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World History 1111

by: Sierra Notetaker

World History 1111 HIST-1111

Sierra Notetaker
GPA 4.0

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These notes cover what is going to be on the final.
Pre-Mod World Civilization
Sandrine Catris
Study Guide
history, world
50 ?




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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sierra Notetaker on Friday May 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST-1111 at Augusta State University taught by Sandrine Catris in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Pre-Mod World Civilization in History at Augusta State University.


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Date Created: 05/06/16
Study Guide for Final May 6 , 2016 11 am to 1 pm The exam will have three parts: 1. Identifications: You will have to identify five terms (30 points) 2. Document Analysis or Map Quiz: You will have to briefly analyze one primary source document or place 15 terms on a map. (30 points) 3. Essay question: You will have to answer two essay questions. (60 points) I. Identifications: You will be given a choice of 15 and you will have to identify 6 terms. (30 points) 1. Pax Romana- Latin for “Roman Peace”; refers to the period between 25 BC and 235 AD during which conditions in the Roman Empire were settled and peaceful. It is important because it was a time of peace in Rome and was similar to the Pax Sinica. 2. Pax Sinica- Period of peace (149-87 BC) during which agriculture, commerce, and the industry flourished in East Asia under the rule of the Han. This was important because it was a time of peace in East Asia. 3. Asoka- Emperor of the Mauryan dynasty from 268 to 231 BC; he was a great conqueror and unifier of India. He is said to have embraced Buddhism toward the end of his life. 4. Mauryan Empire- Dynasty extended by the Mauryans from 321 to 184 BC, from the Indus Valley to the northwest areas of South Asia, in a region previously controlled by Persia. It was the first large-scale empire in South Asia and was to become the model for future Indian empires. 5. Dhamma- Moral code espoused by Asoka in the Kalinga edict, which was meant to apply to all—Buddhists, Brahmans, and Greeks alike. 6. Mahayana Buddhism. 7. Silk Road- Trade route linking China with central Asia and the Mediterranean; it extended over 5,000 miles, land and sea included, and was so named because of the quantities of silk that were traded along it. The Silk Road was a major factor in the development of civilizations in China, Egypt, Persia, India, and even Europe. 8. Xiongnu- The most powerful and intrusive of the nomadic peoples; originally pastoralists from the eastern part of the Asian steppe in what is modern-day Mongolia. They appeared along the frontier with China in the late Zhou dynasty and by the third century BC had become the most powerful of all then pastoral communities in that area. 9. Petra and Palmyra- Petra was a city in modern-day Jordan that was the Nabataean capital. It profited greatly by supplying provisions and water to travelers and traders. Many of its houses and shrines were cut into the Rocky Mountains. Petra means rock. Palmyra was a Roman trading depot in modern-day Syria; part of a network of trading cities that connected various regions of Afro-Eurasia. 10. Qin Shi Huangdi- The First Emperor of a unified China, and ruled from 246 BCE to 210 BCE. In his 35-year reign, he managed to create magnificent and enormous construction projects. He also caused both incredible cultural and intellectual growth, and much destruction within China. 11. Temujin- Mongol leader Genghis Khan (1162-1227) rose from humble beginnings to establish the largest land empire in history. After uniting the nomadic tribes of the Mongolian plateau, he conquered huge chunks of central Asia and China. His descendants expanded the empire even further, advancing to such far-off places as Poland, Vietnam, Syria and Korea. At their peak, the Mongols controlled between 11 and 12 million contiguous square miles, an area about the size of Africa. Many people were slaughtered in the course of Genghis Khan’s invasions, but he also granted religious freedom to his subjects, abolished torture, encouraged trade and created the first international postal system. 12. Warring State Period- Period extending from the fifth century BC to 221 BC, when the regional warring states were unified by the Qin dynasty. 13. Legalism- A system of thought about how to live an ordered life. Developed by Master Xunzi toward end of Warring States Period. Based on principle that human nature is evil and requires authoritarian control to regulate behavior. Important in Qin Dynasty and taught/instituted strict laws, administrative regulations, and harsh punishment. 14. Patria Potestas- In Roman family law, the power of life and death that the male head had over his family and children. Rome had a patriarchal society. 15. Pompey the Great- (106-48 BCE) was a military and political leader in Rome. Behaved as an independent king. Formation of First Triumvirate. Was in the conquest of Jerusalem and honored the temple there, restoring the high priest. 16. Manicheanism- A radical Christian sect whose prophet was the Iranian Mani. One of the many religions that the early Tang emperors tolerated. Shows how cosmopolitan the Tang Dynasty was. 17. Emperor Wuzong- Tang Dynasty Emperor in the 840s CE. Began persecution of Buddhist Monastic order (Anti- Buddhist Campaigns). Closed and destroyed thousands of temples, shrines, and monasteries. Showed the triumph of homegrown ideologies over a foreign universal religion. Made sure no religion would ever rival its power. 18. Sufism- Inner mystical dimension of Islam, variety of religious practices. In 9th century evolved into movement centered on love of God. Spread quickly, gave people a religious emotional experience, breathing exercises, chanting Qur’an. First began as a movement opposed to materialism of Umayyad court. Important factor in universalization of Islam. 19. Silla- 1 of the 3 independent Korean states. Southeastern Korea (57-668 CE). Korean peninsula unified under Silla rule, which enabled Koreans to establish autonomous gov’t. Had hereditary gov’t based on Tang Imperial State (“True Bone” lineages), strict intermarriage among nobles. Sent students and monks to Chinese capital resulting in Chinese becoming written language of Korean elites. 20. Prince Shotoku- (574-622 CE) Lived during Yamato period in Japan. Said to have introduced Buddhism to Japan. Led Japanese court to adopt Chinese calendar and sponsor Buddhism. Adapted foreign beliefs to Japanese society. Wrote a 17-article constitution, which was 1st piece of Japanese writing and was basis for Japanese gov’t. 21. Nara Period- (710-784 CE) Nara was Japan’s 1st imperial capital. Japanese emperor as “son of heaven” instead of mandate. Emperor could not be removed though. Had Taiho legal code (702 CE), which allotted land. Resembled Tang bureaucratic structure. Had provinces, districts, and villages. Taxes paid in grains, textile, and labor. 22. Kojiki- Written circa 711-712 CE. Considered oldest Japanese books. Collection of myths, legends, imperial genealogy, history, and poetry. Written in pure and hybrid Chinese style. 23. Charlemagne- King of Franks, ruled 768-814, was Christian and thought of himself as protector of the Church. Controlled much of Western Europe by 802. Established a dominant warrior class. His empire was important because it featured an expansionist Christianity that took away from the frontier mentality. 24. Vikings- Age of the Vikings was b/w 800-1000 CE. Successful because of their ships (lightweight, could travel on open waters and rivers). They plundered Monasteries, colonized Iceland and Greenland. Reached the new world 982 CE, where they traded with Native Americans. Created new trade routes (“The Highway of Slaves”) exposed the weakness of Charlemagne’s empire. Likely helped with spread of Christianity. 25. Mande-speaking people- A people who lived in the area between the bend in the Senegal River and the bend in the Niger River east to west and from the Senegal River and Bandama River north to south. Also known as the Mandinka. Their civilization emerged around 1100. A mobile, adaptable group who spoke similar languages and shared a culture, created trading networks that linked far- flung regions, and dominated West Africa. The Mande- speaking people formed different types of governments and societies in the different regions of West Africa, including small-scale societies, centralized governments, and sacred kingships. The Mande established trading routes and trading centers through the interior to the Atlantic and controlled much of the trade across the Sahara. The Sahara trade featured coveted items such as salt, as well as gold and slaves. 26. Mansa Musa- fourteenth century emperor of the Mali Empire is the medieval African ruler most known to the world outside Africa. His elaborate pilgrimage to the Muslim holy city of Mecca in 1324 introduced him to rulers in the Middle East and in Europe. His leadership of Mali, a state which stretched across two thousand miles from the Atlantic Ocean to Lake Chad and which included all or parts of the modern nations of Mauritania, Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, and Chad, ensured decades of peace and prosperity in Western Africa. 27. Kive- 28. Timbuktu- Founded perhaps as early as the tenth century, Timbuktu is an African city in the modern day nation of Mali. Occupying a strategic location in the Sahara, it served as a convenient meeting place for neighboring civilizations, nomadic Berber and Arab peoples from the north. A premier trading center for West Africa that often attracted European traders, it continues to serve as an entrepot for rock salt from Taoudenni. 29. Swahili People- For at least a thousand years, Swahili people, who call themselves Waswahili, have occupied a narrow strip of coastal land extending from the north coast of Kenya to Dar as Salaam (the capital of Tanzania). They also occupy several nearby Indian Ocean islands, including Zanzibar, Lamu, and Pate. Over the past few hundred years, the coastal area has been conquered and colonized several times—by Portuguese in the sixteenth century, by Middle Eastern Arabs who ran a slave trade in the nineteenth century, and by the British in the twentieth century. Thus, Swahili people are accustomed to living with strangers in their midst, and they have frequently acted as middlemen in trade relations. In addition, they have incorporated many people and practices into their vibrant social world. Swahili are all Muslims. They became Muslim through the influence of people coming from the north and also from across the Indian Ocean. They have forged extensive economic, political, and social ties with Middle Eastern Muslims. 30. Kiev- Founded by 3 brothers and their sister at the end of the 5th- beginning of the 6th Centuries. At the end of the 9th century the city became the political center of the Eastern Slavs. In the year 988 Christianity, introduced by Great Prince Vladimir, became the official religion of the Kievan Rus. This helped to establish political and cultural relations with such states as the Byzantium Empire and Bulgaria. After the eleventh century, Kiev became one of the greatest cities of Europe. It was built to be a small- scale Constantinople on the Dnieper. 31. Crusades- In the late eleventh century, western Europeans launched the wave of attacks called the Crusades. The First Crusade began in 1095, when Pope Urban II appealed to the warrior nobility of France to free Jerusalem from Muslim rule. Four subsequent Crusades were fought over the next two centuries. 32. Mahmud of Ghazna- Sultan of the kingdom of Ghazna from 998 to 1030, originally comprising modern Afghanistan and northeastern modern Iran but, through his conquests, eventually including northwestern India and most of Iran. He transformed his capital, Ghazna, into a cultural center rivaling Baghdad. 33. Minamoto-no-Yorimoto- (born 1147, Japan—died Feb. 9, 1199, Kamakura) founder of the bakufu, or shogunate, a system whereby feudal lords ruled Japan for 700 years. Defying the emperor, Yoritomo established shugo (constables) and jitō (district stewards) throughout the Japanese provinces, thus undermining the central government’s local administrative power, and in 1192 he acquired the title of supreme commander (shogun) over the shugo and jitō. 34. Vibia Perpetua- A young woman of noble birth. She was twenty-two, a wife, a mother of a young son and a Christian. In the city of Carthage in North Africa on March 7 of the year 203 she was put to death for her religious convictions. 35. Edict of Milan- An edict granted by Emperor Constantine the Great in the West and Licinius Augustus in the East in 313 granting religious freedom throughout the Roman Empire. In addition, the Edict of Milan ordered the restitution of property confiscated from Christians. 36. Council of Nicea- A church council convened in 325 CE by Constantine and presided over by him as well. At this council, a Christian creed was articulated and made into a formula that expressed the philosophical and technical elements of Christian belief. 37. Sogdians- They were merchants on the Silk Road who traded with the Turks, Chinese, and Romans. They were principal merchants and facilitators of cross cultural exchanges. They helped spread cultures and goods across the Silk Road. Started a universalistic movement with religion and language. 38. Nestorianism- Popular around the 500 and 600s CE, Christians located along the Mesopotamian region and trade routes of Central Asia. They used Sasanian trade and diplomacy to spread their faith and Eastern Rome considered them heretics. What is important about them is that they went against the Council of Nicea because they believed Jesus was two different people: the Man Jesus and the Son of God. 39. Sasanid Empire- During the 500s and 600s, these empires replaced the Parthians located in the Iranian Plateau and were rivals with Eastern Roman Empire. They sacked Antioch in 540 CE, and were very religiously tolerant. They are located around Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, and much of Central Asia. They provided Eastern Roman Empire with a challenge by reaching as far back as Constantinople. 40. Six Dynasties Period- Taking place between the years of 386 and 534 CE, the Northern Wei dynasty tried to re- unify Northern China by rebuilding the Han capital Wayang. This time period happened in Northern China and was an attempt to try to keep parts of the Han Empire. 41. Laws of Manu- Brahman Sage Manus gave out laws during 300 and 1300 CE that prescribed every person had to marry within his or her caste system and follow the caste’s profession and dietary rules to perpetuate its status. They were given to the people in India and those in South Asia, the purpose of the laws was to help spread Hinduism because of constant change in Indian Society, and it helped cope with it by absorbing new groups into caste system. 42. Li Bai- He was a Chinese poet who was responsible for the Golden Age of Poetry during the Tang Dynasty, and his poems were so great that they were the reason why this Golden Age existed. 43. Muhammad- He was the founder of Islam when he was 41 years old in the year of 610 CE. The birthplace of Islam was Mecca, and it became a universal religion in the centuries that followed. 44. Five Pillars of Islam- They are the core and main practices of the Islamic faith, and they were first given in Mecca in the year of 610 CE. 1. The phrase “There is no god but God and Muhammad is His prophet.” must be repeated. 2. Pray 5 times a day facing Mecca 3. During the month of Mecca, you must fast from sunup to sundown. 4. If you have the resources, you must make a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in your lifetime. 5. You must pay alms in the form of taxation to alleviate the hardships of the poor. 45. Dhimmis- These are protected people living in the Muslim Empire that practiced other religions. Although they were taxed because of their different faith, these people were significant because they had the freedom to freely practice their own religion during the time of the Muslim Empire. 46. Delhi Sultanate- This was the Turkish Muslim regime that was made up of rulers that brought political integration and strengthened cultural diversity to Northern India during the years of 1206 and 1526 CE. 47. Zheng He- He was an important military leader in the Ming Dynasty during the years of 1405 and 1483 CE who commanded the world’s greatest army and led two naval expeditions. 48. Jacquerie- These were French peasants who revolted against the clergy and killed and looted during the year of 1358. This revolt lead to the weakening of the feudal order and plague and famine and poverty ensued and lead to chaos. 49. Humanism- During the Italian Renaissance in the continent of Europe, this concept downplayed religious and secular dogma and instead attached the greatest importance to the dignity and worth of the individual. This idea led to the breaking off from the church’s beliefs. 50. Ottoman Empire- This was a new empire that started from the conquest of the Eastern Roman Empire from the Turks and was prominent during the years of 1299 and 1566 CE. The empire took over the Eastern Roman Empire, the Middle East and parts of Northern Africa. It is significant due to the fact that it was very successful in its conquests and maintained itself for a very long time. II. Document analysis or Map Quiz: You will be given a choice of a map or a primary document. (30 points) 1. Map (Place 15 terms on Map, choice of 30) 2. Document (Use the Reading Primary Source Guide) a. The Secret History of the Mongols The Secret History of the Mongols is a primary document written by Chinggis Khan, who was the founder of the Mongol empire, sometime between the years of 1228 and 1252. The provided document describes the capture and death of Jamuqa, one of Chinggis’s enemies. It also tells of the previous relationship Chinggis Khan and Jamuqa shared; they were once brothers. In writing this, Chinggis Khan preserved his own history and the early methods of the Mongolian people. It was probably meant for the Mongols, in order to know and remember their history and either stay in their old methods or develop new ones. b. Advice to Boniface on the Method of Conversion This source was written somewhere between 723 and 724 AD by Daniel of Winchester as a letter of advice to St. Boniface on how to witness to pagans. St. Boniface served as a missionary, but did more work on reshaping the Christian church in northwestern Europe. Bishop Daniel was a close colleague in Wessex. Daniel of Winchester had good intentions writing to St. Boniface. He wanted to communicate the best way to relate to and challenge the ideas of the pagan people that they encountered. He said, “These and similar questions, and many others that it would be tedious to mention, should be put to them, not in an offensive and irritating way but calmly and with great moderation.” This is a good approach; it is important to relate to the people one is speaking to and respect them but also be firm and bold in one’s own faith. III. Essay question: You will be given a choice of 3 questions, and you will have to answer 2. Everyone must answer question 1. All essays should have an introduction and a conclusion. Make sure to consider change over time. Use specific examples to illustrate your answers. (60 points) 1. Compare the patterns of Imperial expansions of China, Rome, and of the Muslim Empires. In many different cultures and times, different regions fought for their expansion. In China, Rome, and the Muslim Empires, this imperial expansion was large and affected many people. In China, most dynasties claimed the Mandate of Heaven, which was an ideology established by the Zhou dynasty to communicate the moral transfer of power. Originally it was a pact between the Zhou people and their supreme god but it evolved in the first century BC into Chinese political doctrine. The Han dynasty used military superiority to expand their region. During the Han dynasty they expanded the Great Wall of China and used the Oasis system trading routes to their advantage. As a part of their expansion, the Han dynasty also created a sort of symbiotic relationship with the Nomadic people. In Rome, territorial aggression was common. Rome had a powerful military and strategic actions. Julius Ceaser (c. 49- 44 BC) had many victories, one of which was the Gauls. Ceaser attacked the Gaul people and there were over one million deaths. He marched on Rome and declared himself emperor, and ruled for the next few years until he was assassinated. Another example of Roman expansion is Alexander the Great (3 century BC), who conquered many regions and expanded the Roman Empire through war. This was the time period of Rome’s greatest growth. The expansion of the Islam Empire started when the majority of residents in Mecca (which was the Muslim capitol) were Muslim. Slowly, Muslims began to take over different territories through warfare and the religion quickly grew. The religion was spread along the trade routes and the Silk Road by missionaries. The Umayyads (651-750) were the first Muslim empire. The Abbasids (c. 750-1258), which were Muslim followers, took over Baghdad and some Western regions, including Spain. In conclusion, all three of these empires expanded through warfare. These regions grew and thrived from conquered territories. They all had military advantage and motivation for expansion. In China, Rome, and the Muslim Empire, the imperial expansion was extreme and affected many people. 2. To what extent did universal religions bring worlds together, but also pushed them apart? What new cultural boundaries were created as a result of the spread of universal religions? (Discuss at least two different universal religions) 3. Discuss the role of the Mongol conquests in integrating the worlds of Afro-Eurasia. 4. To what extent did political, economic, and cultural integration occur in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Americas between 1000-1300 CE?


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