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UGA / Biology / BCMB 1107 / Which chemical bonds are shared?

Which chemical bonds are shared?

Which chemical bonds are shared?

Description

School: University of Georgia
Department: Biology
Course: Principles of Biology I
Professor: Armstrong
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: Biology
Cost: 50
Name: Biology 1107 Final Exam Study Guide
Description: This study guide covers every unit we went over the entire semester. The study guide is extensive, but all important materials that were emphasized on tests and worksheets are highlighted in orange. Pay particular attention to the highlighted material and watch videos to help explain difficult material. Also go over old test questions to accompany this study guide. The exam is 100 multiple choice q
Uploaded: 05/06/2016
72 Pages 41 Views 8 Unlocks
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Chemistry Review:

  • When determining chemical formulas, carbons are always at the corners
  • You then fill in the H that are connected to the carbon to make 4 bonds

We also discuss several other topics like What are the common concerns with nuclear energy?
We also discuss several other topics like What are the pros and cons of voluntourism?

      Example:

     

  • How do you determine if the mlc is polar or nonpolar?
  • Look at the indicated bonds within the mlc

1) Covalent - e- are shared (polar/nonpolar- shared equally)-neither atom is chargedDon't forget about the age old question of What are the 4 classes of macromolecules and what are each used for by cells?

2) Ionic- Bond between oppositely charged atoms; unequal sharing makes each atom partially negative or positive

If you want to learn more check out What portions of the velocity versus substrate curve correspond to zero-order processes?

Electronegativity: The greater the difference between the 2 atoms, the more polar it is Don't forget about the age old question of What are the effects of salt on the soil?

We also discuss several other topics like What is the general solution of the nonhomogeneous equation, which describes the motion of the forced oscillator?

Most Important:

H= 2.1

C= 2.5

N= 3.0

O=3.5

S=2.5

P=2.1

  • A difference of 0.5 or higher means the mlc is polar

  • If partial charges are distributed evenly across mlc it is considered polar

Molecular Interactions:

  • Fixed charge on each mlc: ionic bond
  • Mlc connected by straight lines: covalent bond; eg: -C-S-S-C-
  • A hydrogen attached to a strongly electronegative atom (O,F,N) in one mlc and interacts with an O,F, or N in another atom= Hydrogen bond
  • Covalent mlcs that are attracted to each other by a temporary redistribution of e-s = van der waals forces

Interactions: between mlcs primarily refers to panial charges or full, opposite charges forming bonds


Example: hydrogen to oxygen

  • The most important interaction (most common) in the body is with water

Why is the water a liquid at room temperature as opposed to a gas?

  • Because water can form hydrogen bonds (up to 4 with other water mlcs) meaning it forms extremely strong bonds with each other
  • Very good solvent: polar mlcs dissolve very easily in water

Adhesion: water mlcs attracted to each other

Cohesion: water mlcs attracted to other surfaces

Hydrophobic mlcs separate from water when in water because of the Hydrophobic Effect: Water mlcs attract to each other to make a strong hydrogen bond, the mlc then comes together and forms its own layer (possible interaction) with each other in water

  • Fatty acids become excluded from the water
  • O2 doesn’t do the same thing because its a smaller mlc and doesn’t interrupt the water hydrogen bonds

Sugar crystal in water: dissolves in water because it is polar; the partial charges of sugar are attracted to the partial charges of the water

  • Hydrogen bonds hold the sugar mlc together, when it dissolves in water, the covalent bonds are not broken into CO2 + H2O (chemical rxn)
  • When placed in water ,the hydrogen bonds between each sugar crystal breaks and interacts with the partial positive and partial negatives of water
  • Water then forms a hydrogen shell, the mlc are interacting so strong with water that they can’t interact with each other or other charged mlc

Organic Molecules are so large that they can be both polar and nonpolar at the same time= Amphipathic

Major Elements of Living Things:

  1. Water
  2. Carbohydrates
  3. Lipids
  4. Proteins
  5. Nucleic Acid

  • All living things are organic and organic molecules are made up of carbons

Carbon

  • Makes  1 stable bonds
  • Able to make extremely long chains
  • Makes the backbone of the mlc by adding other atoms to it
  • Allows there to be numerous amounts of combinations of atoms
  • Can alter the properties of any mlc

Isomers: Different arrangements of the same atoms

  • Binding to active sites (interaction)
  • Important for chemical to have charges on the chemical = ionic
  • The chemical needs to fit in the active site
  • Have functions groups that interact in the right location

  • Shape matters: some mlcs with the same formula but different shape causes one to be broken down in the body

Polymers:

  • Sub-units (monomers) that link together to make a larger molecule (polymers)

  • When two monomers are joined together to make a polymer, a mlc of water is created = dehydration synthesis/condensation
  • The OH of one mlc, the H+ of the other mlc separate and come together to form water; the other two mlc join together with the covalent bond of the oxygen to create a polymer

Hydrolysis: Add a mlc of water to the polymer to break it down into subunits and create 2 monomers

Functional Groups:

Cont.

Carbohydrates:

  • Subunit: Monosaccharide (sugar)
  • CH2O - basic formula for all carbohydrates
  • Most common: Hexose- b carbon chain

                         Pentose- 5 carbon chain

  • Important to number the carbons in carbohydrate in order to know which carbon is being referenced, this formula doesn’t work for di/polysaccharides because you are losing a molecule of water in the dehydration reaction.

What do carbohydrates do?

  • An important energy source for living things
  • The most abundant organic molecule on the planet is building blocks of living things
  • Checks if molecules are in the right place - checks if they have the proper carbohydrates in the right place
  • Cushion (on vertebrae
  • Lubrication
  • Respiratory tract produce about a quart of mucous a day- acts as passive immune system

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