Final Exam Study Guide
Final Exam Study Guide ANTH 10000
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Final exam study guide Band political organization (example: Inuit/Eskimo) - the local group or community is the largest group that acts as a political unit. Bands are typically small, with less that 100 people usually, often, considerably less. Band size also varies by season and the amount of resources available. Each band has its headman, a person who is the best hunter or who has accomplished more rituals. In Inuit bands, each settlement may have its headman, who acquires his influence because the other members of the community recognize his good judgment and superior skills. The headman's advice concerning the movement of the band and other community matters is generally heeded, but he possess no permanent authority and has no power to impose sanctions of any kind. Inuit leaders are male, but men often consult their wives in private, and women who hunt seem to have more influence than those who do not. Tribal political organization (example: Tiv segmentary lineage system) - the kind of political organizations in which local communities mostly act autonomously but there are kin groups (such as clans) or associations (such as agesets) that can temporarily integrate a member of local groups into a larger unit. Tiv: a segmentary lineage system is one type of tribal integration based on kinship. A society is composed of segments, or parts. Aa Tiv of northern Nigeria offer a classic example of a segmentary lineage system, on the happens to link all the Tiv into a single genealogical structure or tribe. All the members are related to each other. Tiv has 800,000 members. However, the future segments of the society do not have close relationships and will unite only when have a confrontation with some other group. It is called complementary opposition. Segmentary lineages systems have military advantages even if they don't unite the entire society. Age-set system - it can function as the basis of tribal type of political organization, as among the Karamojong of northeast Uganda. Karamojong adults are often separated from their usual settlements. Herders will meet, mingle for a while and they go their separate ways, but each may call upon other members of this age-set wherever he goes. Such system is important for Karamojong because it immediately allocates to each individual a place in the system and thereby establishes got him an appropriate pattern to response. Political leader aren't elected nor chosen based on their age. They get established informally. Their society has a pastoral nature. Chiefdom political organization (example: Polynesia): a chiefdom has some formal structure the integrates more than community into a political unit. Chief has a higher rank and authority than others. There can be different levels of chiefs. Chiefs basically rule almost everything in the entire society. A high ranking chief in Polynesia has a special religious power called mana. Mana shows his rule and protects him. Chiefs in Polynesia have so much power that missionaries could convert people to Christianity only after their chief is converted first. Chiefs are staying "on top" not much because of the powers they have, but because of the respect they receive from the society. State political organization - a society that is described as having state organizations when it includes one or more states. Colonialism is a common feature of state societies. Most of the expanded state societies are called empires. Dispute and conflict resolution by avoidance by community action (e.g., Inuit/Eskimo) by negotiation and mediation (e.g., Nuer “leopard-skin chief”) by ritual reconciliation (e.g., Fijians) by oaths and ordeals by adjudication and codified law Strategies for societal governance where there is no state: small -scale societies often lack a structure of authority able to settle disputes through adjudication. would societies lacking a governing authority devolve into persistent state of conflict between factions - or even feuding, and be plagued by crime? Swahili Lamu AD 1000-1900 How to incorporate a culturally diverse society (Islamic, African, and South Asian immigrants and cultures)? Unilineal descent reckoning was not an option Swahili refers to a society that is part of Africa To maintain order in a diverse society: Divide society into two groups (miety organizations), each with its own governing councils and supreme courts Side A="old" money, long-standing, strongly Arabized families Side B="new" money based on trade; recent immigrants, many from Africa or South Asia Neighborhoods elected representatives to a council, on of each moiety half The two main councils elected representatives to serve as the polity's principal administrator in rotation with the other moiety half )four- year terms) to run the government on a day-to-day basis Bu important decisions had to be approved by the opposite moiety half Cheyenne Council of 44 Chiefs Ambitious, wealthy faction leaders were selected to serve on the governing council for 5 years term As chiefs they must 1. Behave generally 2. Cease participation in wars 3. Emphasize civic identity and service above self Trust in the council is based on their "costly signaling" of devotion to office The leagues of the Five Iroquois Tribes 16 through 18 century fur trade was a source of wealth but also competition and warfare among Native American groups Leagues of the Iroquois as an Early Form of "Federalist" Governance How to incorporate the independent tribes into a viable government that could benefit all The solution was to allow each tribe to maintain most aspects of self governance while selecting representatives (sachems) to serve on the League Council (50 named offices) League of the Iroquois The League's functions were restricted to matters of warfare, diplomacy, and trade, representing the five tribes as a unified whole; sections were expected to work for the benefit of all five tribes League of the Iroquois Men chosen to represent clans on the League council (chosen by leading women of each matriclan) were not allowed to serve in military capacities Wars were fought by "Pine Tree Chiefs" - great warriors who were selected to organize wars but were not council members All council decisions have to be unanimous ___________________________________________________________________________ Contingent cooperator | agency | free-riding | “Tragedy of the Commons” | Törbel | Common-pool resource management | Balinese irrigation management | Subak | Jero Gde | Intentional community | Kibbutz (Kibbutzim) | commune| public goods | the assurance problem | Ming Dynasty, China | cooperation in a large pre-modern state | Confucianism | Mandate of Heaven | open recruitment: Cooperation in State-Building: An Anthropological Perspective on Democracy Cooperation Under Conditions of Shared Management of Resources: "common pool" resources (local resources such as an irrigation cooperative) "public goods", for example a state where citizens pay taxes ("joint production") those resources are managed by a state to enhance group benefit ("joint benefit") Groups members make claims of accountability with respect to each other: Free-riding on group resources may create a crisis of confidence How to be confident resource managers will behave morally with respect to jointly-produced resources? How to solve the "Assurance Problem"? The assurance problem and modern democracy: Open, fair elections Opposition political parties are legal Other features: Rational field administration (administrators held accountable) Open recruitment to official offices (the social and cultural make-up of the administration is similar to the society as a whole) Equitable taxation "democracy" in pre-modern states (high but lacking in elected officials) Example: Ming Dynasty China (1368-1644 CE) Population: 130 million The Ming Founder Advocated for a Revival of Confucian Political Theory The agency of rulers was constrained by Confucian notion of the "Mandate of Heaven" - a moral unity of taxpayer and ruler – each obligated to the other The moral code was upheld by high officials of the civil administration The Civil Administration was a powerful counterweight to the monarch "Open Recruitment" to the official positions in the civil administration (by civil service exams) How? --> common persons were educated in thousands of state-funded public schools Equitable Taxation The "yellow Registers" recorded ability to pay for every household At the time this was the largest land-surveying project ever conducted in any human society Why do states turn to cooperation rather than autocracy? The a "tax state" the state's main source of revenues is the taxpayer – thus the leadership must acknowledge the demands of the people (as taxpayers) In autocracy (e.g. "rentier states") the state's revenues come largely from some source other than citizens (e.g. oil revenues in Saudi Arabia) - here leaders can largely ignore calls for democratization Are humans good cooperators? Humans generally are not good cooperators "tragedy of the Commons" According to the "tragedy of the Commons" argument, only private ownership of resources will provide for long-term conservation because common (shared) ownership always leads to overuse Is it possible to sustainably manage a Commons? Are Humans Good Cooperators? Yes or No Humans are better understood as "Contingent Cooperators" The cognitive capacity for Theory of Mind gives humans (and some great apes) the ability to estimate the probable outcomes of one's behavior This includes the probable social consequences of selfish and asocial behavior compared with the probable outcomes of prosocial, cooperative behavior How to make cooperation more likely Cooperation is Fostered by Institutions: Institutions include: Rules or other social conventions The organizational capacity to enforce rules Cultural beliefs that foster cooperative behavior What social factors are likely to predispose persons to behave cooperatively? There are three cases in which there are high levels of corporations that have been successful th By the 13 century AD the people of Torbel realized that over-use of grazing and forestry resources was damaging delicate alpine environments They decided to convert susceptible resources into what we now call "common-pool" resources Common pool implies that the group that benefits from resource also cooperatively manages it Torbel's Resources as "common pool" By 1483 the community as a whole decided to communally purchase all forested lands and Highlands alpine meadows Members of the community retained the right to use the communal land, but with use restrictions to assure long-terms sustainability Private land could be sold to outsiders, but outsiders could not gain access to communal lands – only descendants of community members could The part communal/part private ownership pattern has persisted for over 500 years – the community still is a producer of cheeses for export Dedicated environments have been presented sustainably Balinese Water Management Irrigated paddy (wet rice production) is highly productive, but water flowing from upland sources must be carefully allocated to ensure equal access and to prevent overuse Irrigators must cooperate to maintain dams, weirs and canals - "free riders" may attempt to gain access to water buy no contributed to this maintenance work – and there is always an "upstream- downstream" problem Groups of local irrigators are organized as "subaks" - irrigation cooperatives, each of which also has a temple (20-50 or so irrigators) Groups of subaks are also organized into larger cooperative/temple complexes (religious congregations) Management of the whole system (hundreds of subaks) is also required to avoid conflicts between upstreamand downstream water users This requires a control mechanism governing the whole system, but what will prevent governing agents from exhibiting "agency", e.g. taking bribes or in other ways showing favoritism or other corrupt practices? System that they developed: One person has authority over all water and water-related decision-making The chief of the "Template of Crater Lake" - the Jero Gde How to assure confidence in the Jero Gde Building Confidence in Governing System Each Jero Gde was identified as a young boy and removed from his family – he never marries and this has no family or even distant kin – he lived alone (with servants) in the main temple The Jero Gde is not likely to show favoritism (e.g. nepotism) or exhibit other forms of agency (selfish behavior) Confidence in the Jero Gde He undergoes years of training in the management of the water system until he is able to assume managerial responsibility, and devotes his life to matters related to irrigation management Archaeologists have uncovered evidence that this system has been sustainable and highly productive since about 800 AD The Kibbutzim "intentional Communities" (communities established to achieve stated goals) in this case based in Socialist Principles In 2010, there were 270 kibbutzim in Israel They account for 9% of industrial output and $0% of agricultural output Kibbutzim, Intentional Communities Everything each person and family needs is provided by the Kibbutz from birth to death: housing, prepared food, laundry, child care, medical, educational, (through college), etc. All work is shared (rotated among adult members) including managerial positions Each person "earns" a small monthly stipend but all the stipends are equal Behavioral Control and Monitoring in an Intentional Community Agency and free riding are handled by personal knowledge, close scrutiny and gossip, although asocial behavior also brings fines (small group size – everyone knows everyone else), often around 100 to 500 but Kibbutzim of up to 100 do exist Shared religion and devotion to socialist principles also make it unlikely that persons will behave asocially (unsatisfied people will migrate to the private sector) How successful? Many Kibbutzim are now beginning their third generation of continuous membership ___________________________________________________________________________ baby-holding and assertiveness and trust in children | cross-cultural studies of the consequences of child neglect | does gender influence morality? In most preindustrial societies, babies are much more apt to be close to another person, usually sleeping with their mother in the same bed, in the same room. During the day, babies are breast-fed in all preindustrial societies, usually on demand. In industrialized societies, bottle-feeding is common and feeding is usually spaced out every few hours; in some pre industrialized societies, babies are breastfed 20 to 40 times a day. Also, people respond more quickly to a crying baby in preindustrial societies. The cross-cultural variation seems to reflect cultural attitudes towards childrearing. Parents in the United States say they do not want their children to grown dependent and clinchy. They want to produce independent self-reliant individuals. Whether a child becomes self-reliant because of kind of childrearing is debatable. High mortality of infants may also explain why mothers in many of these same societies rarely interact with their infants in more emotional ways - it may help protect them emotionally in case of the infant's early death. ___________________________________________________________________________________ Individualism and Collectivism Research | concept of self: 1) more individualistic (idiocentric, autonomous), 2) more group-oriented (allocentric, connected) | examples: Mundugumor (idiocentric culture) | Bali (behavior masks conflict) | Mendi (dual concept of the self) | S. Italy (amoral familism): Concepts of Self and Others Biological basis: Theory of Mind capacity Subjective elements: experience, self-interrogation (including "inner speech"), agency Cultural construction: the "folk theory of mind" and notions of an ideal person, this may bring a central tendency in self in a particular culture A Dualistic Scheme of Self/Other In "individualism and Collectivism research" (cross-cultural psychological comparison) Cultures (usually nation-states) are classified as to whether there is a central tendency in toward "allocentric" (group-oriented) concept of self or an "idiocentric" (self-centered) concept of self Allocentric (socially moral) emphasis Most people equate personal goals with group goals and groups support is acknowledged Serving others is valued Standardized presentation of self Role is an important aspect of personal identity (e.g. mother, brother, father, etc.) Individualism and Collectivism Research Most of this research emphasizes a supposed "west-rest" dichotomy Supposedly more idiocentric (individualistic): W. Europe, U.S., Canada Supposedly more allocentric (more group-oriented): Asia, Mediterranean, Africa, Latin America, and small scale societies Mundugumor (New Guinea) A highly idiocentric society Adults are distrustful, conflictive, competitive (divorce is common) - father-son conflict is common Warfare is endemic Competitive reciprocal gift exchange is used to establish social dominance Children are severely punished and rarely held by parents – this is intended to socialize children for physical toughness and emotional independence Mundgumor Child-Rearing Versus U.S. Mindgumor: to succeed as adults, a parent needs to socialize children to make them independent and physically and emotionally strong U.S. parents (80%): want their children to become a caring person who understands and importance and differences of dealing with each other Bali Difference to others is common; proper etiquette is important Avoid interpersonal conflict is this and allocentric culture? NO – social competition and conflict bring illness caused by witches so "allocentrism" is carefully contrived to avoid the damages that witches can bring (esp. Illness) A person's real thoughts are often more competitive and assertive (idiocentric) than is openly displayed Evaluation of the West-Rest Dichotomy : III In cultures classified as allocentric, group orientation may be restricted only to the family domain Away from the domestic "Amoral Familism" in Southern Italy: Group orientation (allocentrism) is present within the family Beyond the family, people are competitive, distrustful, selfish, and unlikely to cooperate for beneficial community projects or goals Why is this defined as an "allocentric culture"? Evaluation of the West-Rest Divide: IV In many cultures, as is true in the US, there is a sense that the individual should strive to be competitive and to achieve personal success (idiocentric orientation) but remain committed to others and to group goals (allocentric orientation) Example: Mendi culture (New Guinea) Mendi: Competitive reciprocal gift exchange brings prestige and is highly valued in the culture At the same time, obligations to family and the community must be met The most respected persons are able to navigate the competitive self and the group-oriented co- operator to be a "complete" person – success in these efforts is valued by others A dual Sense of Self is Also Found in Western Cultures In most Western cultures the sense of self involves a complementarity between two philosophies that exist side-by-side: Individualism (e.g. utilitarian individualism in economic theory – the ideal of rational but no highly socially relational person) Civic Humanism (devotion to family, group, team, community, nation, etc.) Self in Society: The "Utilitarian Game" One person makes an offer to another to divide a pool of wealth The responded looks at the proposal, if they refuse the offer, neither person gets anything When this game is administered in Western cultures, costly fair offers are made: a less than 50% split is often rejected (this punishes the offeror) In small-scale societies, responses are not consistently fair ______________________________________________________________________________ Religion and Supernatural powers: Some supernatural forces have no person-like character. Such religious beliefs can be referred as animatism. E.g., mana is a supernatural, impersonal force, after its Malayo-Polynesian name, is thought to inhabit some objects but not others, some people but not others. It is selective. A farmer in Polynesia places stones around a field; the crops are bountiful; the stones have mana. The word mana may be Malayo-Polynesian, but a similar concept is also found in our own society. Objects, people or places can be considered taboo. There is a difference between mana and taboo. Mana is something that can be touched because they bring goodness, whereas taboo, if touched, can bring harm. Example: Hebrew tribesmen were forbidden to touch a woman seven days after menstruation. Chief among the beings of non-human origin, gods are named personalities. They are often anthropomorphic - that is, conceived in the image of a person – although they are sometimes given the shapes of other animals or of celestial bodies, such as sun or moon. Gods are thought to be created themselves, but gods also can give birth to other gods. The Maori of New Zealand, for example, recognize three main goods: a god of sea, a god of forest, a god of agriculture. Beneath the gods in prestige, and often closer to people, are multitudes of unnamed spirits. Some may be guardian spirits of people. Some, who become known for particularly efficacious work, may be promoted to rank of named gods. Some spirits who are known to the people but are never invoked by them are of the hobgoblin type. Hobgoblins can be blamed for any number of small mishaps. Although the Palauans did not believe in a high god or supreme being who outranked all the other gods, some societies do. Consider Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, which we call monotheistic religions. Although monotheism means "one god", most monotheistic religions actually include more than one supernatural being (e.g. demons, angles, the Devil). But the supreme being or high god, as the creator of the universe or the director of events (or both), is believed to be ultimately responsible for all events. A polytheistic religion recognizes many important gods, no one of which is supreme. Divination seeks practical answers from supernatural about anything that is troublesome – decisions to be made, interpersonal problems, or illness. Diviners use a variety of methods, including altered states of consciousness and simulation through the use of objects such as Ouija boards or tarot cards. Among the Naskapi hunters, divination is an adaptive strategy for successful hunting. The Naskapi consult the diviner every three or four days when they have no luck in hunting. The diviner holds a caribou bone over the fire, as if the bone were a map, and the burns and cracks that appear in it indicate where the group should hunt. Some societies make sacrifices to a god in order to influence the god's action, either to divert anger or to attract goodwill. Characteristics of all sacrifices is that something of value is given up to the gods, whether is be food, drink, sex, household goods, or the life of an animal or a person. Some societies feel that the god is obligated to act on their behalf if they make the appropriate sacrifice. Others use sacrifice in an attempt to persuade the god, realizing there is no guarantee that the attempt will be successful. When people believe their action can compel the supernatural to act in some particular and intended way, anthropologists often refer to the beliefs and related practices as magic. Many societies have magical rituals designed to ensure good crops, the replenishment of game, the fertility of domestic animals, and the avoidance and cure of illness in humans. Sorcery may include the use of materials, objects, and medicines to invoke supernatural malevolence. (physical encounter). Witchcraft may be said to accomplish the same ills by means of thought and emotion alone. (psychological encounter). To the Azande of Zaire, in central Africa, witchcraft was the part of living. A man is gored by an elephant. He must have been bewitched, because he had not been gored on other elephant hunts. Shaman: the word itself may come from language spoken in Siberia. The shaman is usually a part-time specialist who has fairly high status in his community and is often involved in healing. He deals with the spirit world and makes spirits either to bring good or take away harm. Factors that might explain religious conversion: economic and political advantages (Tikopia example pp 371-372, Orma group from Kenya converted to Islamb/c of the economic advantages, Christianity in Roman Empire) The Seneca and the Religion of Handsome Lake: Seneca reservation in New York state was a place of poverty and humiliation" in 1799. Demoralized by whiskey and dispossessed from their traditional lands, unable to compete with the new technology because of illiteracy and lack of training, the Seneca were at an impasse. Handsome Lake, the 50-year-old brother of a chief, had the first of a number visions. In them, he met with emissaries of the Creator who showed him heaven and hell and commissioned him to revitalize Seneca religion and society. (more on pp 373-374). A revitalization movement that became known as the Ghost Dance spread eastward from the Northwest from 1870s to the 1890s. It was generally believed that, if people did the dance correctly, ghosts would come to life with sufficient resources to allow the people to return to their old ways, and, as a result of some cataclysm, the whites would disappear. The cargo cults can be thought of as religious movements "in which there is an expectation of, and preparation for, the coming of a period of supernatural bliss". E.g., around 1932 on Buka in the Solomon Islands, the leaders of a cult prophesied that a tidal wave would sweep away the villages and a ship would arrive with iron, axes, food, tobacco, cars, and arms. Work in the gardens ceased, and wharves and docks were build for the expected cargo. ___________________________________________________________________________________ ritual in social life | liturgy | liturgical costly signaling theory | numinous or religious experience | sanctification of social conventions | canon, canonical liminal ritual limen, liminal state: Tree Properties of Ritual Behaviors are patterned and invariant (liturgy) As a social act, ritual participation is socially communicative Ritual experience is outside of ordinary experience and may be strongly evocative (emotionally powerful) Ritual Facilitates Cooperation in Groups Where Individuals May Have Different Preferences Even in small groups, where one might expect that consensus could be realized through direct face- to-face negotiation, the ability to arrive at a decision typically is interwoven with ceremonial elaboration, I.e. ritual (e.g. Robert's Rules of Order) The correct performance of ritual certifies the acceptability of decision even where there might be different preferences The Problem of Truthfulness In order to gain benefits by cooperating, individuals must be able to make mutual claims to accountability on each other But humans have consistent problem with truthfulness – how is it possible to trust that another or others will do what is expected? Rituals as a Form of Social Communication Actions speak more clearly to truth than words Public participation in ritual certifies a person's acceptance of a group's social conventions Public ritual is one strategy humans have developed to address the deception problem Ritual as "costly signaling" Rituals (or similar kinds of demands on community members) are often costly in materials and time (they appear "wasteful") Ritual participation signals a person's willingness to accept group conventions because "faking it" may be too costly ("costly signaling theory") - this helps people gauge who is trustworthy Social Conventions To achieve a consensus among group members is challenging when the conventions require personal sacrifice (when they might not be accepted based on rational calculation of costs and benefits to self) Ritual create consensus in a way that is apart from rational thought Focus (self-aware) Thought Versus Impulse The brain's center of self-awareness is the "upper" neocortex, the seat of self-control The brain's center of impulse or autonomic response is the "lower" brain (the subcortical circuitry) Ritual and Loss of Impulse Control Elaborate, sensorially rich and demanding ritual overloads the brains of participants with sensory stimuli This can exhaust the executive areas of the brain, reducing their control over the subcortical areas, bringing on loss of impulse control and a heightened emotional rather than thoughtful state of mind Ritual and Affect Repetitiousness, visual, olfactory, and acoustical stimulation, and sometimes exhausting physical demands induce and "affective" or "numinous" state (religious experience) The Sacralization or Sanctification of Social Conventions Through Ritual One of the key propositions of ritual research: through ritual experience and luminance, social conventions are accepted less through logical apprehension than on emotional grounds Hence they are more likely to be accepted as valid (accepted as part of what is regarded as truthful, I.e. canonical) Ritual in Social Life: The Role of Ritual When Social Transitions Threaten Group Solidarity Ritual may provide and emotional or sentimental basis for: Reaffirming or altering established ties when change ir required due to death, marriage, or other kinds of transitions Facilitating, through "rites of passage," role change through the life course ("liminal ritual") Ritual as Liminal Experience The root Latin word limen refers to: limit, transition, boundary, or threshold Liminal ritual facilitates role transitions across the life course Liminal ritual facilitates the acceptance of new obligations that a role transition implies (particularly rites of passage from adolescence to adulthood) The liminal state: a transitional period between the role being abandoned and the role being assumed The liminal state is neither here nor there – it is timeless, out of society and ordinary life The person's old identity is already gone, but the new identity is not yet established The person's old identity is denied and a new one established that emphasizes group membership and obligations Numinous experience plays a role in influencing the new recruit Ritual in Social Life: Conclusions Ritual participation signals a person's acceptance of social conventions ("costly signaling") Ritual produces and affective state (numinence) that serves to sanctify social conventions Ritual enhances social cohesion where social relationships are realigned or where there is a transition to a new social role (liminal ritual) ___________________________________________________________________________________ applied (practice) anthropology| Haitian example of a reforestation project: What did the anthropologist suggest?| cultural resource management (CRM) | forensic anthropology | medical anthropology | biomedicine as a medical paradigm | ethnomedicine: Culture: A culture is a way of life of a group of people--the behaviors, beliefs, values, and symbols that they accept, generally without thinking about them, and that are passed along by communication and imitation from one generation to the next. Cultural relativism: Cultural relativism is the principle of regarding the beliefs, values, and practices of a culture from the viewpoint of that culture itself. Originating in the work of Franz Boas in the early 20th century, cultural relativism has greatly influenced social sciences such as anthropology. Altruism: Altruism or selflessness is the principle or practice of concern for the welfare of others. It is a traditional virtue in many cultures and a core aspect of various religious traditions and secular worldviews, though the concept of "others" toward whom concern should be directed can vary among cultures and religions. Forensic Anthropology Identify human remains Engaged with law enforcements Human rights abuses Cultural Resource management (CRM): Record, recover, and preserve archaeological record Works with museums and private companies Curation and management of artifacts Work to access risk in landscape altering programs NAGPRA – Native American Graves and Protection and Repatriation Act (aboriginal control over Native American remains and symbolic objects, but following scientific study) Business and organizational anthropology: Works with companies to develop products and services Tackle issues in work practices and organizational structure Medical Anthropology: Study and analysis of health incorporation both social and biological factors Impact of cultural beliefs Role of health professionals Analysis of various health care systems Ethno-medicine: cultural view of health and illness. Biomedicine: Emphasizes biological approaches to illness and wellbeing. Outline of Anthropological Ethics: Do no harm/do some good? Conserve materials, environments, and cultural ways of life Maintain dignity Privacy and confidentiality Correct representation Recognize debt to study population, ensure acknowledgement, and compensation Open data policy: publish in a reasonable time—permanent record—open access Informed consent Considerations of how data could be used in the future Anthropology in policy Policy research and analysis Complex social problems and solutions "think ranks" Social marketing Education/awareness ___________________________________________________________________________________ Human Violence, Including Homicide and War : Is violence a product of our primate heritage? Are war and violence ancient aspects of human social behavior? Is there such thing as a peaceful society? Two ways to think about human nature is relation to violence and war The "natural state of humans" approach (what were humans like before the advent of the state and civilization?) Sociobiology (the basis for violence is to be found in primate heritage) Does either approach have any unity? "The natural state of humans" Approach I: The "Hobbesian" view: Sir Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) Before the state, humans were selfish competitors, resulting in a "war of every man against every other man" and lives that were "poor, nasty, brutish, and short" According to Hobbes, only with great difficulty do humans establish social contracts that make cooperation possible “Natural State of Humans”, Approach II, the “Golden Age” Perspective Rousseau: Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) IN their natural state, humans suppress violence through pity and compassion Social complexity and the state bring wars, class conflict, battles over resources Both Hobbes and Rousseau are simplistic: 25% of known small-scale societies without that state lack warfare (“peaceful societies”) (but do have homicide) However, many horticultural small-scale societies lacking the state have very high rates of warfare death Sociobiology in Historical Context Following WWII, most people were pessimistic about the human future Some scientific-appearing but sensationalist books traced the propensity toward violence to our primate heritage No clear casualty from sociobiological perspective Primates are not generally violent, aggressive animals (they have evolved primarily as fruit, insect, nut, and leaf eaters) – although they do exhibit some aggressive encounters within and between groups Reconciliation is observed as often as aggressive encounters Forms and causes of violence Homicide (killing of a person who is a member of your own group) is found in all human societies Homicide is not sanctioned in any known society but capital punishment for homicide typically is Capital punishment is found in virtually all known societies but many entail banishment rather than killing Cross-cultural variation in homicide rates The average for all known foragers is 30 to 40 per 100,000 per year (Chicago=30 per 100,000 per year) Some groups have high homicide rates: Gebusi (New Guinea) 419 per 100,000 per year Copper Eskimo (late 19 / early 20 centuries) 60% of men had killed someone (either homicide or capital punishment) The History of Homicide in Human experience: Osteological and Archaeological Indicators of Homicide and Capital Punishment Homicide is usually committed by one person and aims At surprise and quick death without struggle (injuries to the back of head, etc.) - usually one or a few quick blows, then flee the scene the weapons is not left in place Capital punishment often involves "pincushioning" by multiple persons working cooperatively – the deceased is usually a lone adult male – sometimes buried separately Pincushioning Following injury, bone begins to heal Multiple injuries with variable degrees of healing: the person lived through attacks Multiple injuries, some or all with no evidence of healing – this implies death was caused by multiple simultaneous blows Homicide and capital punishment are probably ancient (at least Upper Paleolithic) Forms and Causes of warfare: Warfare that results in the killing of members of other groups (including territorial intruders) is always sanctioned but may be under considerable social control Warfare and raiding are not always present – 25% of ethnographically known societies have no inter- group killing (peaceful societies) - although all have homicide Osteological and Archaeological Evidence for Warfare: Warfare, including revenge killings between social segments results in injuries to the front of the body Warfare victims more often include women and children Victims may be buried as a group Evidence for Warfare is More Recent Compared with Homicide and Capital Punishment: The earliest evidence is a proto-Neolithic site in the Nile Valley 10,000 BCE (but Neolithic phases in other areas also have signs of war) Multiple simultaneous interments, with multiple injuries, mostly frontal The burial includes men, women, and children all buried at the same time
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