ANTH 021Final Exam Study Guide
ANTH 021Final Exam Study Guide Anthro
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Anthropology 21: Introduction to Cultural Anthropology
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Katherine Reid on Friday May 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Anthro at University of Vermont taught by Dr. Teresa Mares in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Cultural Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Vermont.
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Date Created: 05/06/16
ANTH 021: CulturalAnthropology Study Guide Syllabus Dates: March 22nd throughApril 28th Week Nine: TheAnthropology of Science, Technology, and Medicine Reading L&S Chapter 11 - Review all key terms and concepts • Technology: material objects shaped by humans in order to increase their ability to act on the world and reshape it for their own purposes • Health: state of physical, emotional, and mental well-being, shaped by people’s cultural, social, and political experiences of expectations • Biomedicine: the study of normal human functioning, the impairment of this functioning, and scientifically developed therapies to manage impairment • Disease: the actual biophysical effect/pathology of a sickness on the body • Suffering: forms of physical, mental, or emotional distress experienced by individuals who may or may not subscribe to biomedical understandings/categories of disease (how people understand their own suffering in relation to their own stress) • Sickness: classifications of physical, mental, and emotional distress recognized by members of a particular cultural community • Culture-Bound Syndromes: Sicknesses (and therapies for these sicknesses) unique to a particular cultural group • Illness: a suffering person’s own understanding of his or her distress • Epidemic: disease that spread quickly in a short period of time • Endemic: diseases that are always present in the population • Critical MedicalAnthropology: studies the ways in which many forms of physical, metal, and emotional suffering correlate with forms of socioeconomic and political inequality • Structural Violence (Paul Farmer): the outcome of the way that political and economic processes structure risk differently for different subgroups within a population, such that some groups are more vulnerable t infectious disease or domestic violence than are other groups. • Ethnomedicine: study of cross-cultural heath systems • Health System: Systems of perceptions about the body, classifications of health problems, prevention/healing measures - Understand what Science and Technology Studies entails and how medical anthropology fits in • Science and technology studies investigate how technologies stabilize new forms of human sociocultural arrangements, but also how those technologies must be supported by other technologies in order to be successfully adopted and maintained. • Medical anthropology fits in to STS because it applies insights and practices of various subfields of anthropology in order to understand and find solutions to health challenges within communities. - Know Three TheoreticalApproaches in MedicalAnthropology • Ecological/EpidemiologicalApproach: understanding how the likelihood of survival is a product of the environment • InterpretivistApproach: the study of the meanings assigned to health and wellness • Critical MedicalAnthropology: study of the power relationships (thus, “critical”) within field of health and wellness - Know what a Health System Includes • Perceptions about the body • classifications of health problems • prevention methods • healing measures - Understand Disease vs. Illness • Disease is the physical pathology/ effect that an illness, virus, etc. has on the body itself. • Illness is how people understand their own suffering and relate to their own stress (more culturally/socially aware) - Culture bound-specific syndromes • Health problems with a set of symptoms associated with a particular culture, social factors are usually underlying cause - Structural suffering and violence • Health problems/violence caused by the specific social, cultural, political, economic, etc. position within hierarchy that an individual of a specific group is assigned to. Holmes Chapter 1 - Review Reading Questions Week Ten: EconomicAnthropology Guiding Questions: - How do cultural anthropologists study economic systems? • Economic System: Three components - Livelihood/Subsistence Strategies: providing for basic and other need by procuring good or making money - Consumption: the use of good or money - Exchange: transfer of goods or money between people/institutions - What are the different subsistence strategies still existence? • Foraging: using food available in nature, requires huge bank of environmental knowledge, maintains balance between resources and lifestyle, generally egalitarian division of labor • Pastoralism: Reliance on products of domesticated animals, movement of animals required for sustainability, wealth=animals, families are basic unit of production, clear division of labor between men, women, and children • ExtensiveAgriculture (Horticulture): Growing crops for sustainability, crop yields support denser populations, allows permanent settlement, shifting cultivation, family is the core work group • IntensiveAgriculture: large-scale intensive production, more labor, fertilizers, water, animals, supports high population density, permanent settlements - How are the strategies changing? • More and more societies are moving toward industrial, intensive agriculture, which poses huge environmental problems- intensive agriculture requires a huge amount of resources, most of which are non-renewable, and uses up land and resources quicker than they can be replenished. Population continues to grow, causing more need for food and in turn more production. This is unsustainable. Reading L&S Chapter 7 - Review all key terms and concepts • Subsistence strategies: how groups of people make their living within a society • Domestication: regular human interference with the reproduction of other species in ways that make them beneficial to ourselves. • Surplus: product of intensive agriculture, excess yield in order to survive from harvest to harvest and have extra for seed for the following year’s crop • Capitalism: Western economic system developed byAdam Smith that maximizes the individual’s self-interest within an economy, usually at the expense of others- develops huge social/economic/political hierarchy • Economy: the system of exchange of goods and money, “buying cheap and selling dear in order to maximize one’s individual utility (or satisfaction)” (self-interest) - Know 3 components of economic systems • See above “Economic System” definition - Know the main Subsistence Strategies and identify key differences and how work is organized: Foraging, Pastoralism, Horticulture/ExtensiveAgriculture, Intensive/Industrial Agriculture, Industrialism • See above “Subsistence Strategies definition” • See above guiding question 2 - Understand Food Taboos are and how cultural materialists v. symbolic anthropologists understand them • Food Taboo: cultural rules (codified or not) about what foods should and should not be consumed • The way that a cultural materialist would examine food taboos is looking at the origin of existing taboos as deriving from a practical need/ belief toward a certain type of food. Example: Pork is not allowed in the kosher diet because where this cultural system developed, the climate is desert and usually extremely sunny. Pigs sunburn easily in hot sun and actually can be cooked alive. Therefore, it would have been impractical to have this livestock in this area, which is why such a food taboo makes “practical” sense • Asymbolic anthropologist would examine the specific meanings assigned to particular foods by a certain culture. Example: pork and other meats are not considered kosher diet because unlike many other forms of livestock, pigs are omnivorous scavengers, eating essentially anything they come across, including carrion and refuse. This was considered unclean and therefore the meat of the pig was considered so. - Know Leveling Mechanism and some of the costs of consumption • Leveling Mechanism: culturally-embedded rules that work to keep people equal, maintained through social pressure and gossip • Modes of Consumption: related to means of subsistence and supply/demand relationship - Minimalism: needs and demands are fairly limited, and means of achieving needs are adequate, foraging societies - Consumerism: infinite set of needs, never completely satisfy overall needs, industrial societies • Costs of Consumption/Consumerism: - Environmental consequences - Threats to cultural diversity (assimilation) - increasing gap between rich and poor - born by larger system - Know the different Modes of exchange • Modes of Exchange: the patterns according to which distribution of goods/money takes place • Reciprocity: governs exchange in small-scale societies (foraging) • Two types: - Balanced Exchange: giving something in expectation it will be equally repaid in some form/way - Generalized: no record-keeping about exchange, both parties assume balance will be equal in long run - Balanced: exchange within set time limit with good of roughly the same value - Negative: parties repeatedly try to get something for nothing from one another - Redistribution: One person collects goods/money from many groups members and provides social return at later time, potentially unequal in a material sense - Unbalanced Exchange: one sided profit - Market exchange - Buying and selling of commodities under competitive conditions seeking profit - supply and demand determine value of goods/money - more prevalent than balanced exchange due to globalization of Western idealism (capitalism) Holmes Chapter 2 - Review Reading Questions Week Eleven: Related, Kinship, and Descent Reading L&S Chapter 8 - Review all key terms and concepts • New Reproductive Technologies: technologically mediated reproductive practices such as in vitro fertilization, surrogate parenthood, and sperm banks • Descent: culturally defined relationships based on birth and nurturance • Consanguineal Kin: people who are linked to one another by birth as blood relations • Adoption: culturally specific rituals of incorporation of an individual not related by birth/blood • Nurturance: feeding, clothing, sheltering, and otherwise attending to the physical and emotional well-being of an individual for an extended period • Bilateral/Cognatic Descent: people identifying themselves as equally related to both father’s and mother’s sides of the family • Unilineal Descent: lineage is traced through either the mother or the father’s side, not both • Patrilineal/Agnatic: lineage traced through father’s line • Matrilineal/Uterine: lineage traced through mother’s line • Lineage: people who believe they can specify the parent-child links that connect them to one another through a common ancestor • Sharing: the creation of ties between kin and fictive kin, through food sharing, religion/belief sharing (godparents), adoption/fostering, sharing of materials/goods/ time/experiences/services, holiday celebrations/experiences, etc. • Fictive Kin: forms of kinship that are based on neither birth/blood or marriage • Affinity: kinship connection through marriage - Be able to define kinship and kinship system • Relatedness: the sense of being connected/ related or unrelated/disconnected with certain people, based on categories of friendship, marriage, adoption, procreation, descent from common ancestor, etc. • Kinship: various systems of social organization that societies have constructed on principles derived from the universal human experiences of mating, birth, and nurturance • Kinship System: predominant former kin relationships in a culture and the kind of behavior involved - Understand the Formal Study of Kinship (Kinship diagrams and the Symbols of kinship relationships) - Know the Three different forms of kinship • Descent: see above vocabulary • Sharing: see above vocabulary • Marriage: see Week 12 vocabulary - Know the different ways to trace descent (Unilineal and Bilineal) and some details about each • see above vocabulary - Know some of the controversy over New Reproductive Technologies (Outsourcing Embryos Film) • New Reproductive Technologies: technologically mediated reproductive practices such as in vitro fertilization, surrogate parenthood, and sperm banks • Is international surrogacy ethical? how does tis practice reshape families and kinship relationships? - The thing with international surrogacy is that it does allow for couples from predominantly first world nations to have children of their own. It also allows for poor women to obtain a job that pays well enough for them to live. However, when poor women are confronted by contractors with contracts they cannot themselves read due to illiteracy rates and lack of education, contractors can easily take advantage of these women in order to get the most commission possible or make the most money for their company/agency, it turns into a bad and corrupt situation for the poor women. Furthermore, once companies are competing with each other for the lowest cost of surrogacy, the quality of care become worse and worse for the surrogate mothers and the level of risk become higher.And it becomes human trafficking when demand becomes higher and more and more extra babies are born and sold. Contracts are also not backed up by law or anything, and therefore the women who are bound by them have no ability to appeal them (even if they could) Holmes Chapter 3 - Review Reading Questions - Review Key Concepts (definitions and connections to book): • Corporatization ofAgriculture: fewer and fewer parties are controlling increasingly more production of our food - Genetically-modified food, mass production for “efficiency,” nonorganic fertilizers, chemicals/herbicides/antibiotics/pesticides - “Hour-glass” effect- lots of producers, lots of consumers (one either end), bottleneck at distributors and middlemen - Subsidies allow labor/production costs to be externalized (land/water contamination, fair worker compensation, etc.) - Consolidation: small-scale farms are undermined and then joined together into large-scale conglomerates • Structural Vulnerability: vulnerability of an individual is produced by his or her location in a hierarchical social order and its diverse networks of power relationships and effects - Social determinants: forces that will make an individual more likely to live or die, adds to excess death - Limited power (and options) to make decisions depending on hierarchical status • Conjugated Oppression: “complex, intimate segregation” of bodies; the likelihood of oppression of a certain individual or group depending on the intersectional social identity (ethnicity, race, class, sexuality, gender, etc.) to which they belong • Social Stratification: the societal division of people into socioeconomic categories, based upon their occupation and income, wealth and social status, derived power (social and political), etc. Week Twelve: Marriage and Family Reading L&S Chapter 9 - Review all key terms and concepts - Know prototypical definition of marriage and understand critiques of this definition • Marriage: more or less stable union, usually between two people, who may or may not be co-residential, sexually involved, and procreative with each other. • Critiques of definition: - Numbers of people involved - gender/sexual orientation of people involved - Functions of relationship- sexual intercourse, legitimacy of children, shared property, co-residence? - Know Rules of Exclusion: Incest Taboo, Cousin marriage • Rules of Exclusion: rules that govern who you cannot or should not marry/ procreate with, often codified (put into legal form), can have a biological component • Incest Taboo: forbids sexual intercourse and/or marriage between certain kin, possibly derived from interest in economic gain (marriage outside of family opens opportunity for economic/social bonds and alliances), as well as benefits in genetic diversity (congenital/genetic disease) • Cousin Marriage: although forbidden in some cultures, preferred in others in order to accumulate/maintain material wealth within the family - Know Rules of Preference: endogamy, exogamy • Preference Rules: less formalized, personal/subjective rules of attraction • Endogamy (In-Marriage): marriage within a particular religion or social category, reinforcing lines of caste, class, or religion • Exogamy (Out-Marriage): marriage outside a particular religion or social category; builds alliances - Know Where to live: neolocal, matrilocal, patrilocal • Neolocal: new partners set up household in place of their choosing; common in individualist societies • Matrilocal: new partners live with/near wife’s mother; less common, matrilineal societies- concentration of wealth is held by mother’s side • Patrilocal: new partners live with/near husband’s father; most globally common, patrilineal societies- concentration of wealth is held by father’s side - Know forms of marriage: Monogamy v. Polygamy • Monogamy: marriage between 2 people; cross-culturally most common • Polygamy: marriage between multiple spouses - Polygyny: one man & >1 women - Polyandry: one woman & >1 man - Know difference between family and household • Family: group of people who consider themselves related by kinship • Household: person/persons who may live together, but may or may not be related by kinship - Know Household forms: nuclear, polygynous, extended • Nuclear: one/two adults earning/providing for their unmarried children • Polygynous: Husband, co-wives, and their children; co-wife and half-sibling relationships • Extended: Vertically or horizontally extended through parents & children or siblings; provides economic and social support/safety net, childcare, old age care, more than one or two adults are earning (economic benefits) - Understand definition of Divorce • Divorce: socially recognized way to dissolve a marriage; complicated when involving other or exchange systems (children, individuals under care of couple or one individual of the couple, bride wealth, etc.) Holmes Chapter 4 - Review Reading Questions - Review Discussions of NAFTAand Suffering: Through David Bacon’s article “Globalization and NAFTACaused Migration From Mexico: http://www.politicalresearch.org/2014/10/11/ globalization-and-nafta-caused-migration-from-mexico/ Week Thirteen: Globalization and the Culture of Capitalism Reading L&S Chapter 10 - Review all key terms and concepts • Colonialism: political conquest of one society by another, followed by social domination and forced cultural change • Neocolonialism: persisting relationships in the absence of imperial political dominion that appear in the form of “consultancies” to the new form of government; maintains social order/influence of imperial country • Cultural Imperialism: ideas and practices of one culture are imposed upon other cultures, which may be modified or eliminated as a result • Westernization: ideas and practices of western European (or NorthAmerican) culture eventually displaced many of the ideas and practices of indigenous cultures of the colonies • Subaltern: lower-ranked groups in social hierarchy • Nationalism: distinct sense of political/social self-determination a group of people maintains as a “people” or a “nation” • Modernization Theory (Lewis Henry Morgan): unilineal theory of societal development that states that nations are units that naturally evolve through stages of economic growth at different rates (Savagery>Barbarianism>Civilization) • Neoliberalism: international institutions encourage individual nation-states to pursue their own economic self-interests in competition with each other • Diaspora: migrant populations located in a place other than that of their ancestors • Globalization: intensifying flow of capital, goods, people, images, and ideas around the world • Cultural Pluralism: a group is made up of a multiplicity of heterogeneous subgroups whose ways of thinking and living vary, whose interests may be opposed, and whose cooperation is not automatic • Cultural Hybridization: forms of cultural borrowing that produce something completely new from the fusing of elements of donor and recipient cultures • Human Rights: the natural rights to life, liberty, or property • Cultural Rights: those culturally specific rights that are seen as necessary to keep the group’s culture viable to pass on to future generations - Review Case Study of Land Grabs (From Film https://vimeo.com/140310597) • Land grabs: any large acquisition of land and it’s resources for large-scale purposes (water) • Territory and resources used to build empires • Majority of resources consumed by wealthy/privileged • economic values assigned to resources in capitalist/imperialist idealism, not the same in indigenous cultures • social, economic, and environmental problems for the people and ecosystem of affected area • inhabitants are often evicted, incomes and system of local community destroyed, usually without permission or by using loopholes in language and understanding to take advantage of the inhabitants • contamination of resources (land and water), in turn causing extreme environmental problems for species and communities in affected area (no habitat for species, land/ water/resources are controlled, contaminated, and taken away from communities) Holmes Chapter 5 - Review Reading Questions Week Fourteen: Connecting Berries and Milk, Migrant LaborAcross the Food System Reading Holmes Chapter 6 - Review Reading Questions • see Anthropology Class Notes, Class 22 - Review Key Concepts (definitions and connections to book): • Suffering: physical sickness but also mental, existential, and interpersonal anguish; embodied structural & symbolic violence/position in social hierarchy and that position’s situational hardships that manifests as physical/mental/emotional sickness/ pain/impairment - Structural Violence: Violence that manifests as social inequalities and hierarchies - Symbolic Violence: Violence that manifests in the internalization and legitimization of hierarchy • Normalization: suffering is understood as being normal to a specific group that maintains a specific social hierarchical position • Naturalization: supposed “natural characteristics” of a specific group of people are understood as those that make that group more suited to hold their place in the social hierarchy • Internalization: when those who are being socially dominated feel that they belong in “ordained social locations,” therefore internalizing and reinforcing the social hierarchy - Understand similarities and differences to experiences of migrant workers in Vermont (from film entitled “Hide”) Holmes Chapter 7-Appendix - Review Reading Questions - Review Key Concepts (definitions and connections to book): • Ethnography: comparative study of two or more ways of life; an important methodology for understanding the multi-layered meaning and vertical slices of power that make up social and cultural life, including its inequalities and justifications • Pragmatic Solidarity (Paul Farmer): encourages those who are in a position of stability to join in practical ways with the struggles of oppressed people Films and film clips - “In Sickness and in Wealth” (Episode 1 of film Unnatural Causes).Available at Bailey Howe Media Center (and streaming online) - “Outsourcing Embryos” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GED9rYPkAlQ - “Land Grabs” https://vimeo.com/140310597 - “Hide” https://vimeo.com/92736899 Overall points on Seth Holmes: Fresh Fruit Broken Bodies - Argument. What is the author arguing for and what is s/he arguing against? What methods and data does the author use to support this argument? In stating the argument, you should pull passages directly from the text and make sure to properly cite the author’s name, publication year, and page number using the following form (Green 2002: 25). - Question. What questions remain for you after reading for the text? What does the author not address? - Connection. How does this text connect to other concepts and ideas from the class? Does it reinforce or challenge what you have learned? How or why? - Significance. What are the main findings of the author’s research? How does the text help us better understand human culture or society?
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