Final exam review Organismal Biology 1306
Final exam review Organismal Biology 1306 Biology 1306
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Juan Aldana on Friday May 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biology 1306 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Mata in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Biology at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 05/06/16
Chapter 29 1. What are Intracellular and extra cellular fluids 1. Intracellular fluid involves the cytosol of the cell, found inside cells 2. Extracellular fluid is found in the following compartments; plasma, interstitial fluid, and transcellular fluid. a. Interstitial fluid (tissue fluid) is a solution that bathes and surrounds the cells of multicellular animals, found between the cells of the body b. Plasma is the paleyellow liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells of the whole blood in suspension 2. Homeostasis. Homeo “similar”, stasis “stable” 1. The maintenance of stable conditions in an internal environment, an imbalance in homeostasis can lead to a disease. 2. Cells become specialized to certain internal environments to regulate temperature, pH, and ion concentrations along the cells. 3. Cells evolved into tissues, organs, and then into physiological systems that serve specific functions; lungs, heart, stomach etc. a)organs> tissues >cells 3. The four main tissues 1. Muscle Tissue Responds to stimulation, contracts to provide movement, consists of elongated cells. Three types of muscle tissue: a)Skeletal Provide support/ movement b)Cardiac Generate heartbeat and flow of blood, compose the heart c)Smooth found in hollow organs, has autonomous movement, meaning you can’t control movement over it, will contract without control over it, 2. Epithelial tissue refers to the sheets of cell that cover the exterior and interior surfaces of the body, lines internal cavities and passageways, forms certain glands; sweat glands, can serve as sensory glands for smell, taste, and touch. Squamous tissue is the smallest/simplest, cuboidal is shaped into cubes, and simple columbaria which shaped as a column 3. Connective tissue binds the cells and organs of the body together and functions on the protection, support, and integration of all parts of the body, are dispersed cell that are secreted into the extracellular matrix, collagen and elastin provide strength and elasticity to cartilage. a)Bone matrix is mineralized for strength, adipose tissue (made of fat) has a little of the matrix, blood is connective tissue at it has to travel through the whole body 4. Nervous tissue is also excitable, allowing the transmission of electrochemical signals in the form of nerve impulses that communicate between different regions of the body. Contain 2 basic cell types neurons and glial cells, both form part of the central and peripheral nervous system and communicate via chemicals and neurotransmitters. a)Glial cells don’t have an axon, send no chemical info, produce protein called Myelin which are sheets that cover the axons. Axons send and receive info between cells Organs consist of multiple tissues, most have all four types (intestines) An organ system is a group of organs that function together To achieve homeostasis, each organ and organ system must respond to the demands of the body’s cells. 4. Difference between Endotherms and Ectotherms. 1. Ectotherm requires heat from the outside, same temperature as environment, do not consume energy to maintain temperature, have no metabolic method of regulating body temperature 2. Endotherm internal temp is constant but always needs to be using energy to maintain temperature, they consume most of their energy pumping ions across their membranes, they spend more energy and release more heat to maintain ion concentration gradients a) When the environmental temperature (T ) falla below the lower critical temperature of the TNZ, the animal must increase its metabolic heat production or its body temperature (T ) wbll fall. Mammals produce heat when this happens in two ways; Shivering thermogenesis, meaning that skeletal muscles contract and release energy from ATP as heat, and Nonshivering heat production, adipose tissue called brown fat (high density of mitochondria and blood vessels) is used to produce metabolic heat by uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation. b) In the thermoneutral zone (TNZ), the metabolic rate is low and independent of temperature At colder environmental temperature, metabolic heat production increases in endotherms (red line), but falls in ectotherms (blue line). The basal metabolic rate (BMR), is the minimal metabolic level that is compatible with all physiological functions that are essential to maintain homeostasis of the internal 5. Metabolic rates. environment of a resting animal, this is found 6. Regulatory systems and their components The body needs information that is necessary for physiological systems, these include; 1. Set point are used as a reference point, in order to identify the set point of the system there has to be information to know what is the correct set point, that information help the system to operate correctly and efficiently. 2.Feedback information i s any difference between the set point and feedback information, it may cause changes to the set point of the system 3.Error signal refers to the difference between the set point and the feedback information. 4.Negative feedback changes the variable back to its original state or “ideal value”, think of a home heater were the temperature is set to 70 degrees, if the house goes below this the heater will turn on until the house has a temperature of 70 degrees then the heater will turn off 5.Positive feedback enhances the output of the original stimulus, meaning that it increases the deviation from the set point. A good example of a positive feedback mechanism is blood clotting. Once a vessel is damaged, platelets start to cling to the injured site and release chemicals that attract more platelets. The platelets continue to pile up and release chemicals until a clot is formed. 6.Feedforward information anticipates any internal changes and changes the set point; the weather Afferent pathways carry nerve impulses into the central nervous system Efferent pathways carry nerve impulses away from the central nervous system Stimulus– produces a change to a variable (the factor being regulated). Receptor– detects the change. The receptor monitors the environment and responds to change (stimuli). Input– information travels along the (afferent) pathway to the control center. The control center determines the appropriate response and course of action. Output– information sent from the control center travels down the (efferent) pathway to the effector. Response– a response from the effector balances out the original stimulus to maintain homeostasis. 7. The five mechanisms for gaining or losing heat. 1.Metabolism, the conversion of ATP to do work which produces heat 2.Radiation via infrared radiation; heat transfers from warmer objects to cooler ones. Incoming radiation is what is absorbed (R ) and absgoing radiation is what is emitted (R ) out 3.Convection is the transfer of heat to a surrounding medium when objects of two different temperature come into contact (think of putting an icepack on a sprained ankle) 4. Conduction is the transfer of heat directly when two objects of different temperature come into contact 5. Evaporation is when heat is transferred away from a surface when water evaporated in that surface in outHeat = Metabolism + RoutConvection + Conduction + R abs Evaporation The two sides of the heat budget equation must be equal if the body temperature of the animal is to remain constant, unless heat =heat , the body temperature will change, key factors in the in out heat loss through radiation, conduction, and convection of an animal include surface temperature and area Reducing heat loss is important in colder climates, some coldclimate species have a smaller surface area than warm climate animals, other adaptions to reducing heat loss include, increased thermoregulatory adaptions such as changes in thermal insulation (fur, feathers, fat), the ability to dblood vessels or shivering, the temperature vessels. regulatory system depends on feedback and acts as a thermostat. In vertebrate brains, the hypothalamus is the major center of the thermostat and the temperature of the hypothalamus can be the main feedback to the thermostat The temperature of the hypothalamus is a negative feedback signal, cooling of thus organ can cause body temperature to rise by increasing metabolic rates, warming of the hypothalamus can lower body temperature by dilating blood vessels, sweating and panting Chapter 46 8. Net primary productivity (NPP) the rate at which an ecosystem produces primary producer biomass; plants, vegetation, crops etc. Estimated by using satellites that measure the amount of light that is absorbed and reflected by each ecosystem, based on this it is determined how much biomass is found in a specific ecosystem. Energy (99% from sun) will be captured by plants and transform it into chemical energy, the energy will then be transferred to the consumers, every time energy is passed from one to another it will be lost as heat. Matter (tissue, fruits etc.) is finite, meaning that no matter will leave the planet at any time, it will only be recycled. Earth is an open system with respect to energy, but a closed system with respect to matter 9. NPP in different ecosystems NPP varies through every environment due to climate and nutrient availability, tropical forests, swamps, and marshlands are the most productive, cultivated land is less productive than many natural ecosystems. Open oceans and deserts are the lowest producers, aquatic NPP is affected by the availability of nutrients and the penetration of light, nutrients are usually available at the surface, meaning that organisms at the bottom will not be able to get it. Light doesn’t reach the bottom of the ocean; hydrothermal vents are usually very productive areas as there are Chemolithothrophs (use inorganic compounds) that use the chemical energy rather than sunlight. 10.NPP and temperature, and precipitation The most productivity is around the equator since that’s where the tropical forests are found, higher latitudes offer less NPP due to temperature. Vegetation will increase as temperature increases nut will be limited at a certain max temperature rate, as precipitation increases the value of NPP increases, if there is too much water vegetation will “drown” since there will be no O2 o use to synthesize CO 2 11.Biogeochemical cycles. The different compartments where matter is found. 1.There is a fixed amount of each element of matter, but biological, geological, and chemical processes can transform it and move it around the planet. 2.Pool refers to the amount of an element or molecule in a compartment, a 3.Flux is the movement of an element or molecule between compartments All the materials in the bodies of living organisms are derived from abiotic sources Primary producers’ intake elements from inorganic pools and accumulate them as biomass, trophic interactions then pass the elements on to heterotrophs Decomposers break down any dead or waste matter into elements that are available again for uptake by primary producers All the biogeochemical cycles are interconnected meaning that if carbon uptake by primary producers increases so will the uptake of P, N and other elements will also increase. If decomposition rates increase, flux of elements back to inorganic compartments also increase Any nutrient can limit biological functions 12.Eutrophication 1.Topsoil and other dissolved nitrates are lost from farm fields and deforested areas by winds and runoff water 2.Nitrates become deposited in aquatic systems and result in eutrophication, meaning that the productivity of phytoplankton is increased 3.The decomposition id phytoplankton can deplete the oxygen and other organisms cannot survive, dead zones form ashore in the summer 13.Water, Nitrogen and Carbon cycles, and humans can modify these cycles: 1. The Global Water (hydrological) CycleWater is essential for life; it makes up 70% of all living biomass. Flowing water is an erosion agent as it transports sediment; moves material around the planet. Solarpowered evaporation moves water from ocean and land surfaces into the atmosphere, energy is released again as heat when water vapor condenses (rain). Humans have an effect on the water cycle by changing the use of land; a)Reduced vegetation (deforestation, cultivation, etc.) reduces the amount of precipitation retained in the soil and increases the amount that runs off. b)Groundwater pumping depletes aquifers (natural water reserves), bringing up water from the floor to the surface increases the amount of water that evaporates. c)Climate warming melts the polar ice caps and glaciers which results in the rise of sea level and increased evaporation, water vapor is a greenhouse gas 2.Nitrogen Cycle involves many chemical transformations, Nitrogen gas (N ) 2omposes 78% of the atmosphere but it is unusable in this form by organisms a. Some microbes (cyanobacteria) can break down the triple bond and + reduce N 2o ammonium (NH ), th4s is called Nitrogen Fixation b. Other microbes convert ammonium into nitrate (NO 3, nitrogen fixation can be reversed by another group of microbes that use nitrate as an electron acceptor in place of oxygen in anaerobic conditions and in return they release Nitrogen back into the atmosphere, this process is called denitrification. c. The burning of fossil fuels, rice plantations, and raising large quantities of livestock release oxides of nitrogen into the atmosphere which contribute to smog and acid rain, humans fix the nitrogen cycle by the manufacture of fertilizers and explosives 3. The Global Carbon Cycle refers to the movement of carbon which is linked to the energy flow throughout ecosystems, biomass being an important pool; the largest pools occur in fossil fuels and carbonate rocks. Photosynthesis removes inorganic carbon form the atmosphere and water is moved into the organic compartment, all of this is then reversed by respiration. a. Some CO is 2issolved and makes its way into the oceans where some of it is converted by primary producers into energy and enters the trophic system b. Organic waste (detritus) and carbonates drift down to the ocean floor where some of the waste is converted into fossil fuels and carbonates can be transformed into limestone c. Deforestation and the burning of fossil fuels increase the atmospheric CO along w2th any activity that might impact primary producers. 14.Greenhouse gases and the Greenhouse effect. 1. The greenhouse gases are – Carbon Dioxide (CO ), Methane2(CH ), Nitrous Ox4de (N O), 2 and water vapor (H O)2 2. Earth’s surface reemits energy back into space in longer and less energetic infrared wavelengths, some of these radiations are absorbed by greenhouse gases which are warmed and release photons back into Earth’s surface keeping the energy within the earth as heat, this is call the Greenhouse effect 15.The Impact of a warmer global climate on nature and on human populations. 1. Higher temperatures throughout earth increase the air temperatures resulting in hotter air as well as a more intense water cycle which has a greater evaporation and precipitation along with increased storm intensity. Warming is uneven throughout the planet meaning that precipitation changes will be season and region specific, this means that regions that are “wet” will be expected to get wetter and regions that are “dry” will get drier 2. The addition of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere by humans also contribute to the raise in temperature, deposits of particles (black carbon) from the burning of fossil fuels increase the amount of solar energy absorbed by snow and ice which increases melting. The addition of aerosols to the atmosphere increase the reflectance of solar energy, meaning that less solar energy reaches earth’s surface 3. Changes are happening to fast for organisms to evolve and adapt to the fast pace of their environments, in short term many species have been adapting; such as the leafs on trees are coming out earlier in the spring. If populations cannot effectively respond to the changing environments it is probable that they may go extinct, shifts in geographic distributions are happening as some species move up towards higher latitudes which result in different specie combinations. 4. Adaptions in the plant communities are being seen, a rapid shift in plant community boundaries occurred after a drought in northern New Mexico: a ponderosa pine forest shrank abruptly and droughtadapted piñon–juniper woodland expanded by more than 2 km in less than 5 years. 5. There have been climate changes in the earth’s past, which lead to five major extinctions, the first photosynthetic microbes increase oxygen concentrations to a level which was toxic to the anaerobic prokaryotes, the first land plants caused another rise in oxygen concentrations about 250 million years ago. All present climate changes are due to the activity of a single species; Homo sapiens 16.Agreements to reduce: greenhouse gas emissions, conservation of species, and the ozone layer. 1.Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) The cooperation between governments to support large scale initiatives for Ecological Challenges, include; a)Montreal Protocol, prevents depletion of UVabsorbing ozone layer (O ) 3 b)Kyoto Protocol, reduces the emissions of the greenhouse gases c)Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), to conserve species by eliminating international trade. The major challenge all these agreements face is the economic policies of every nation that aim for continual economic growth over the importance on the environment, despite the fact that Earth has finite resources. A related challenge is the continual growth of the human population, on a packed planet, cooperation becomes more difficult.
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