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UO / Business / OBA 321 / What are push forces in motivation?

What are push forces in motivation?

What are push forces in motivation?


School: University of Oregon
Department: Business
Course: Managing Organizations
Term: Spring 2016
Cost: 50
Name: MGMT 321 - Studyguide
Description: Complete studyguide for next week's midterm, full of examples and important vocabulary to know! Happy studying!
Uploaded: 05/07/2016
4 Pages 54 Views 1 Unlocks

MGMT 321 ­ Exam 2 Study Guide

What are push forces in motivation?

Chapter 9: Motivation 

● Push vs. pull forces

○ Push forces ­ internal from the person

■ Ex: Needs (self­esteem), attitudes (about self, job), goals

○ Pull forces ­ external from the environment

■ Ex: Supervisor, compensation

● Extrinsic vs. intrinsic rewards

○ Extrinsic ­ the payoff a person receives from others for performing a particular task ■ Ex: Money, praise

○ Intrinsic ­ satisfaction a person receives from performing the particular task itself ■ Ex: Joy

● Content vs. process theories of motivation

○ Content theory ­ WHAT motivates employees, personal needs that workers attempt to satisfy  (needs)

■ Ex: Self­determination theory

What is the difference between extrinsic and intrinsic rewards?

○ Process theory ­ HOW motivation works, ways in which variables combine to affect the amount  of effort an employee is willing to put forth (interactions)

■ Ex: Expectancy theory 

● Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory

○ Worker’s motivation goes beyond a paycheck

○ If a lower level isn’t satisfied (ex: physio), can’t expect to satisfy a higher need (ex: safety) ● Alderfer’s ERG Theory

○ Existence, growth, relatedness

○ Can move between levels

● Self­determination theory

○ People are driven to try to grow and attain fulfillment with their behaviors and well being  influenced by 3 innate needs: We also discuss several other topics like Who both arrived at the principle of natural selection at the same time?

■ Competence ­ feeling a sense of mastery

■ Autonomy ­ feeling independent and able to influence your environment ■ Relatedness ­ feeling connected to other people

What is the meaning of intrinsic in motivation?

We also discuss several other topics like What is the dispersion force that causes them?

● Dan Pink TED talk

○ Money leads to better performance in simple/mechanical tasks

○ With more complicated tasks, more money leads to worse performance

○ How to motivate:

■ Pay people enough

■ Autonomy, mastery, purpose

■ Self­determination theory

● Expectancy Theory

○ People are motivated by 2 things:

■ How much they want something

■ How likely they are to get it

● Multiplicative model 

○ All variables must all be high for motivation to be high

● Goal setting 

○ Positive linear relation between goal difficulty and task performance

○ Learning goals ­ learning a skill, BETTER

■ Those who set learning goals: more satisfied, higher GPA

■ Ex: Learning to network

○ Performance goals ­ achieving a certain level

■ Ex: Getting an A or a certain GPA

○ Challenge goals ­ BETTER

■ Ex: I want to be in the top 50% of the class

○ Threat goals

■ Ex: I want to not be in the bottom 50% of the class Don't forget about the age old question of Which theory supports that workers are lazy and must compel to work by a controlling leader?

● Reinforcement Theory

○ Methods that cause desired behavior to be repeated

○ Positive reinforcement ­ strengthens behavior through positive consequences ○ Negative reinforcement ­ strengthens behavior by withdrawing something negative ○ Extinction ­ weakening behavior by ignoring it or not reinforcing it

○ Punishment ­ weakening behavior by presenting something negative or withdrawing something  positive

Chapter 12: Decision Making 

● Classical/Rational Model of Decision Making

○ How decisions should be made 

○ In a rational and quantifiable world 

○ Should lead to the correct decision

● Step 1: Identify Decision Strategies

○ Problems

○ Opportunities

● Step 2: Develop Objectives and Criteria

○ Specific criteria If you want to learn more check out A reversible process for a gas must be?

○ Relative weightings

● Step 3: Generate Alternatives We also discuss several other topics like What therapy has been found to be most effective for treatment of panic disorder?

○ Past solutions

○ Create new solutions

● Step 4: Analyze Alternatives

○ Minimally acceptable results

○ Feasibility

○ Best results

● Step 5: Select Alternative

● Step 6: Implement Decision

○ Sources and reasons for resistance

○ Chronology and sequence of actions We also discuss several other topics like What is the content of the servicemen’s readjustment act of 1944?

○ Required resources

○ Delegation of tasks

● Step 7: Monitor and Evaluate Results

● Assumptions of R/C Model

○ Problems are clear

○ Objectives are clear

○ Everyone agrees on criteria and their weights

○ All alternatives are known

○ All consequences can be anticipated 

○ Decision makers are rational with no biases and cognitive ability to process all relevant  information

● Bounded Rationality Model

○ Decision makers do not examine all suggested solutions before choosing one ■ Examine one at a time, stop at an acceptable solution 

■ Ex: Click through TV channels, but once you find a channel that is minimally acceptable, you  select it and move on (not necessarily the best)

○ Decision makers do not use objective criteria and weights to judge alternatives ■ Use heuristics ­ rules and strategies to simplify decision making

■ Ex: Company that has been successful with hiring Ducks in the past →  simplifies decision making process

○ Decision makers want to choose the best solution but usually settle for the first solution that is  minimally acceptable

■ Satisficing

● Assumptions of B/R Model

○ There are bounds/limits to our rationality

● Dan Ariely TED talk

○ We are irrational

■ Not random

■ Systematic/predictable

■ Power of alternatives

○ Understanding/awareness

● Cognitive biases

○ Availability bias 

■ Base judgements and decisions on the availability of information in memory ■ If something easily comes to mind, we may exaggerate the likelihood that it could occur ● Murder vs. Suicide

● Botulism vs. Lightning

● Asthma vs. Tornadoes

■ Distorts our estimates of how likely an event really is

■ Blinds us to base rates, or actual frequencies at which things occur

■ Managers may give more weight to more recent behavior

● SAS case ­ got rid of performance reviews because managers gave bonuses based on recent  behavior (more available information)

○ Representativeness bias

■ How likely is that this (person, object, event) represents that class?

■ Confuse representativeness with probability

■ Managers and hiring process 

○ Sunk cost bias 

■ Continuing to engage in a behavior due to an initial investment, even though the payoffs no  longer available

■ Loss aversion

■ Continuing with a project to justify money already spent

■ Ex: Concord plane

○ Anchoring and adjustment bias

■ Tendency to make decisions on an initial figure 

■ Anchor = initial figure 

■ Make adjustments from the anchor to arrive at a decision

■ Raises and bonuses may be based on an initial figure 

■ Ex: Group 1 ­ 8*7*6*5*4*3*2*1, Group 2 ­ 1*2*3*4*5*6*7*8

○ Overconfidence bias

■ A person’s subjective confidence in his judgements is greater than the objective accuracy of  those judgements 

● Don’t rely on a person’s level of confidence when making a decision (does not equal accuracy) ■ Independently verify statements regardless of confidence or individuals  ○ Hindsight bias

■ Tendency to view events as being more predictable than they really are ■ Easy to say in hindsight an outcome was predictable but in the moment it was not (ex: who’s  going to win a game)

○ Framing bias

■ Tendency to be influenced by the way a situation or problem is presented   ■ Broadest framing produces best decisions

■ Ex: Award custody vs. deny custody

● Award: focuses on positive attributes (ex: above average income, close relationship w/kid) ● Deny: focuses on negative attributes (ex: travels for work a lot, minor health problems) ■ Neutral framing results in best decisions

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