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Astronomy Final Study Guide

by: Raleigh Zook

Astronomy Final Study Guide ASTR 1210

Marketplace > University of Virginia > Astronomy > ASTR 1210 > Astronomy Final Study Guide
Raleigh Zook
GPA 3.55

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About this Document

These notes cover telescopes, atmospheres, planets, climates, comets, asteroids, and more! They discuss what was covered after the midterm.
Introduction to the Sky and Solar System
Remy Indebebetouw
Study Guide
astronomy, final, Science, planets, EARTH, telescopes, climate, temperature
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Raleigh Zook on Friday May 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ASTR 1210 at University of Virginia taught by Remy Indebebetouw in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Introduction to the Sky and Solar System in Astronomy at University of Virginia.


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Date Created: 05/06/16
Astronomy Final Review Losses of Atmospheric Gases • Thermally • Chemically (reactions) • Solar wind • Condensation How Atmospheric Gases are Gained • Surface ejection—micrometeorites, high-energy solar photons, and/or solar wind may knock off particles (atoms or molecules) • Evaporation and Sublimation --Effect of outgassing • Outgassing --Volcanic   Causes for Long-Term Climate Change • Changes in: axis tilt, greenhouse gas amounts, and axis tilts • Solar brightening—Brighter with time (Grown 30%) means more solar energy to planets Layers of Earth’s Atmosphere (Atmospheric Structure) • Exosphere: highest region which goes into space • Thermosphere: temperature rises at this high altitude again • Stratosphere: Temperature rises, but then higher up it begins to fall again • Troposphere: Lowest layer where the temperature falls relative to altitude   Comet • Small objects composed of ices and rocks which orbit the Sun • Have tails (visible in inner solar system when we can visibly see it) • Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud Asteroid Belt • Between Mars and Jupiter’s orbits where most asteroids are located Kuiper Belt • Donut-shaped filled with comets orbiting Sun in the same direction as other planets • Has over 100,000 icy objects, which includes Pluto Oort Cloud • Further from the Sun than the Kuiper Belt • Comets (Trillions) randomly orbit the Sun in this region • Spherical shaped Jovian Planets • Largest planets of outer solar system; “Gas giants” • Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune • Have a larger size and mass, but lower average density than the Terrestrial Planets • Rings; Moons • Composed of gases (not solid surfaces), such as hydrogen compounds, helium, and hydrogen Cooling of Planets • Convection: Hot material expands and rises at the same time as cooler material contracts and falls, heat is moved up • Radiation: Energy of radiation (light) is carried away—“objects emit thermal radiation” (Cosmic Perspective) • Conduction: Through contact, heat goes from a hot object to a cooler one…Microscopic collisions of atoms/molecules—Energy is transferred to slower-moving molecules (which are of cooler material) Sources of Heat to Warm Planets 1. Accretion • Kinetic energy brought in after colliding planetesimals since its gravitational energy is converted into kinetic, which makes it speed up— Adds thermal energy 2. Radioactive Decay • Subatomic particles detach and float away when radioactive material decays and collide with other atoms, which heats them, and thus adding thermal energy—Transfers mass energy 3. Differentiation • Dense material sinks while less-dense material rises, which allows for mass to lose gravitational potential energy as it is pulled downward. This ‘differentiation’ is made into thermal energy due to friction as they separate How Planets Make a Magnetic Field • Electrically conducting liquid or gas within its interior à Convection à Rapid rotation Processes Shaping Planetary Surfaces (+ Examples) 1. Erosion --Breakdown/transport of surface material via weathering of ice, liquid, gas --E.g. Grand Canyon; Yosemite glaciers; Sand dunes 2. Tectonics --Internal stressors --Compressed à Mountains --Pulled apart à Cracks and valleys --E.g. Rio Grande Valley in NM; Appalachian Mountains 3. Impact Cratering --Bowl-shaped; Circular (because the impact blasts the material in every direction) --By asteroids or comets --Give clues to geological conditions—unusual ridges (mud), eroded (rainfall) --E.g. Meteor Crater in Arizona; Tycho (on the moon) 4. Volcanism --Molten rock/magma to the surface --It is less dense than solids, so they rise when surrounded by more dense objects. Earth’s interior isn’t molten = Pressure pushes it out. Trapped gases, which begin to expand as it rises --E.g. Kilauea on Big Island of Hawaii; Mount Fuji (Japan); Mount Kilimanjaro (Tanzania) Nebular Hypothesis • Immanuel Kent and Pierre-Simon Laplace: Interstellar gas cloud gravitationally collapsed Close Encounter Hypothesis (why is this improbable) • During a near-collision with the Sun, planets were formed out of gas blobs yanked from the Sun (Gravitationally) • Improbable, because it did not include orbital motions or the differential Terrestrial and Jovian planets How does Pluto look like a terrestrial planet? Pluto resembles a terrestrial planet due to its smaller size and mass, being made of rock. It resembles a jovian planet because it has a lower average density, has many moons (5), is farther from the Sun, and is extremely cold. It does not resemble either due to it being too small to be an official planet. Describe the difference in colors of Jupiter and Saturn’s clouds. Different kinds of clouds create different colors based off the colors they reflect and absorb. Jupiter and Saturn reflect white light and so do clouds higher in the cloud layers which are full of ammonia. There are brown and red reflected clouds, but no one understands why since they are made of ammonium hydrosulfide. This is how the clouds contribute to Jupiter and Saturn's colors. Saturn, however, has clouds that are deeper within its atmosphere, so there is less light reaching where its clouds are, making its colors more subdued--"The light they reflect is more obscured by the atmosphere above them" (316, “Cosmic Perspective”) Describe the difference in blues in Uranus and Neptune’s clouds? Uranus and Neptune are blue, because of the methane gas in their atmosphere-- there is a significant amount more in these two planets than in Jupiter and Saturn. Uranus is not as dark blue as Neptune due to its haze in its atmosphere, which is due to its axis tilt and extreme seasons. Refracting Telescope • Transparent glass lens Reflecting Telescope • Uses mirror


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