Life 103-Final Exam Study Guide
Life 103-Final Exam Study Guide Life 103
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This 38 page Study Guide was uploaded by Addy Carroll on Friday May 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Life 103 at Colorado State University taught by Dr. Dale Lockwood and Dr. Tanya Dewey in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Biology of organisms-animals and plants in Biology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 05/06/16
Final Exam Study Guide I am getting these questions based off of our previous exams. I would recommend printing this out and folding it in half so it’s a notecard-like study guide. Additionally, I added all the notes since exam 3. Finally, I generated a list of what textbook figures I would recommend studying that aren’t already listed in the notes since exam 3 at the bottom. Good luck on the final! When you’re naming a species using The first letter of the genus is binomial nomenclature, what is the capitalized, and the entire species format of the name? name is italicized. Ex.) Panthera pardus (panther) When thinking about the three divisions Archaea and Eukarya are sister taxa. in the taxonomy of life (Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya), how are Archaea and Eukarya related? The two-part scientific name of a Binomial species The first part of the name of a two-part Genus scientific name The second part of the name of a two- Specific epithet part scientific name (unique for each species within the genus) When thinking about phylogenetic Sister taxa trees, what would you call groups that share an immediate common ancestor? What causes ergotism? A fungus (Claviceps purpurea) The scientific discipline that is most Ecosystem ecology interested in studying the movement of carbon and nitrogen through various biotic and abiotic sources The scientific discipline that deals with Community ecology the whole array of interacting species in a community The scientific discipline that focuses on Population ecology factors affecting how many individuals of a species live in that area The study of the interaction of an Organismal ecology organism and its environment A branch of organismal ecology; Behavioral ecology scientific discipline that deals with responses to stimulus, foraging, and group interaction A branch of organismal ecology; a Evolutionary ecology scientific discipline that deals with adaptations to the environment Mychorrhizal fungi have what kind of Mutualism relationship with their associated plant species? What is the general name for the Gametangia antheridia and archegonia? What type of information can we use to Morphological traits, behavior, reconstruct a phylogeny? chemical composition, chromosome number, DNA Dispersal Dispersal is the natural movement of individuals. It is a one-way trip, in contrast to migration, which is a round trip. Major difference between gram-positive Gram-positive bacteria generally have and gram-negative bacteria cell walls that are structurally less complex and contain more peptidoglycan. Gram-negative bacteria generally have cell walls that are structurally more complex and contain less peptidoglycan. What does the branch point on a Each branch point represents the phylogenetic tree do? divergence (split) of two species; separates sister taxa if the branch point separates only two nodes. Considering plants, animals, fungi, and Animals and fungi are sister taxa. Archaea, what is the relationship between animals and fungi? Why does misuse of antibiotics in The bacteria that gain antibiotic agriculture have negative effects? resistance in farm animals can conjugate with bacteria that infect humans, reducing the effectiveness of antibiotics to treat human diseases. What causes plastid diversity? Secondary endosymbiosis of read or green alga What causes Malaria? It is caused by a protist that requires a mosquito and a human as hosts. What is the function of bacterial Also known as attachment pili, these fimbriae? function in allowing bacteria to stick to their substrate or other individuals in a colony. How old is the earth? 4.6 billion years old A form of genetic recombination in Conjugation bacteria; the process where genetic material is transferred between bacterial cells; sex pili allow cells to connect and pull together for DNA transfer A form of genetic recombination in Transduction bacteria; the movement of genes between bacteria by bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria A form of genetic recombination in Transformation bacteria; the process of a bacterial cell taking up and incorporating foreign DNA from the surrounding environment What is the function of the holdfast in Anchorage algae? What is the fruiting body of a cellular Individual amoeba cells that are not slime mold composed of? necessarily genetically related. The alternation of multicellular haploid Alternation of Generations and diploid forms A name for a member of the phylum Monilophyte Monilophyta, which includes ferns, horsetails, and whisk ferns and their relatives. Five major groups of Fungi Chytrids, Zygomycetes, Glomeromycetes, Ascomycetes, Basidomycetes What are the five subgroups of Alpha Proteobacteria, Beta Proteobacteria? Proteobacteria, Gamma Proteobacteria, Delta Proteobacteria, Epsilon Proteobacteria What are the four supergroups of Excavata, “SAR Clade,” Eukaryotes? Archaeplastida, Unikonta In most fungi, karyogamy does not Heterokaryotic or dikaryotic cells immediately follow plasmogamy. What does that result in? How do fungi reproduce? By asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction. Why was the move by plants from the More structure was needed to support water challenging? the plants on land Do coenocytic fungi contain septa No (separates the individual cells of the mycelium)? How to fungi obtain carbon? From organic matter Nuclear fusion Karyogamy The union of two parent mycelia Plasmogamy The multicellular haploid form that Gametophyte produces haploid gametes by mitosis. The haploid gametes unite and develop into sporophytes. The multicellular diploid form that Sporophyte results from the union of gametes. The sporophyte produces haploid spores by meiosis that develop into gametophytes. What do the cell walls of many bacteria Peptidoglycan contain? What do the cells walls of many fungi Chitin contain? How does prokaryote nutrition differ All fungi are heterotrophs, but only from fungal nutrition? some prokaryotes are Why are protists not a monophyletic Red algae are more closely related to group? plants than to slime molds and slime molds are more closely related to animals than to green algae. The male gametangium; a moist Antheridium chamber in which gametes develop The female gametangium; a moist Archegonium chamber in which gametes develop In vascular plants, what transports Xylem water and minerals? In vascular plants, what transports Phloem sugars, amino acids, and other organic metabolites? What phylum of gymnosperms has the Coniferophyta most species? What are the four phyla of Cycadophyta, Gingkophyta, gymnosperms? Gnetophyta, Coniferophyta What are the five general types of plant Parenchyma, Collenchyma, cells? Sclerenchyma, water-conducting cells of the xylem, sugar-conducting cells of the phloem Where does the material come from in Two sporophyte generations and one the seed of a gymnosperm? gametophyte generation What do pollen grains contain? The male gametophyte What is the fruit derived from? The ovary Where is the seed coat in relation to Inside both the endocarp and the fruit? mesocarp What is the result of double A diploid embryo and triploid fertilization? endosperm What are the characteristics of a One cotyledon, parallel leaf veins, monocot? scattered vascular tissue in the stem, fibrous root system, pollen grain with one opening, and floral organs in multiples of three What are the characteristics of a dicot? Two cotyledons, netlike leaf veins, vascular tissue in stem arranged in a ring, taproot system, pollen grain with three openings, and floral organs in multiples of four or five What causes fluid transport in xylem? A function of negative pressure What causes fluid transport in phloem? A function of positive pressure How does the sperm enter the ovule? Through the micropyle Where does most of our food derived Angiosperms from plants come from? Specialized structure for sexual Flower reproduction Consists of an ovary at the base and a Carpel style leading up to a stigma, where pollen is received Male part of a flower that’s a modified Stamen microsporophyll; consists of an anther and filament A mechanism of asexual reproduction Fragmentation in plants; separation of a parent plant into parts that develop into whole plants A mechanism of asexual reproduction Apomixis in plants; the asexual production of seeds from a diploid or haploid cell A form of apomixis; occurs when the Vegetative apomixis flow is replaced by a bulbil A form of apomixis; occurs when the Pollen apomixis male pollen grains give rise to seeds without any female interaction A type of root system where there’s Taproot system one main vertical root with lateral roots, or branch roots A type of root system where there are Fibrous root system thin lateral roots with no main root Type of root that can arise from stems Adventitious root or leaves; adds structural support Type of modified root that grows Strangling root around objects supporting the plant Type of modified root that rises up in Pneumatophores the air and has pores that allow gas exchange Type of modified root that supports Buttress root large trees Type of modified root that supports Climbing root climbing plants and is negatively phototropic (grows away from light) Type of modified stem that is a short, Corm underground storage stem Type of modified stem that is Rhizome horizontal, usually underground, and sends out adventitious roots Type of modified stem that is Stolon horizontal, at the ground surface or just underground, produces adventitious roots, and produces a clone at the end of the stem Type of modified stem that is Bulb underground and has modified leaves that function in storage when dormant Type of modified leaf that is used for Tendrils attaching for climbing Type of modified leaf that is associated Bract with the reproductive structure Type of modified leaf that is used for Spine defense Type of modified leaf that can store Storage leaves water, nutrients, and toxins What is the function of root hairs? Root hairs increase surface area to aid in absorption of water and minerals How can a plant cell take up sucrose A membrane potential exists such+that from the surrounding environment? sucrose is cotransported with H down a steep proton gradient A route that water and minerals can Apoplastic route travel through a plant; via the cell walls and extracellular spaces; a route that water and nutrients can take from the root hair to the cells near the Casparian strip A route that water and minerals can Symplastic route travel through a plant; via the continuum of cytosol; the route that water and nutrients must take to pass the Casparian strip and enter the xylem A route that water and minerals can Transmembrane route travel through a plant; out of one cell, across a cell wall, and into another cell When thinking about water transport in True plants, some water is moved from the xylem to the phloem for the transport of sugars. When thinking about wat+r transport in True plants, movement of K out of the guard cells closes the stoma, preventing water loss. When thinking about water transport in False plants, a key feature is the covalent bonding of water to xylem cells. When thinking about water transport in True plants, transpiration from the leaves is a key component Where does sucrose enter the phloem The source cells sap? Where does sucrose exit the phloem The sink cells sap? How does auxin produce cell Acidification of the cell wall activates elongation? expansins Both micronutrients and macronutrients True are required for plants to complete their life cycle. Nutrients are often bound to soil True particles as ions A portion of the soil is living. True Identifies how floral organ identity ABC model genes direct the formation of the four types of floral organs. What is the relationship between sieve Sieve tube cells lack organelles to tube cells and their companion cell? allow sugars to flow more easily, so the organelles of the companion cell (one companion cell for each sieve tube cell) serves both cells + How does acid rain damage plants? The increased H ions in the rainwater allow the Ca and Mg ions to leach out of the soil - What are the steps of the nitrogen Converting N t2 NH to 3O 3 cycle needed to make nitrogen available to a plant? In signal transduction, the response Phosphorylation of specific amino acids can involve post-translational modification of proteins. What is a common way this can be accomplished? What are some effects of agricultural Soil compaction, nutrient depletion, soil processes on soil? erosion, salinization, taxation of water resources Ground tissue internal to the vascular Pith tissue Ground tissue external to the vascular Cortex tissue What are some roles of rhizobacteria? Produce hormones that stimulate plant growth, produce antibiotics that protect roots from disease, absorb toxic metals, make nutrients more available to roots The air spaces in the spongy To facilitate gas exchange in the mesophyll serve what purpose? mesophyll cells Proteins that provide facilitated Aquaporins diffusion of water These are genes that control Homeotic genes development in both plants and animals and, when mutated, can produce large morphological changes What does secondary growth result in? Increasing the diameter of the stem and younger layers of xylem in rings outside older layers of xylem The cell membrane pulls away from the Plasmolysis cell wall because there’s not enough water in the cell The cell membrane is pushed against Turgid the cell wall due to the substantial amount of water in the cell What are some plant hormones? Auxin, cytokinin, abscisic acid, ethylene In a broad sense, what do all animals They are all multicellular, ingestive have in common? heterotrophs with a diploid dominant life cycle What is the hormone ethylene involved Fruit ripening, senescence, leaf in? abscission Which phylum of animals is excluded Porifera from the group Eumetazoa? Where are the majority of animal phyla Marine habitats found? Where are the most diverse animal They have colonized terrestrial habitats phyla found? The fate of the cell is not yet Indeterminate determined and each cell can become any part of the body What to Lophotrochozoa, Ecdysozoa, They are made up of animal phyla that and Deuterostomia all have in share molecular characteristics common? Where did the origin of a coelom You cannot say a true coelom evolved evolve when considering the at a specific point of the tree because phylogenetic tree? the body plans are randomly distributed What are the “Big 9” phyla? Porifera, Cnidaria, Echinodermata, Chordata, Platyhelminthes, Mollusca, Annelida, Nematoda, Arthropoda What are the members of the “Big 9” Platyhelminthes, Mollusca, Annelida, phyla that are characterized by Arthropoda, and Nematoda protostome development? What are the two evolutionary Bilateral symmetry and a mesoderm innovations found in the common (triploblastic) ancestor of Bilateria? The process of molting an outer cuticle Ecdysis as the animal grows; a common morphological character that unites Ecdysozoa What is the main difference between The first opening in protostomes is the protostomes and deuterostomes? mouth, while the first opening in deuterostomes is the anus The most divers (largest number of Ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) species) of chordates are found in which group? What anatomical characteristic of Gas exchange through diffusion of arthropods limits their potential size? oxygen in tracheoles What are the four characteristics of all Notochord, dorsal hollow nerve cord, chordates at some point during their life pharyngeal gill slits, post anal tail cycle? In chordates, what do some of the The jaw bones and inner ears of pharyngeal gill slits give rise to? mammals What is the most significant result of Tetrapods were no longer tied to the the evolution of the amniotic egg? water for reproduction What are the defining characteristics of Hair, three inner ear bones, a single mammals? lower jaw bone, and mammary glands All mammals provide mile to their Female mammals are obligated to young. What does this mean? invest heavily in their young, compared to most other amniotes How do large or complex animals solve They have large internal surface areas the problem of exchanging gases, specialized for exchange nutrients, and wastes with their environment? What is the main difference between Their pattern of parental investment in the three main groups of mammals offspring (monotremes, marsupials, and placental mammals)? How have mammals improved Specialized teeth, a secondary palate, efficiency to compensate for and endothermy metabolically expensive strategies? What is the relationship between In general, animals with higher metabolic rate and lifespan? metabolic rates live shorter lives The exchange of a substance or heat Countercurrent exchange between two fluids flowing in opposite directions Why is homeostasis desirable? Biochemical reactions are temperature sensitive Referring to organisms for which Ectotherm external sources provide most of the heat for temperature regulation Referring to organisms that are Endotherm warmed by heat generated by their own metabolism; usually maintains a relatively stable body temperature higher than that of the external environment Organisms that maintain a relatively Homeotherms constant temperature Organisms that have variable Poikilotherms temperature How are hibernation and torpor similar? They are ways of conserving metabolic energy by reducing physiological activity A common site of exchange between Interstitial fluid blood and body cells Why do predators use venom? To subdue prey close to or greater than their own size Using a filtration mechanism to strain Filter feeding small organisms or food particles from the surroundings Living in or on the food source, eating Substrate feeding way through the food Sucking nutrient-rich fluids from Fluid feeding another living organism Eating relatively large pieces of food Bulk feeding with little care for all the contents The joint evolution of two interacting Coevolution species, each in response to selection imposed by the other What has a healthy microbiome been Nutrient absorption, obesity, mental found to affect? health, the incidence of autoimmune disorders How could animals that migrate great By storing chemical energy as fat distances obtain the greatest energetic benefit? Which are the only kinds of organisms Bacteria and fungi that can digest cellulose into sugars? What distinguishes animal heterotrophy Most animals derive their nutrition by from fungal heterotrophy? ingesting it Organic and inorganic molecules that Essential nutrients organisms must obtain from the diet the they cannot synthesize on their own What is the incidence of human cells in 1 out of every 9 cells is actually a the human body? human cell A mechanism of heat exchange; direct Conduction contact between solids A mechanism of heat exchange; direct Convection contact between and solid and a gas or liquid A mechanism of heat exchange; no Radiation direct contact between substances A mechanism of heat exchange; high Evaporation heat of vaporization, a special property of water Which type of blood vessel has valves Veins within them to prevent blood backflow? Carry blood away from the heart Arteries Site of exchange with tissues, including Capillaries gases, nutrients, and waste products; thin, porous walled vessels Carry blood to the heart Veins The oxygen saturation of hemoglobin is Hemoglobin has higher oxygen affinity determined by the pH of body tissues. in the lungs and low oxygen affinity in Why is this important? metabolically active tissues; hemoglobin has higher oxygen saturation in high pH environments, such as the lungs What are some adaptations to desert Nocturnality, excreting uric acid or environments for animals? especially concentrated urine, eating moist foods, complex nasal turbinals that reduce water loss when breathing, and aestivation What is the best description of the Marine fish are hypoosmotic compared osmolarity of fish compared to their to their environment and freshwater environments? fish are hyperosmotic compared to their environment What are two areas in a nephron where Descending Loop of Henle and the majority of water is removed from collecting duct the filtrate? Salts are transported out of the Salts transported out of the Ascending Ascending Loop of Henle and into the Loop of Henle helps establish the tissues of the kidney. Why is this concentration gradient that drives important in kidney function? osmosis of water in other parts of the nephron What does the first level of immune The skin, mucous membrane, defense in mammals include? lysosomes in secretion, and an acidic body pH What are the four unique Diversity of lymphocytes, self- characteristics of adaptive immunity? tolerance, cell proliferation, immunological memory What is the important difference Water soluble hormones require between lipid and water-soluble specific receptor proteins on cell hormones? surfaces A form of regulation in which Negative feedback accumulation of an end product of a process slows the process; response reduces stimulus A form of regulation in which an end Positive feedback product of a process speeds up that process; response increases stimulus How can you explain the different Target tissues may have different impacts that a single hormone can receptors for the hormone and target have in different tissues? tissues may have the same receptors but different responses (chains of chemical reactions) when the hormone binds to the receptor Why can sexual reproduction be Because offspring represent new described as a gamble or a risk? combination of genes, so some may be successful and some may not Why is monogamy more common in Male and female birds can contribute birds than mammals? equally to the survival of their offspring once the egg is laid What are the only vertebrates in which Fishes blood flows directly from respiratory organs to body tissues without first returning tot the heart? What does countercurrent exchange in Diffusion the fish gill help to maximize? What does immunological memory The ancient observation that someone account for? who had recovered from the plague could safely care for those newly diseased Why do genetic mutations in asexually Asexually reproducing organisms, but reproducing organisms lead to more not sexually reproducing organisms, evolutionary change than do genetic pass all mutations on to their offspring mutations in sexually reproducing ones? What does the middle ear do? Converts air pressure waves to fluid pressure waves What is the only type of chemical signal Pheromones that does not alter the physiology of the animal producing that signal? Which part of the immune system is Immunological memory responsible for a faster and more intense immune response when an individual is exposed to an antigen a second time? What does the theory of kin selection Genes enhance survival of copies of maintain? themselves by directing organisms to assist others who share those genes What does the principle of re-wilding Cores, carnivores, and corridors include? What must all animals do? Obtain nutrients and oxygen, excrete wastes, and move What is the relationship between Al volume increases, surface area to surface area to volume? volume ratio decreases What are the three components of a Circulatory fluid, a system of vessels, circulatory system? and a pump (heart) A component of the circulatory system; Circulatory fluid carries nutrients and (possible) oxygen and wastes A component of the circulatory system; A system of vessels transports fluid A component of the circulatory system; A pump (heart) uses metabolic energy to generate pressure to move fluids The system of vessels is open/not Open circulatory system continuous The system of vessels is Closed circulatory system closed/continuous Has a single pump with a single atrium Single circulatory system and single ventricle Has either two atria and a single Double circulatory system ventricle (frogs and most reptiles) or two atria and two ventricles (in mammals and birds) Responsible for collecting the fluid the Lymph body lost to the tissues and bringing it back to the core of the body and eventually the heart Responsible for getting oxygen into the Respiratory exchange surfaces body and removing carbon dioxide from it Respiration across the skin Cutaneous respiration How do O a2d CO move2across Diffusion membranes (respiratory surfaces)? A type of ventilation in which there is Non-directional ventilation no movement of the respiratory medium, so the blood flow across the organism’s exchange surface is responsible for pulling oxygen from the medium A type of ventilation in which the Unidirectional ventilation medium moves in the same, one direction through the organism A type of ventilation is which the Tidal ventilation medium moves in, and then back out Isosmotic with their environment, but Osmoconformers differ in the specific solutes in their tissues Expend energy to control water uptake Osmoregulators or loss in a hyperosmotic or hypoosmotic environment Specialized cells for moving particular Transport epithelia solutes in a direction (into or out of the body) A type of nitrogenous waste; toxic, Ammonia excreted in large quantities of water, used by only animals with access to large quantities of water, requires little energy to generate, release across body surface or gills A type of nitrogenous waste; limited Urea water, low toxicity, requires energy to generate, transported to bladder for concentration A type of nitrogenous waste; limited Uric acid water, low toxicity, not very soluble in water, excreted as a semi-solid paste, requires more energy to create The process of expelling fluid waste Excretion products from the body In excretory systems, the extraction of Filtration water and small solutes, including metabolic wastes, from the body fluid In excretory systems, the recovery of Reabsorption solutes and water from the filtrate The active transport of wastes and Secretion certain other solutes from the body fluid into the filtrate in an excretory system In the vertebrate kidney, the portion of Distal tubule a nephron that helps refine filtrate and empties it into a collecting duct; regulates potassium and sodium chloride concentration in body fluids via secretion and reabsorption The location in the kidney where Collecting duct processed filtrate, called urine, is collected from the renal tubule The hairpin turn, with a descending and Loop of Henle ascending limb, between the proximal and distal tubules of the vertebrate kidney; functions in water and salt reabsorption The process of generating an immune Immunization response in an individual in order to protect against disease Exposure to a disease agent in order to Inoculation prompt a reduced infection and then immunity from the disease Exposure to modified disease agents Vaccination (dead or altered) to induce an immune reaction that confers immunity to a disease When the largest proportion of a Herd immunity community is immune (cannot get or carry the disease), then it reduces the probability that people who are not immune will contract the disease Functions in preventing the entry of Immune system pathogens, detecting the entry of pathogens, and eliminate pathogens A form of defense common to all Innate immunity animals that is active immediately upon exposure to a pathogen and that is the same whether or not the pathogen has been encountered previously A vertebrate-specific defense that is Adaptive immunity mediated by B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes and that exhibits specificity, memory, and self-nonself recognition A toxin or other foreign substance that Antigen induces an immune response in the body, activating B or T cells Communicating and coordinating Chemical signaling among tissues What are the five modes of chemical Endocrine, paracrine, autocrine, signaling synaptic signaling, neuroendocrine signaling The internal system of communication Endocrine system involving hormones, the ductless glands that secrete hormones, and the molecular receptors on or in target cells that respond to hormones A chemical secreted into the Hormones bloodstream that travels to have an impact on specific target cells The transmission of molecular signals Signal transduction from a cell’s exterior to its interior The strengthening of stimulus energy Amplification during transduction Chemicals secreted in body fluids to Pheromones influence the behavior of other individuals What is responsible for the Thy hypothalamus coordination of nervous and endocrine systems? The production of offspring by asexual Reproduction or sexual processes The generation of offspring from a Asexual reproduction single parent that occurs without the fusion of gametes; in most cases, the offspring are genetically identical to the parent A type of asexual reproduction in which Binary fission the parent cell divides into two A type of asexual reproduction in which Fragmentation a new organism grows from part of the parent A type of asexual reproduction in which Budding new individuals form from outgrowths of mature organisms A type of asexual reproduction where Parthogenesis there is formation of a new individual from an unfertilized egg Fusion of gametes to form a new Sexual reproduction individual; offspring have unique combinations of genes inherited from both parents What are four of the challenges of Generating gametes, finding a mate, producing offspring? fertilization (internal vs. external), support during development The passing of genes from one Reproductive success generation to the next or the number of offspring of an individual that survive and reproduce Sensory receptor detects a stimulus Reception Converts the energy from a stimulus to Transduction a membrane potential The stimulus travels as nerve impulses Transmission The brain interprets the transmission Perception What are the five types of sensory Mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors, receptors? electromagnetic receptors, thermoreceptors, pain receptors Respond to mechanical energy such as Mechanoreceptors pressure, touch, stretch, motion, and sound Respond to chemical stimuli (smell or Chemoreceptors taste) Detect electromagnetic energy such as Electromagnetic receptors visible light, electricity, and magnetism Detect heat or cold and help regulate Thermoreceptors body temperature by signaling surface and body core temperature A class of naked dendrites in the Pain receptors (nociceptors) epidermis Actions of organisms or systems in Behavior response to stimuli An innate behavior that is initiated by a Fixed action patterns set stimulus and must run to completion once started Daily, seasonal, or yearly changes in Circadian and circannual rhythms behavior, physiology, etc., typically influenced by light/dark cycles or lunar cycles (tides) Behaviors that are modified by Learned behaviors experience A long-lasting behavior that is Imprinting established during a sensitive period early in development Remembering the spatial structure of Spatial learning and cognitive maps an environment and the objects in it Learning to make associations Associative learning between experiences A type of associative learning; learning Classical conditioning to associate an arbitrary stimulus with an outcome A type of associative learning; learning Operant conditioning to associate a behavior with a reward Forming a body of knowledge through Cognition and Problem Solving awareness, reasoning, recollection, and judgment Learning through observation of others, Social learning typically social group members Behaviors that are apparently selfless Altruism Selfless behavior between individuals Reciprocal altruism that are not related What are three benefits of biodiversity? Sources of food, medicine, and innovations, economic services, ecosystem services Within any species, there is significant Genetic diversity variation in its underlying genetics and this diversity is distributed differently across the distribution of the species The number and relative abundance of Species diversity species in a biological community Diversity of species and functions Ecosystem diversity across landscapes What are four threats to biodiversity? Overharvesting, habitat destruction, invasive species, climate change What are three ways to protect Keystone species, umbrella species, biodiversity? re-wilding • Additional figures to study -Textbook figures 26.5, 26.10, 27.3, 27.11, 27.13, 31.3, 31.5, 30.8, 30.16, 35.4, 35.5, 35.7, 35.10, 35.35, 36.7, 36.8, 36.10, 36.11, 37.10, 32.11, 34.2, 40.20, 40.12, 40.13 Circulation • All animals must obtain nutrients and oxygen, excrete wastes, and move • Animals live in nearly every conceivable kind of environment (temperature, pressure, salinity, oxygen concentrations, light levels, currents, selective pressures, etc.) -Exchange with the environment is ultimately at the cellular level- substances in solution travel across the plasma membrane of cells • Surface area to volume ratios -As volume increases, surface area to volume ratio decreases -Unicellular and cells in simple, multicellular organisms can exchange directly with the environment -Cells of larger, complex organisms cannot exchange directly with the environment ~It’s less efficient to directly exchange between the body and the environment across the surface, in this case ~So other surface areas are created for exchange- internal/protected huge surface areas • 3 components of a circulatory system -Circulatory fluid: carries nutrients and (possibly) oxygen and wastes -A system of vessels: for fluid transport -A pump (heart): uses metabolic energy to generate pressure to move fluids • Closed vs. Open Circulatory Systems -Open circulatory systems: the system of vessels is open/not continuous; Hemolymph is the fluid that all cells are in contact with for exchange; pressure changes and body movements and valves move fluid back into the heart (see textbook figure 42.3a) ~Found in arthropods, many molluscs, many phyla -Closed circulatory systems: the system of vessels is closed/continuous; the circulatory fluid is blood and is distinct from interstitial fluids; heart(s) pump blood through vessels, exchange is between blood and interstitial fluids and interstitial fluids and cells (see textbook figure 42.3b) -Closed circulatory systems are more metabolically costly; higher pressure means more effective delivery of oxygen to tissues ~Animals that require more energy usually have closed circulatory systems -Open circulatory systems are metabolically cheaper and have lower pressure ~Animals that require less energy usually have open circulatory systems • Closed Circulatory Systems -Arteries: carry blood away from the heart -Capillaries: capillary beds infiltrate tissues with thin, porous walled vessels; this is the site of exchange with tissues, including gases (2 and CO ) and chemicals (nutrients and waste products) 2 -Veins: carry blood to the heart • Single Circulatory System (see textbook figure 42.4a) -Found in ray-finned fishes and sharks and rays -Single pump ~Single atrium: receives blood into the heart ~Single ventricle: pumps blood out of the heart -Oxygenation of blood in the gills • Double Circulatory System -In frogs and most reptiles (see textbook figure 42.4b) ~Two atria: receives blood into the heart ~Single ventricle: pumps blood out of the hears -Because there’s only one ventricle with two atria, there’s often mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood, which results in a loss of efficiency ~Still a single heart=pump ~Oxygenation of blood in pulmocutaneous circuit (lungs and skin/gills) -In mammals and birds-need more efficient systems because they have higher metabolic rates (see textbook figure 42.4c) ~Two atria: receive blood into the heart ~Two ventricles: push blood out of the heart ~Oxygenation of blood in the lungs (pulmonary circuit) • Oxygenation -Blood carries oxygen via special reversible, oxygen-binding molecules (proteins) ~Needs to be reversible because it would do no good if the oxygen just stayed bonded to the protein and never was released to the tissues -Hemoglobin (vertebrates)-iron, incorporated into red blood cells ~Picks up 4 O m2lecules in high O , h2gh pH environments ~Releases O in2deoxygenated, low pH tissues via diffusion ~As the O 2oncentration on the hemoglobin increases, the saturation of the molecule increases -This relationship eventually hits a plateau because hemoglobin can only carry 4 O mo2ecules, so at that point it’s completely saturated -Hemocyanin (crustaceans, some molluscs)-copper, suspended in blood • O2and CO in 2he circulatory system -Hemoglobin has higher saturation in areas with lower CO and lower 2 saturation in areas with higher CO 2 ~Hemoglobin loses affinity for oxygen in high CO env2ronments, so that’s why it can release the O 2olecules ~The capillaries have higher CO , so that’s why that’s the site of 2 exchange of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood, when the O 2 goes to the rest of the body • Fluid flow through the circulatory system -The heart generates force -The atria collect blood from the lungs and the body -The ventricles force blood into the circuits -The arteries have a thick layer of smooth muscle and connective tissue to accommodate the pressure generated in the heart; they get smaller and smaller the farther away the are from the heart -The capillaries are very thin-walled in order to promote diffusion; smaller than arteries and veins -The veins have to bring the blood back to the heart without accumulating much pressure; this is accomplished by the valves which prevent pressure from building up too much; get bigger as they get closer to the heart (see textbook figure 42.9) -As the blood vessels have smaller volume the farther away they get from the heart, the surface area increases ~In other words, the surface area is the greatest at the capillaries and lowest closer to the heart at the arteries and veins -Velocity is greatest just after leaving the heart through the arteries, is the lowest at the capillaries, and then regains some velocity on the way back to the heart through the veins -Blood pressure is the highest just after leaving the heart through the arteries and continues to decrease throughout the rest of the circuit and is never regained (see textbook figure 42.10) -Opposing forces: blood pressure and osmotic pressure (see textbook figure 42.14) ~Osmotic pressure is exerted at the capillaries, while blood pressure is exerted out of the capillaries ~Osmotic pressure stays the same throughout the capillaries, but blood pressure starts off much higher than osmotic pressure and proceeds to decrease throughout -Therefore, there is a net loss of fluid from capillary beds -Lymph: responsible for collecting the fluid the body lost to the tissues and bring it back to the core of the body and eventually the heart Gas Exchange • Respiratory exchange surfaces- responsible for getting oxygen into the body and removing carbon dioxide from it; must be moist because gases cannot cross membranes except in aqueous solutions -Aquatic animals-moist membranes are not a challenge because they are already in water anyway; respiration done by gills (and other mechanisms) -Cutaneous respiration- respiration across the skin -Terrestrial animals-moist membranes are a challenge; respiration done through exchange across moist skin and the use of lungs (internal to the organisms; also have moist exchange surfaces); most diverse groups use internal exchange surfaces (lungs or tracheal system); some terrestrial animals have gills • Respiratory media (medium can be either air or water) -Gas exchange is the uptake of O fr2m the environment and discharge of CO 2 -Partial pressure: the pressure exerted by a particular gas in a mix of gases; O 2s less soluble in water, so the concentration of O i2 water is lower at the same partial pressure -Terrestrial breathing doesn’t have to be terribly efficient because the respiratory medium is not dense or viscous -Aquatic animals have to extract O 2ery efficiently because the respiratory medium is dense and viscous • Rate of Diffusion -Movement of O a2d CO acro2s membranes (respiratory surfaces) is by diffusion -Rates of diffusion increase with increasing surface area, decreasing distance, and increasing concentration gradient • Gas exchange and ventilation mechanisms -Movement of the respiratory medium across the respiratory surface is ventilation -Non-directional ventilation ~No movement of the respiratory medium ~Efficiency of exchange influenced by concentration of gases in the medium-a boundary layer can develop ~The blood flow across the organism’s exchange surface pulls oxygen from the medium -Unidirectional ventilation ~The medium moves in the same, one direction through the organism ~Example: in sharks, the water comes through the mouth, then out through the gills (diffusion of 2 and CO 2n water into blood) ~Gills: countercurrent exchange system (always refers to things flowing in opposite directions) (see textbook figure 42.22) -80% of O in water removed 2 -Tidal ventilation ~Example: in humans, air moves in, air moves out ~Lungs: diffusion of O 2nd CO in 2ir into blood ~Not very efficient in oxygen diffusion; the air coming in mixes with the deoxygenated air that was already there -Unidirectional ventilation in bird lungs (see textbook figure 42.26) ~Flying is very metabolically expensive, so they’ve developed unidirectional ventilation in order to increase efficiency of oxygen diffusion in lungs; this is possible because there is no mixing of air, like in tidal ventilation, and there are two cycles of inhalation and exhalation -Elephant seals- extraordinary adaptations for gas exchange in diving ~Spend 10 months foraging in deep ocean water and 2 months fasting on land, where they lose 1/3 of their body weight ~Blubber to retain heat and neutral buoyancy-efficient in cold water ~Extreme sexual dimorphism ~Dive up to 2 hours at a time at depths up to a mile (only sperm whales go deeper) ~Ventilate at surface for just a few minutes between dives ~Allow lungs to collapse to avoid decompression illness ~Store oxygen in massive blood volume and myoglobin in muscles Osmoregulation • Review diffusion and osmosis -Diffusion: the net movement of a substance from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration; the movement of a substance down a concentration gradient ~Occurs with or without a membrane, however in most biological process, a membrane is involved -Example: O ,2CO , 2nd H O 2iffuse readily across plasma membranes -Osmosis: spontaneous (no energy required) net movement of solvent molecules through a semi-permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration, in the direction that tends to equalize the solute concentrations on the two sides (see textbook figure 44.2) ~Requires a semi-permeable membrane ~In biological systems, the solvent is typically water -Movement of O a2d CO acr2ss membranes is by diffusion -Rates of diffusion increase with increasing surface area, decreasing distance, and increasing concentration gradient -Hypertonic: having a higher osmotic pressure as compared to a fluid -Isotonic: having the same osmotic pressure compared to a fluid -Hypotonic: having lower osmotic pressure as compared to a fluid -Hyperosmotic: having a higher solute concentration that another solution -Isosmotic: having the same solute concentration as another solution -Hypoosmotic: having a lower solute concentration than another solution -Tonicity is all relative • Osmoconformers vs. Osmoregulators -Osmoconformers: marine invertebrates and some vertebrates; isosmotic with their environment (same solute concentration), but differ in the specific solutes in their tissues (ionoregulators) -Osmoregulators: everything that isn’t an osmoconformer; expend energy to control water uptake or loss in a hyperosmotic or hypoosmotic environment • Marine, freshwater, and terrestrial osmoregulation -Osmoregulation in fish: challenge depends on the osmolarity of the environment (see textbook figure 44.4) ~Marine fish are hypoosmotic to marine water and they must expend energy to avoid water loss ~Freshwater fish are hyperosmotic to freshwater and they must expend energy to lost water and avoid solute loss -Terrestrial animals: challenge is desiccation ~Have body coverings to specifically prevent water loss ~Use physiological and behavioral mechanisms to avoid water loss -Example: Nocturnality; it’s cooler at night, causing less heat stress, thereby decreasing water loss ~Gain water through cellular respiration ~Water gain -Ingestion of water present in food -Drinking free water -Metabolic production (cellular respiration) ~Water loss -Gas exchange: lose water through moist epithelia; exhalation and water loss across skin -Urination and defecation: losing nitrogenous wastes -Camels ~Minimize water loss from moist epithelia (nasal turbinals, etc.) -Turbinals: During inhalation, the air is warmed when passed by warm tissue, the warm air picks up moisture from turbinates, and the tissue is cooled as heat is transferred; during exhalation, the air is cooled as it passed cool tissue and water is lost to turbinates ~Fat storage: metabolism of fat produces more water than metabolism of proteins or sugars ~Rapidly re-hydrate (can drink 200 liters of water in minutes) ~Withstand dehydration (oval red blood cells) ~Highly concentrated urine and feces -Elephant seals-osmoregulatory challenges ~Marine mammals-little to no access to freshwater ~Spend months fasting; females lactate during this time -Water in-fat metabolism -Water out-lactation, gas exchange, defecation and urination • Transport epithelia-counter current exchanges -To control solute content in interstitial fluids, animals expend energy to remove solutes -Transport epithelia are specialized cells for moving particular solutes in a direction (into or out of the body) -Salt glands help marine animals remove excess salts when they drink salt water • Nitrogenous wastes -Ammonia: toxic; excreted in large quantities of water; used by only animals with access to large quantities of water (freshwater species); requires little energy to generate; release across body surface or gills -Urea: limited water, so transform ammonia into urea, which has low toxicity; requires energy to generate; transported to bladder for concentration -Uric acid: limited water, transform ammonia into uric acid; low toxicity; not very soluble in water; excreted as a semi-solid paste; requires more energy to create -Waste products depends on phylogeny and habitat (availability of water) (see textbook figure 44.7) Excretion • Excretion: the process of expelling waste products • Nitrogenous wastes -Metabolism of amino acids results in nitrogenous wastes -Amino acids are amine (NH ) +2carboxylic acid group (COOH) + side chain (R) -Enzymes remove amino groups as ammonia (NH ) 3 -Ammonia is very toxic -Animals expend energy to convert ammonia to a less toxic compound: urea or uric acid -Urea-CO group added to amines -Uric acid-very metabolically expensive to produce; end product of purine metabolism in mammals • Excretory process (see textbook figure 44.8) -Filtration: body fluid (blood, hemolymph, or other body fluids) comes into contact with the selectively permeable membrane of a transport epithelium; hydrostatic pressure (blood pressure in mammals) drives filtration; water and small solutes (salts, sugars, amino acids, nitrogenous wastes) cross the membrane, becoming the filtrate -Reabsorption: valuable molecules actively transported back into boy fluids -Secretion: additional wastes actively transported into waste fluid -Excretion: fluid wastes removed from the body • Mammalian kidney (see textbook figure 44.12, 44.13, 44.14) -Kidneys are paired organs in vertebrates responsible for filtering wastes from blood and removing them from the body -Set of tubes (tubules) that create a large surface area for exchange of water and solutes via transport epithelia -Supplied with blood by the renal artery -Blood leaves via the renal vein -Most blood in the kidney is filtered and then reabsorbed into blood fluid -Remaining fluid leaves as urine -Filtration in glomerulus, collected in Bowman’s capsule -Reabsorption in proximal tube -Secretion in distal tubule -Excretion through duct to bladder -Tubules are arranged into nephrons, where filtration, reabsorption, and secretion occur -Capillaries of glomerulus are very porous -Filtrates collected in Bowman’s capsule contain salts, glucose, amino acids, vitamins, nitrogenous wastes, etc. at same concentrations as in blood -Proximal tubule-salts, sugars, amino acids, and ions are actively transported out of filtrate; water follows by osmosis -Other waste products actively transported into the proximal tube -Loop of Henle-descending limb -Numerous water channels make the epithelium permeable to water -Little permeability to salts and other solutes -Interstitial fluids are hyperosmotic to filtrate, so water flows through osmosis out of the filtrate -Loop of Henle-ascending limb -Transport epithelium is impermeable to water -NaCl moves out of filtrate into interstitial fluids of medulla, which maintains the concentration of solutes in the medulla -Filtrate becomes more dilute as it ascends -Distal tubule-regulates potassium (K ) and sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration in body fluids via secretion and reabsorption -Collecting duct-water flows by osmosis out of filtrate in the collecting duct as it travels back through the medulla of the kidney -Cortical nephrons-reach only a short distance into the medulla -Juxamedullary nephrons-extend deep into the medulla and are critical for concentrating urine -An important adaptation to living in terrestrial habitats -Energy is required to transport solutes against concentration gradients -The kidneys work very hard; gallons of blood flow through them every day and 99% reabsorption occurs • Loop of Henle: a countercurrent multiplier system -Maintains a concentration gradient along the loop of Henle -Fluids run counter to each other along an osmotic gradient (concentration gradient) -Involves active transport of materials rather than only passive diffusion of heat or gases along a concentration gradient • Variation in kidneys -Reptiles, including birds, do not produce very concentrated urine because loops of Henle do not extend as far into the medulla -Freshwater fish and amphibians produce dilute urine in large quantities; frogs reabsorb fluids from bladder -Marine ray-finned fish drin+ larg+ quantities of sea water; kidneys mainly transport divalent ions (Ca , Mg , etc.), gills transport monovalent ions (Na , Cl ); drink large quantities of sea water The Immune System • Immunization: the process of generating an immune response in an individual in order to protect against disease • Inoculation: exposure to a disease agent in order to prompt a reduced infection and then immunity from the disease • Vaccination: exposure to modified disease agents (dead or altered) to induce an immune reaction that confers immunity to a disease • Herd immunity -When the largest proportion of a community is immune (cannot get or carry the disease), then it reduced the probability that people who are not immune will contract the disease • Immune system (see textbook figure 43.2) -Prevent entry of pathogens -Detect entry of pathogens (distinguish non-self) -Eliminate pathogens -Innate Immune System: first responders (found in all animals) -Adaptive Immune System: requires activation (found in all vertebrates) • Innate Immunity -Barrier Defenses ~Prevent things from entering -Skin -Mucous membranes trap pathogens in mucous -Secretions bathe surfaces; contain lysozymes that destroy cell walls of some bacteria -Acidic body pH kills many pathogens -Cellular Innate Defenses ~Detect invader and alert first responders via TLR receptors (see textbook figure 43.6) ~TLR receptors bind alien molecules not found in animals (viruses, bacteria, fungi)=reliable signals of invasion -Double stranded RNA’s and DNA with unmethylated CG sequences -Lipopolysaccharides -Flagellin -Trigger phagocytosis (the process where a cell engulfs/ingests/eliminates another cell) (see textbook figure 43.3) ~Neutrophils: found throughout blood ~Macrophages: found throughout whole body (blood and tissues) ~Dendritic cells: in tissues that contact the environment; once activated they migrate to lymph nodes and stimulate adaptive immune system ~Natural killer cells: recognize infected or cancerous cells and trigger lysis (rupture of cell membrane) or apoptosis (cell death) ~Antimicrobial proteins: pathogen recognition triggers production of proteins that disrupt cell membranes or viral replication ~Inflammatory response: injury or infection prompts a systemic response that involves signaling molecules (see textbook figure 43.8) -Most cells release histamine (signaling molecule) -Histamine causes dilation and increased permeability of blood vessel; fluid in tissues, swelling -Cytokines released by specialized cells promote blood flow; redness and heat -Pus: phagocytic cells and debris • Adaptive Immunity (see textbook figure 43.20) -Recognition of specific pathogens -Specific response to those pathogens -Lymphocytes ~B cells ~T cells -Antigen: a toxin or other foreign substance that induces an immune response in the body, activating B or T cells (lymphocytes) -B cell antigen recognition (see textbook figure 43.9, 43.10) ~B cells detect intact antigens on cells or circulating free in the body via specific antigen binding sites ~Antigen specific binding with B cell receptor causes activation -Clonal proliferation of that type of B cell (clonal selection) -Proliferation of plasma cells that secrete antibodies specific to that antigen -Memory B cells -T cell antigen recognition (see textbook figure 43.11, 43.12) ~T cells recognize antigens displayed on MHC molecules on host cell surfaces (dendritic cells) via specific antigen binding sites ~Activation causes -Proliferation of that T
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