Organismal Biology Final Exam Review
Organismal Biology Final Exam Review Bio 1306
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GEOL 1313 - 002
Diana Hernandez Vega
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kimberly Rodriguez on Friday May 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 1306 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Science at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 05/06/16
Organismal Biology Final Exam Review *The review covers concepts tested in previous exams as well as key points Exam I 1) The Popperian view of science says that all explanations are subject to falsification and those that can’t be falsified may be true but aren’t scientific. 2) Evolution: a change that occurs in a population of organisms over time. 3) Lamark created the first theory of evolution even though it was flawed because of how it happened wasn’t convincing. 4) Lamark is associated with inheritance of acquired characteristics. 5) Darwin and Wallace both arrived at the principle of natural selection at the same time. 6) One of Darwin’s conclusions said that the variations favored by natural selection had to be inherited in some way. 7) One of Darwin’s observations said that all species of organisms show variation. 8) Darwin’s explanation for the origin of species said that new species came into existence as populations of previous species became adapted to different environments. 9) Gregor Mendel studied the basic principles of inheritance using pea plants. 10)Gene: a sequence of DNA that does something. 11) Hugo deVries and Thomas Hunt Morgan said mutation was an evolutionary force and not Darwin’s natural selection. 12)The Synthetic Theory of Evolution combined Mendelian genetic principles with Darwin’s evolution. 13)The Synthetic Theory of Evolution says that it is advantageous for a population to have genetic variability and that there is no goal in evolution. -8 -9 14)The mutation rate is 10 to 10 changes per base pair. 15)Natural selection is caused by natural forces while artificial selection is controlled by people that want desired characteristics to reproduce. 16)Mutations can be deleterious, beneficial or neutral. Every gene is subject to mutation and only mutations that happen in gametes will be important evolutionary occurrences. 17)The total amount of genetic variation in a population is affected by the size of the population, the allelic/genotypic variation, and the heterozygosity. 18)Darwin’s Fitness: having an increased ability of surviving and reproducing. 19)Complete fixation: when an allele increases so much in frequency that it occurs in all the individuals of the population. 20)Genetic drift is a significant evolutionary force if there is a small population and random outcomes of individual matings. 21)The Founder Effect: when a few individuals colonize a new region and it results in a change in genetic variation 22)Bootleneck event: environmental events that only a few individuals survive. Ex: cheetah 23)Positive assertive mating: when individuals select mates that resemble themselves to mate with 24)Calculating allele frequencies: p +2pq+q = AA+ Aa+aa 25)Conditions for the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium to occur: there is no mutation, there is no selection among genotypes, there is no gene flow, population size is infinite, and mating is random. 26)The Neutrality Hypothesis says that evolution at the biomolecule level was selectively neutral. 27)Lateral gene transfer is caused by bacterial transformation, transduction of genes by viruses, and interspecific hybridization. 28)Allopatric: separated by geographic space. 29)Parapatric: species don’t overlap but are adjacent to each other and might form hybridization zones. 30)Obligate anaerobe: an organism that dies in exposure to oxygen 31)Chemoautotrophic: get energy by oxidizing inorganic compounds 32)Dentrifiers: process nitrate to release nitrogen gas 33)Biofilms: communities of different prokaryotes that stick to a surface and collect species 34)Endospore: dormant stage of bacterium 35)Thermus aquaticus: source of a DNA polymerase Exam II 1) Mutualism is when both species benefit. Commensalism is when one species benefits and the other doesn’t get hurt or benefited. Parasitism is when one species benefits and the other gets harmed. 2) Diffusion: the movement of dissolved substances from an area of high to low concentration 3) Fertilization: the union of two dissimilar gametes 4) Macronucleous: in ciliates it contains multiple copies of genes. 5) Ciliates reproduce by sexual conjugation. 6) Parabasalids: parasites that have a single nucleous and lack mitochondria 7) Red algae: use the pigment phycoerythrin and Floridian starch 8) Lichen: mutualistic relationship between a fungus and green algae 9) Haustoria: penetrate cells of hosts to absorb substances 10)Mycorrhizae: mutualism between a fungus and the root of a plant 11)Prothallus: the fern gametophyte stage 12)Sorus: cluster of sporangia on the back of a fern leaf 13)Complete flower: a flower that has sepals, petals, stamens and pistils. 14)Monocot: embryo with one seed leaf 15)Totipotent: a single cell can be used to grow a clone 16)The xylem transports water and minerals from the soil to the leaves. Exam III 1) Phosphorus is absorbed as phosphate ions. 2) The source of calcium ions are carbonate rocks. 3) The macronutrients are: nitrogen, potassium, magnesium, calcium, and sulfur. 4) Water potential is decreased by increasing the dissolved substances. 5) Water moves from an area of higher water potential to lower water potential. 6) The transpiration-cohesion-tension hypothesis explains the movement of water from the roots to the stem to the leaves in a plant. 7) Cytokinins in combination with auxin promotes cell division, counteracts apical dominance, and causes stem elongation. 8) Brassinosteroids and abscisic acid prevent seed germination. 9) Gonochoristic animals have separate sexes. 10)Animal cells use collagen to hold their cells together. 11)Cephalization leads to bilateral symmetry. 12)A triploblastic animal has endoderm, ectoderm and mesoderm tissues. 13)Poriferans are sessile. 14)The polyp body plan of cnidarians uses asexual reproduction. 15)A lophophore is a structure used for filter feeding. 16)Earthworms are hermaphroditic. 17)A typhlosole is a structure inside an earthworm that helps increase the intestines absorptive area. 18)The mantle area of a mollusk is used for gas exchange and excretion of nitrogenous wastes. 19)Proglottids are the individual segments that make a tapeworm. 20)Tardigrades are water bears that live in water films or mosses. 21)The upper ramus of a biramous arthropod is used for gas exchange. 22)Echinoderms use a water-vascular system for locomotion. 23)Hemoglobin is a molecule in the blood of animals that transports oxygen away from where there’s too much and takes it where there’s not enough. 24)Vicariance events: Large-scale speciation events caused by geological or climatic events. 25)Survivorship curves: Type 1: most offspring produced in a generation survive into adulthood. Mortality rates are low until the old ages are reached. Ex: elephants and human beings in developed countries Type 2: Mortality rate is constant throughout the years. Ex: eggs, young eagles, humans in undeveloped countries. Basically, they all have an equal chance of dying at any time. Type 3: Most of the offspring die before maturing but if they make it to adulthood they live a long time. Ex: oak trees produce lots of acorns but only a few adult trees. 26)Ammensalism: When a species that lives with another species harms the other one but does not benefit from doing so. Ex: elephants crushing plant species while walking around. 27)Species richness: the total # of species in a community 28)Species evenness: how similar species are in abundance 29)Succession: different species will come into the community to colonize. Species will be replaced with new species over and over until a climax community is reached. 30)Processes that cause communities to change over time: extinction and colonization, disturbance, climate change.
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