver makes these) Combine the tri and mono glycerides to form chylomicrons or very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) Glucose Storage Blood has glucose and amino acid that are taken up by the muscle and stored as glycogen Adipocytes Triglycerides in the blood are converted to fatty acids and monoglycerides through lipoprotein lipase Glucose is taken up and alpha glycerol phosphate and fatty acids (from the blood) form triglycerides and then are stored as glycerol Fat cells – hormone sensitive lipase Catecholamines, glucagon, cortisol stimulates hormone sensitive lipase activity Liver Glucose is taken in and participates in the Krebs Cycle Nutrient Metabolism during the absorptive period Energy is provided by carbs in meals Net uptake of glucose by liver Carbs stored as glycogen in liver and muscle but most carbs and fast are stored as fat in adipose tissue Synthesis of body proteins, but some amino acids in dietary protein are used for energy or converted to fat Absorptive phase is anabolic and uses insulin Post absorptive phase is catabolic Nutrient metabolism during post absorptive period Glycogen, fat, and protein syntheses are curtailed and net breakdown occurs Glucose is formed in the liver both from glycogen stored there and by glycogenesis from lactate in blood, pyruvate, glycerol, and amino acids. Kidneys will perform glycogenesis during a fast Glucose is produced in the liver and kidneys is release in to the blood but its use for energy is greatly reduced in muscle Lipolysis releases adipose-tissue fatty acids into the blood, and oxidation of these fatty acids by most cells and of ketones produced from them by the liver provides most of the body’s energy supply The brain continues to use glucose by also starts using ketones as they build up in the blood Concentration of cellular energy (ATP) Mitochondria Krebs or TCA cycle Begins with acetate (2 carbons) Oxidative phosphorylation – electron transport chain Glycolysis – metabolism of glucose Beta- oxidation – metabolism of fatty acids, and will eventually give rise to acetate Gluconeogenesis – generation of new glucose (liver) Insulin effects Absorptive phase (increase plasma insulin) Muscle Increase glucose uptake, glycogen, synthesis, amino acid uptake, and net protein synthesis Adipocytes Increase glucose uptake and net triglyceride synthesis Liver Increase glucose uptake, net triglyceride synthesis, no ketone synthesis Post absorptive phase (decrease plasma insulin) opposite of above Reproduction Hypothalamic – pituitary – gonadal axis Hypothalamus releases GnRH through the hypothalamo-pituitary portal vessels Activates the anterior pituitary to secrete FSH and LF which go to the gonads which secrete sex hormones that go to gametogenesis and then produce action on sex organs Stages of control of reproductive function During the initial stage (fetal life to the end of the first year), GnRH, the gonadotropins, and gonadal sex hormones are secreted as relatively high levels Infancy to puberty, secretion rate of these hormones are very low and reproductive function is quiescent Beginning at puberty, hormonal secretion rates increase and show large cyclical variations in women during the menstrual cycle. Allows for active reproduction Reproductive function diminishes late in life, largely because the gonads become less responsive to the gonadotropins Sex determination X and Y chromosomes determine sex Phenotypic sex is dependent on genetic sex, gonadogenesis, formation and maturation of accessory reproductive organs Start Two undifferentiated gonads Two pairs of undifferentiated ducts Mullerian or Wolffian ducts Urogenital sinus Genital tubercle Vestibular folds Embryo Epithelial and yolk sac cells migrate to the germinal ridge Yolk sac cells give rise to sex cords and what will become the gonads More specifically will give rise to the seminiferous vesicles in the testes Testes will produce testosterone as well as Mullerian inhibiting substances which will differentiate the duct systems so that they go in the right direction Epithelial cells will give rise to the ovaries Rudimentary gonad Outer layer (cortex)-> ovary Inner layer (medulla) -> gives rise to the testes Differentiation of the gonads Seventh week of fetal development of the SRY gene on the y chromosome that leads to the development of testes in male Guest lecture: Started in a lab in Tulane First generation student Brain differentiation all the way to gut function Then went to U of CA SB Leverage – rats and steroids experiments in brain and behavior studies Married and moved to MIT Aromatase Sexual differentiation studies Converts testosterone into estrogens Shriver Center Mental hospital to try and understand the neurology Lorenzo’s Oil Hypothalamic pituitary nucleus region 3-fold denser vasculature as compared to any other region of the brain tied to obesity, depression, cardiovascular health found to be able to to be manipulated window to changing brain function biomedical engineering put live tissue into a dish and then allow to see live function of the cells in the dish Sex differentiation By default babies are female Presence of SRY gene on the y chromosomes leads to the primordial gonads Sertoli cells – mullerian inhibiting substance and mullerian regression Leydig cells – testosterone – leads to the wolffian ducts transforming into the epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, and the ejaculatory duct Ditestoserone – development into the penis, scrotum, prostate Absences of SRY gene Differentiation into fetal ovaries Absence of MIS leads to transform to the uterus, fallopian tubes, and inner vagina Absence of testosterone Wolffian ducts regression and development of the outer vagina female external genitalia Reproductive Ducts Wolffian Epidymis, vas deferens and seminal vesicles Mullerian Fallopian tubes (oviducts), uterus, cervix and anterior vagina Urogenital sinus Female is part of vagina and urethra Male is urethra, prostate, bulbourethral glands Genital tubercle Female – clitoris Male – penis Vestibular folds Female – vulva Male – foreskin and scrotum Male anatomy Scrotum Derived from vestibular folds Outer skin providing protection for the testes Tunica dartos Connective tissue and smooth muscle cells Important for temperature regulation of the sperm Testes Very outside Tunica albuginea Fibrous capsule around the testes Trabecule Fibrous cords that divide the testes into regions Mediastinum testis Central fibrous cords Seminiferous tubules Location of spermatogenesis (gametes) Sertoli cells Collect into the rete testis Rete testis Continuous with epididymis Epididymis Caput (head) Corpus (body) Cauda (tail) Sperm is stored in the cauda epididymis Movement is passive Active motility only occurs after mixing with seminal plasma Undergoes capacitation (develops its ability to fertilize; 6hrs) Maturation of the sperm to have the capacity to fertilize Vas deferens Pair will join at the ampulla (basically at the prostate) spermatic cord leaves the scrotum and enters the body through the inguinal canal testicular artery and vein as well as lymphatic vesicles internal and external cremaster muscles that allow the raise and lowering of the testes in order to maintain temperature regulation temperature is critical for spermatogenesis testicular arteries and veins coil around each other forming the pampiniform plexus provides for heat exchange 2 seminal vesicles (vesicular glands) 1 prostate 2 bulboureathral glands penis crus attached to the ischial arch of the pelvis corpus glans corpus cavernosum – top of penis corpus spongiosum – below the penis inside the body near the testes surrounds the urethra makes up most of the glans penis will dilate through addition of nitrous oxide Viagra or Cialis Phosphodiesterase inhibitor type5 NO receptor is cGMP coupled Spermatocyte – mature form Head – nuclear material Acrosome – modified lysosome to break down the surface of the egg Post acrosomal cap Midpiece Endoplasmic reticulum Mitochondria Centriole and fibrils (start in midpiece and carry down into the tail- provide for flagellar movement of the tail with the energy generated by the mitochondria) Effects of testosterone in the male Initiate and maintain spermatogenesis Decreases GnRH secretion vis an action on the hypothalamus Inhibits LH secretion via a direct action on the anterior pituitary gland Stimulates erythropoietin secretion by the kidneys Spermatogenesis Spematogonium Stem cell Go to primary spermatocyte through mitosis to secondary through meiosis then spermatids through meiosis and then spermatozoa through differentiation Spermatids go through differentiation that lose most of the water cytoplasm and glycogen in differentiation to the spermatozoon Sertoli cells Provide cell barrier to chemicals Nourish developing sperm Secrete luminal fluid, including androgen-binding protein Respond to stimulation by testosterone and FSH to secrete paracrine agents that stimulate sperm proliferation and differentiation Inhibin secretes – inhibits FSH secretion from the pituitary gland Phagocytize defective sperm Secrete mullerian inhibiting substance Female Germinal epithelium Single layer of flattened epithelial cells on the outer surface of the ovary Starting cell type of ovarian cancer – one of the deadliest forms Tunica albuginea Cortex Germ cells Medulla Blood and nerves come into the central region of the ovary Continuous with the Hillus stalk of the ovary continuous with the mesovarium broad ligament supports the entire female reproductive system reproductive tract fallopian tube or oviduct fimbria – catcher’s mitt infundibulum – opening into the fallopian tubes ampulla isthmus provide for the ovum to move into the uterus and provides a site of fertilization and place for movement of the sperm within the woman mesosalphinx uterus cornua – horns corpus – body neck – cervix perimetrium – serosa lining attaches to broad ligament – mesometrium myometrium – thin, longitudinal smooth muscle layer, thick circular layer of Smooth muscle endometrium – mucosal layer epithelial lining of lumen glands stroma – connective tissue Meiosis in the female Oogonia Mitosis differentiation Primary oocyte 1 division arrest at birth secondary oocyte 2nddivision completed at fertilization ovum differentiation into primary oocytes occurs before birth meiosis 1 is initiated before birth after puberty, meiosis 1 will continue but only in a handful of oocytes/cycle complete meiosis 1 at the time of ovulation meiosis 2 begins but is not completed until fertilization takes place Guest Lecture Major in Molecular Biology with a Minor in Mathematics Be persistent!!!! UCSD undergrad research PhD in neuroscience in ion channels, electrophysiology, genetics Voltage gated channels in drosophila Post doc UCSD, signal transduction and organization of signaling molecules First faculty position at Boston University Now at CSU 8 years later Ion channels – why? Simpler genome Characterize ion channel function, role in cell physiology, subcellular location Correlate to behavior Examine role in dysfunctional/disease states Genetic tools that allow you to study ion channel in native cells, in vivo AB Accumulation in Alzheimer’s disease AB accumulation and aggregation – leads to brain degradation?? Increase both silent and hyperactive neurons Fuse to signal sequence and can mimic effects of AD AB42 induces down-regulation of Kv4 in the MBs of the intact adult brain You can reduce the hyperactivity in AB42 by transgenic expression of Kv4 Drosophila can be trained to associate odor with sugar and thus can track Kv4 expression and learning association in different regions in the brain AB can restore learning when Kv4 is artificially added back into the brain AB 42 expression in a young fly doesn’t really show problems but with age locomotor problems becomes a problem AB 42 over expression induces an increase in neuronal excitability and an age-dependent loss of Kv4 protein and current Primordial follicles Primary Single layer of flattened granulosa cells Secondary More layers of granulosa cells in cuboidal shape Tertiary Graffian Follicular development Granulosa cells Convert androgen to estrogen Theca Produces androgen that goes to granulosa cells Derived from stroma (connective tissue) Interna Blood supply and is steroidogenic Externa Protective layer Oocyte has been stimulated to mature faster Zona pellucida is like the egg shell Protects through development and ovulation Pervitteline space is between the zona pellucida and the oocyte Vitelline membrane Cumulus oophorus Surround the oocyte Corona radiate Shed with oocyte at ovulation Classification of oocytes Size Layers of granulose Presence of theca layers Presence of an antrum Position of the oocyte Hypothalamus secretes GnRH from the hypothalamo-pituitary portal vessels Anterior pituitary stimulates FSH (granulosa cells that then produces inhibin) and LH (theca cells – produce androgens) which then stimulate the corpus luteum to grow and releases progesterone and estrogen Corpus hemoraghicum Within a few hours of ovulation the ovary clots where the oocyte is released Granulosa and theca cells differentiate in to luteal cells forming the corpus luteum Corpus luteum Predominantly secretes progesterone (pro-gestational) and some estrogen When regresses, period starts Maternal recognition of pregnancy cuts this process off in order to produce enough progesterone from the corpus luteum at least through the first trimester Birth control holds the woman in the luteal phase Control of ovarian function A large estrogen spike will cause an LH surge that causes ovulation Progesterone and FSH rise a little during the time as well Menstruation Day 1 - menses Dead cells of uterine lining slough off Day 6 – proliferative phase Epithelial cells reproduce, repairing uterine lining Day 14 - ovulation Ovum is released from ovary and moves into uterine (fallopian tube) for possible fertilization Day 15 – secretory phase Uterine lining prepares for prego by growing thicker, secreting and developing a greater blood supply, on the last day, blood supply decrease greatly, causing the lining cells to die The proliferative and follicular phases are the same Secretory is the same as luteal Estrogen is stimulatory to the build up of the uterine lining Fertilization Sperm move through the zona pellucida One sperm bind to the egg PM Sperm is drawn into egg where 2 ndmeiotic division and the nuclei of sperm and egg unite Egg enzymes are activated and the zygote begins embryogenesis Acrosome reaction Acrosin and hyaluronidase Enzymes Sperm moves through the zona pellicuda Sperm contact with vitelline membrane Meiosis II is initiated Cortical reaction Harden the zona pelludica and prevent polyspermy Sperm nucleus decondenses and forms the male pronucleus Male and female pronuceli fuse Morula after about 72 hrs Egg release contents of secretory vesicles which then enzyme enters the zona pellucida and block to polyspermy Egg Stages Blastocyst Blastocoele – fluid filled cavity Has to break out of the zona pellucida in order to attack the uterine wall Inner cell mass Will become the fetus Trophoblast cells Surround the blastocyst and will give rise to the placenta Cytotrophoblast Syncytiotropoblast Derived by fusion of cytotropoblasts Extravillus trophoblast (invasive) Contact with endometrial stroma Connective tissue (fibroblasts) Differentiate into decidua cells Villi Floating Anchored Remodeling of the spiral arteries by EVT promotes dilation of spiral arteries Pre clampsia Early Onset at aprox 24 weeks Intrauterine growth restriction Perterm delivery Late onset aprox 36 weeks Hypertensive Proteinuria HELLP syndrome 22-23 weeks reach viability Placenta 1 umbilical vein (ox and nutrient rich to the baby – to the liver first) and 2 arteries ductus venosus empties into inferior vena cava foramen ovale – between the right and left atria ductus arteriosus pulmonary artery to aorta Parturition Driven by the fetus Hypothalamus Oxytocin neuron cells bodies are activated and increase AP frequency Posterior pituitary Increase in oxytocin secretion Increase uterine contractions which increase the cervix stretch in conjunction with the fetus’ head pushing downward and increase in the local prostaglandins which increase uterine contractions Stage 1 Contraction to dilation Stage 2 Dilation to exit Stage 3 Placenta expulsion REVIEW 1 from digestion; 2 female production diagrams Cephalic Stimulate gastric function Acetylcholine will stimulate enteric nerves to release gastrin releasing peptide to then stimulate the release of gastrin to release HCl Acetylcholine also stimulates the release of HCl Gastrin inhibits somatostatin which inhibits the HCl HCl activates somatostatin as a negative control mechanism Gastric Stimulate gastric function Chemoreceptors stimulate chief cells to release pepsinogen Enterochromaffin cells will release histamine and HCl production Intestinal Inhibit gastric function Chyme enters duodenum Mechano and chemoreceptors activate the enterogastric reflex Stimulate cholescystokinin (CCK) and secretin are inhibitory to HCl and pepsinogen CCK stimulates gallbladder contraction Pancreatic enzyme secretion Secretin Stimulates bile production Stimulates pancreatic ducts cells to biocarbonate Chylomicrons are too big to filter back into the capillaries but can cross into the lymph ducts Alpha amylase Maltose Maltotriose Alpha limit dextrins (oligosaccharides) Only break alpha 1,4 linkages and only cleave terminal alpha 1,4 Polyspermy Polyploidy nucleus Lost before 22 weeks of gestation Migration of epithelial cells Embryonic development starts with yolk sac and epithelial cells along the ridge that develop into the gonad SRY gene – sex cords – seminiferous tubules Cortical region turns into the ovaries Pancreas Insulin and glucagon are exocrine Diet change Small intestine have villi and crypts Crypt cells that change and allow the diet to adapt based on the environment that it is in Try and absorb everything that you take in with the pretty flexible ability to absorb nutrients as they are taken in Corpus luteum change Corpus hemoraghicum Corpus luteum that secretes progesterone Regression leads to corpus albicans
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'