Psychology Final Exam Review
Psychology Final Exam Review PSY 2301
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Aneeqa Akhtar on Friday May 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 2301 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Noah Sasson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 132 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Behavioral Sciences at University of Texas at Dallas.
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Date Created: 05/06/16
Final Exam Review Chapter 14: Personality Personality: an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting. o Personality is the study of the individual / how we differ from others o Personality implies some degree of consistency -> enduring, stable qualities Traits vs States o Traits: relatively consistent characteristics exhibited in different situations -> dispositional o States: temporary (mood, emotion) -> situational Phrenology: an early attempt to explain personality through measurement of the skull Four Big Theories of Personality o Trait Theory: describe the personality of someone you know You probably use a small number of descriptive statements. (dependable, caring, etc) Traits = inclinations or tendencies that guide someone’s thoughts and behavior o Three assumptions: Traits are relatively stable over time Traits are relatively stable over situations People differ in the amount of each trait they possess Gordon Allport (1936): 18,000 dictionary terms to describe human behavior -> many synonyms Factor analysis of trait terms (1966) o Start with pool of personality items o Have large number of people rate themselves on traits o Factor analysis: statistical procedure that identifies groups of items that co-occur, but do not co-occur with other groups o The Big Five Openness: distinguishes imaginative, creative people o high openness: open to new experiences, creative, imaginative, intellectual, preference for novelty o low openness: preference for routine and habit, uncreative, unimaginative, unintellectual Conscientiousness: how we control, direct, and regulate our lives o High conscientiousness: organized, neat, orderly, practical prompt, meticulous o Low Conscientiousness: disorganized, disorderly, careless, sloppy, impractical o Quick measure = punctuality Extraversion: engagement with the outside (social) world o High extraversion: talkative, assertive, forward, outspoken o Low extraversion: shy, quiet, bashful, inhibited Agreeableness: concern with cooperation and social harmony o High agreeableness: sympathetic, kind, warm, understanding, sincere o Low agreeableness: unsympathetic, unkind, harsh, cruel Neuroticism: tendency to experience strong negative emotions o Intense emotional reactions, long-lasting o High neuroticism: moody, anxious, insecure o Low neuroticism (emotional stability): calm, relaxed, stable Psychoanalytic Theory: devised by Sigmund Freud o Psychodynamic: to understand a person, you need to uncover hidden psychological forces (dynamics) o Psychoanalytic Theory: attempts to explain personality on the basis of unconscious mental forces levels of consciousness: we are unaware of some aspects of our mental states The Unconscious: collection of unacceptable thoughts, wishes, desires, feelings, and memories (Freudian definition) Id: unconscious psychic energy driven by biological urges o Pleasure Principle: demands immediate gratification, does not care about societal norms and restraints o At birth, infants are all id but soon realize all urges cannot be instantly be satisfied Superego: part of personality that represents internalized ideals and standards for judgement o The “conscience” o Develops around age 4-5 o Focuses on how one should behave o Shame and guilt when break standards Ego: mostly conscious, “executive” part of personality that mediates id vs. superego struggle o Reality Principle: seeks to gratify id in ways acceptable to superego o When the ego goes against the superego, we feel guilt and shame. o Stages of Psychosexual Development Patients’ symptoms rooted in conflicts from childhood Id’s pleasure-seeking energies focused on different parts of the body (erogenous zones) – the original sources of pleasure and id gratification Psychosexual stages are universal Erogenous zones: parts of the body that have especially strong pleasure- giving qualities at particular stages Caregivers are crucial to negotiating children through stages o Fixation: individual is “locked” in a stage because needs are under- or over gratified o Anal stage: how parents handle potty-trained shapes personality Child shamed for making mess o The Story of Oedipus / Oedipus Complex During phallic stage (3-6 years old), boys develop unconscious sexual desires for mother, jealousy and hatred of father (rival) o Feelings of guilt, fear of punishment (anxiety) Castration anxiety = fear of being castrated by father for desiring mom, and becoming like a female Reduced through identification with same-sex parent If unresolved, develops into personality that is vain, aggressive, and ambitious to a fault o Defense mechanism: method of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality Repression: forcibly blocking unacceptable thoughts from conscious mind…reduces anxiety. Ex: pain of childbirth o Projective Personality Tests: test using ambiguous stimuli to elicit projection of inner conflicts o Object-Relations Theories: emphasizes real (as opposed to fantasized) relations with others o Free association: method of exploring the unconscious Person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing Socio-Cognitive Theory: o Each person has a unique personality because of our personal histories o Personal events and how we interpret them shape our personalities o One example: Locus of Control (Rotter) Emphasizes a person’s internal or external focus as a major determinant of personality Internal locus of control: o Life outcomes are under personal control o Positively correlated with self-esteem (elderly) o Internals use more problem-focused coping External locus of control: Humanistic Theory o Humanistic personality theories reject psychoanalytic notions and learning theory as “dehumanizing” We are not a slave to our urges and to conditioning but active determinants of who we are and want to be Humans at the center of the theory, not outside forces o Luck, chance o Carl Rogers and Self-theory We act in a manner that is consistent with or self-schema: our core conception of ourselves o People with low self-esteem generally have poor congruence between their self-schemas and life experiences o Self-esteem: relative balance of positive and negative self-judgement Actual vs Possible Selves o Motivated to narrow the distance between the two Chapter 15: Psychopathology Psychopathology: the study of abnormal thoughts, behaviors, and feelings o Psycho = mind o Pathology = disease Insanity: a legal term, refers to an inability to manage one’s affairs or to be unaware of the consequences of one’s actions o Those judged insane by a court of law are not held legally accountable for their actions o Can be involuntarily committed to a psychiatric hospital Normality: takes into account three things o 1) Subjective Discomfort Feelings of discomfort, unhappiness, or emotional distress o 2) Socially Abnormal Disobeying societal standards for normal conduct; usually leads to destructive or self-destructive behavior Walking around naked is not normal, unless you are in a locker room Situational Context: social situation, behavioral setting, or general circumstances in which behavior takes place Cultural Relativity: judgements are made relative to the value of one’s culture (i.e. talking to spirits in Native American culture) o 3) Statistically Abnormal Having extreme scores on some dimension, such as intelligence, anxiety, or depression. Not all statistically abnormal behavior is considered abnormal: super athletic, musical, or intellectual tendencies. When does abnormal become psychopathology? The 3 D’s: o 1) Deviant: statistically vs socially abnormal (violation of social norms) o 2) Distressing: to either (or both) yourself or others o 3) Dysfunctional: maladaptive, impairs daily functions Multi-Axial System of DSM-IV o DSM-IV -> American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; widely used system for classifying psychological disorders o Five axis of diagnosis Axis I – Major disorders (depression, anxiety, SCZ, etc.) Axis II – stable, enduring problems (personality disorders, intellectual impairment) Axis III – related medical conditions (ex. brain injury, hypertension) Axis IV – psychosocial and environmental problems (unemployment) Axis V – global assessment of functioning (0-100) Medical Model o Concept that diseases have physical causes o Can be diagnosed, treated, and in most cases, cured o Assumes that these “mental” illnesses can be diagnosed on the basis of their symptoms and cured through therapy, which may include treatment in a psychiatric hospital Bio-psycho-social Perspective o Assumes that biological, sociocultural, and psychological factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders. Integrative Explanation o Biopsychosocial model is currently most comprehensive approach o Diathesis-stress model o Diathesis = predisposition, stress = environmental triggers Anxiety Disorders o Generalized Anxiety Disorder: client is tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal Social anxiety: symptoms occur in social setting, fear of scrutiny, public humiliation/embarrassment o Panic Disorder: marked by a minutes-long episode of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensation o Phobia: persistent, irrational fear of a specific object or situation. Marked and persistent fear that is excessive or unreasonable, cued by the presence or anticipation of a specific object or situation; can induce panic Most common phobias: blood/injections, animals (snake, mice, roaches), flying, claustrophobia Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions) o What are obsessions? Persistent, intrusive, and distressing thoughts, impulses, or images Paired with increase in anxiety Most common: contamination, hurting others, need for symmetry o What are compulsions? Repetitive, ritualistic behaviors or mental acts The person feels driven to perform in response to an obsession, or according to rules that must be applied rigidly The compulsions are performed to prevent or “undo” some dreaded outcome Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder o Exposure to a traumatic event that involved actual or threatened death or serious injury, or a threat to the physical integrity of self or others. During event, the person felt intense fear, helplessness, or horror. o Traumatic event is persistently re-experienced, through recurrent and intrusive distressing recollections of the event, nightmares, flashbacks, or intense psychological distress when confronted with a “trigger”. o Persistent symptoms of increased arousal, such as difficulty falling or staying asleep, irritability or outbursts of anger, difficulty concentrating, hypervigilance, or an exaggerated startle response. Mood Disorders: characterized by emotional extremes o Major Depressive Disorder: a mood disorder in which a person experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities At least of 5 of the below, for at least 2 weeks. Must have one of the first 2 symptoms listed o Depressed mood most of the day o Diminished interest or pleasure in activities most of the day o Significant appetite/weight changes o Sleep problems o Psychomotor agitation or retardation o Fatigue, loss of energy o Feelings of worthlessness, intense inappropriate guilt o Unable to concentrate or make decisions o Recurrent thought of death, suicidal ideation, or suicide attempt Mania: a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state o Inflated self-esteem or grandiosity o Decreased need for sleep o Talkative, pressured speech o Flight of ideas, racing thoughts o Distractible Bipolar Disorder o A mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania o Formerly called manic-depressive disorder Dissociative Disorders: conscious awareness become separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings o Schizophrenia: literal transition “split mind” A group of severe psychotic disorders characterized by: o Disorganized and delusional thinking o Disturbed perceptions o Inappropriate emotions and actions Positive Symptoms: o The presence of something that is normally absent (ex. Hallucination, delusions) o Delusions o False beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders o Hallucinations o False sensory experiences such as seeing something without any external visual stimulus Negative Symptoms: o The absence of something that is normally present (lack of affect, social withdrawal) o Psychomotor symptoms o Disturbances in movement o Poverty of speech o Blunted affect o Loss of violation o Social withdrawal Comprehensive Material Classical Conditioning: (or Pavlovian Conditioning), we learn to associate two stimuli that occur together; detect patterns o Ex: why does a baby cry at the doctor? Babies have an association between the doctor’s office and pain (shots) o These are learned associations o Two related events: Stimulus 1 -> lightning, Stimulus 2 -> thunder Results: Stimulus -> we see lightning, Response -> we wince anticipating thunder o Psychologists simultaneously par: An unconditional stimulus (natural stimulus) : that produces a predictable unconditioned response With a conditioned stimulus (once-neutral stimulus) producing the same response, called a conditioned response after several repetitions Operant Conditioning: rewards and punishments o Rewards increase the frequency of a behavior and punishment decreases it o Response: pushing the vending machine button, Consequence: receiving a candy bar Reinforcement: stimulus or event that increases the likelihood a behavior will be repeated o Ex: to get a dog to shake hands, you must give it a treat (reinforcement) every time it raises its paw o Primary Reinforcer: stimulus that satisfies a biological or social need (food, attention) o Secondary Reinforcer: stimulus like money that gives a reward by being linked with a primary reinforcer (food) Motivation: a need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it towards a goal. o Extrinsic Motivation: motivated by external forces: Engaging in activities that either reduce biological needs or help us obtain external incentives o Intrinsic Motivation: motivated by internal forces: Engaging in activities because they are enjoyable, personally rewarding, or because they fulfill our beliefs and expectations Emotions: affective responses (feelings) that are linked to changes in behavior and physiology Self-Actualization: state of self-fulfillment in which people realize their highest potential in their own unique way o Different for different people In Milgram’s study, subjects were asked to deliver different voltages (0-450 volts) as a punishment to the “learner”. His question was at what point would subjects refuse to deliver shock to another person? o 2/3 of the volunteers were ready to shock the others. Why? It’s hard to predict who will demonstrate obedience Groupthink: a mode of thinking that people engage in when part of a cohesive in-group o Can increase the risk of poor decisions or inaccurate conclusions o Minimize conflict by agreeing without critical thought o Groups strive for unanimity Attachment as “contact comfort” o Harry Harlow found that infant monkeys preferred contact with the cloth surface over access to food o Babies spent 17-18 hours a day with cloth mother but less than an hour with wire mother. Piaget: Four Big Stages o Stage Theory: Major qualitative differences between stages. Big “leaps” happen to get to the next one o 1) Sensorimotor Stage Birth to ~2 Reflexes to goal-orientated behavior No ability to think about anything outside of the immediate experience Acquisition of mental representation marks the end of this stage Sensorimotor Stage: Object Permanence o The principle that objects continue to exist even when out of view (at about 9 months) o Demonstrates the ability to form mental representations o 2) Preoperational Stage ~2-7 years Simple mental representation o Use of symbols o Acquisition of language o Pretend play: blocks become castles, bananas become phones, role- playing o Still, severely limits and inflexible o Centrism: inability to consider multiple characteristics at once. o Conservation: the ability to recognize that a given quantity, weight, or volume stays the same despite changes in how it looks o 3) Concrete Operations ~7-11 years Use mental operations to solve concrete problems o Manipulate mental images o Ability to con… o 4) Formal Operations ~12 and above Abstract and flexible thinking o Algebra o Lofty goals upon entering phase o Past -> present, future Working Memory: briefly holds information to “work-on”, has to be encoded to go to long term memory o typically lost very quickly without rehearsal Limited by time Limited by capacity o 7 items, +/- 2 o Can be numbers, words, letters, names Chunking: combining materials into independent chunks, can be visual or verbal Memory Construction o Misinformation Effect: after exposure to information that is not true, people tend to remember it that way This suggests that memories can be created, even when an event did not occur Phoneme: smallest distinctive sound unit in a language o The unique sounds that can be joined to create words o About 40 phonemes in English o At birth, infants can distinguish all contrasting phonemes in human language By 4-5 months of age, they begin to babble native phonemes After 9 months of age, they can only distinguish phenomes in language being spoken around them Noam Chomsky: language acquisition device (LAD): an innate mental structure that guides the acquisition of language Fast Mapping: the process of rapidly learning a new words imply by detecting the difference between a familiar word and an unfamiliar word o Ex: in a preschool classroom, an experimenter drew a child’s attention to two blocks – asking the child to “get the celadon block not the blue one” -> from the contrast, the child inferred that the name of the color of the requested object was celadon Intelligence Quotient: defined the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (cs) multiplied by a 100 o IQ=(ma/ca) x 100
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