HSES 244 Final Exam Review
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Areidbrydon on Saturday May 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HSES 244 at Kansas taught by D. Scott Ward in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 107 views.
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Date Created: 05/07/16
HSES 244 Final Exam Study Guide Quantrell Raid o Burned down Lawrence o Developed a style of gorilla warfare o Terrified civilians and soldiers Killed 183 men and boys Primary target: Senator James Lane Barely escaped running through a corn field o Two things were happening at this time Adding KU and adding a jail Federal Pen ended up in Leavenworth, KS o Provided immediate jobs o Exgovernor Charles and wife Sarah Robinson o Amos Lawrence donated 15,000 before the 6 month deadline City is named after him September 1866—First year of KU o One building on campus was called “Old North College” 55 Students 3 faculty members 50 sq ft 4 stories high 10 rooms 1 floor: a lab, classroom, storage, office, and a library 2 floor: assembly hall 3 floor: chapel o 1872 “Old Fraser Hall” was built $139k to build Torn down in 1965 and built “New Fraser Hall” James Naismith o Fall of 1890 he was a student/instructor at the YMCA college in Springfield Massachusetts o Dr. Gulik o First PE class was September 21, 1891 (Scooter’s birthday) o Modeled basketball after childhood game “Duck on a Rock” Throwing a big rock on a little rock o First public contest was 1892 o 18981939 Naismith was the University of Kansas o Chancellor Snow Recommended James Naismith The Father of basketball Medical doctor Christian Minister Teacher o Taught in Snow Hall Fencing, Kinesiology Coach Inventor Highest honor in 1936 Berlin Olympics o When basketball became an international sport o 1898 first official KU basketball game Lost to Kansas City, KS YMCA Game was played in Snow Hall Ceilings were 11 ft tall Naismith was the only losing Basketball coach in KU history o Excuse that it was only for fitness, not for winning and losing o Forrest Phog Allen Became Chancellor after Naismith Allen Field House named after him Also called the Father of Basketball coaching Egypt—4000 BC o Didn’t need a lot of warriors due to river and deserts o Where were the skills of doctors and surgeons know throughout the ancient lands? Egypt o All Egyptians lived a fairly good life o PE in sport is organized because of these 3 things Labor saving devices (tools) Able to easily move water Sedentary pursuits Security Training people to protect us (warriors and soldiers) China—25001200 BC o Had a policy of isolation Leaders didn’t want anyone coming into China Topography The Himalayan mountains had to be climbed to get to China Built the Great Wall of China Laws to inhibit invaders o Sons of rich families would participate in Polo Martial arts Dancing Kite flying o Cong Fu gymnastics Ancient India o Extremely religious Hinduism The human soul passes through several reincarnations before being reunited with Braun Live right think right, to reach the divine state of nirvana o Partake in activities such as Marbles Dice throwing Elephant racing Yoga Discipline of the mind and body and required experts for teaching Ancient Greece—2000 BC Persians Main objective was living a full life All physical activity contributed Young Persian boys were required and instructed in the use of weapons of war Exercising Stamina, strong, and supple (flexible) Built and empire based on Militia Boys at the age of 6 would leave home for military training Where there is a military emphasis there is always an increase in physical activity Rome o Became weak o Fall of Roman Empire ~476 AD Physical and moral decay of the Roman people Disillusion of marriage Blood sport Suicide Decrease in population Wealthy really wealthy, poor really poor Slave labor Misuse of funds; corrupt gov’t Moral decay and economic ruin For a nation to endure it must be physically and morally fit o Barbarians Healthier Stronger Dark Ages o Brought us into a period of asceticism (self denial so you can reach a higher state) and scholasticism Pendulum o Stopped worshiping the Roman Gods o Spread of Christianity rise of asceticism Evil exist in the body and should be subordinated in soul which is pure; the body is possessed of the devil and should be tortured Self torture to prove themselves to God Mind and body are separate o Monasteries spread as Christianity did Schools were apart of these Education was deemphasized Lowest point of physical education Christian Emperor Theodosius in 394 AD abolished the Olympic games for being pagan Age of Feudalism o Decentralization of Rome o Wealthy build a castle and claim King and Queen o Peasants need protection look to Kings and Lords o Chivalry knight and shinning armor Little education, military training Boys at the age of 7 are sent to be trained at knight school o Start as a page (714); trained by women o Etiquette (set tables, politeness, wait tables, etc.) o Household task o Participate in physical activities for knighthood (box, run, fence, jump, swim) At the age of 14 boys become squire o Assigned to a knight; right hand man o Learn to hunt, archery, horsemanship, swordsmanship, joust, scaling (wall climbing) At the age of 21 o Test to be a knight Germany Great Britain Archibald MacLaren o Great athlete o Made physical education a science o 1850—opened a private gym o Created a PE system for the British army o Health is more important than strength o Movement is good for stress o Recreation wasn’t good enough for growing youth o Mind and body are one o Exercises are progressive (start slow, get harder as you progress) o Exercise should be required in school o Movement education (Rudolf Laban) Ch. 8 o Early American Physical Education Introduction of German gymnastics 18231833 In the late 1820s and 1830s, decline of interest in German gymnastics Newness wore off Too much emphasis on nationalism and strength Revival of German gymnastics in 1850s when immigrants moved to Midwest Introduction of Swedish gymnastics 1883 o Catherine Beecher Director of the Hartford Seminary for Girls (1824) and the (1837) Founder of the Western Female Institute (1852) Founder of the American Women’s Education Association Calisthenics—a course of exercises designed to promote health and thus to secure beauty and strength No special room or apparatus For the whole family, especially for women—diagrams of how to execute exercises Principles from Ling's Swedish gymnastics Her program was probably the first system adapted to the needs of Americans She was one of the first to actively struggle to establish physical education as a part of the school curriculum on a daily basis o Young Men Christian Association and Young Women’s Christian Association YMCA founded in 1844 in England YMCA founded in 1851 in Boston YWCA founded in 1866 in Boston by Mrs. Henry Durant 1885—YMCA Training School in Springfield—to train YMCA directors Purposes of the YMCA—to develop the allaround man (intellectual, physical, and spiritual) Ch. 9 o Men’s Collegiate Athletics Students promoted, financed, and controlled athletics—faculty and administrators did not want to be involved (no standard rules or eligibility regulations) Rowing—1852—Harvard over Yale Baseball—1859—Amherst over Williams Football—1869 (actually rugby)—Rutgers over Princeton 1895—Midwestern colleges (Intercollegiate Conference of Faculty Representatives) Required to be students Six months residence for transfers Must remain eligible academically o NCAA 1905—meeting to investigate the future of football due to deaths and injuries, as well as dishonesty, gambling, and eligibility; representatives from 13 colleges attended initial meeting in December called by President MacCracken of NYU; in January, 1906, a second meeting led to the establishment of the NCAA; reformed football to prevent injuries and deaths; legalized the forward pass 1906—National Collegiate Athletic Association (28 colleges) o 1891—Basketball—James Naismith at the YMCA Training School o 1896—Volleyball—William Morgan at YMCA Original name: mintonette Ancient Olympics o 776 BC—1 ancient Olympic games Olympia, Greece Women couldn’t participate or even watch Stade race: 1 length of the stadium Reward: olive wreath; heroic treatment Participation requirements: Male Of Greek origin Freeborn Over 18 10 months of training o Greece was conquered moved to Rome o 394 AD—Christian emperor Theodosius I legally abolished the games Games were considered to be pagan Modern Olympics o 1896—Baron Pierre de Coubertin (France) revives the Olympic Games Athens, Greece (the land of the birth of the Ancient Olympic Games in 776 BC) International competition (13 countries) 9 sports 13 men (5 from Boston athletic club, 4 from Princeton athletics) American, James Brendan Connelly was the first gold medalist in the modern Olympics, winning the hop step and jump o 1900—2 Olympic games in Paris Held concurrently with the Universal Exposition Considered a disaster of planning and execution Had a carnival sideshow atmosphere (car races, tugowar) Women permitted to participate, with Margaret Abbot of the U.S.A. winning the first Gold medal by a female (9holes of golf) Anytime that that was another event taking place at the same time the Olympics were held means that the Olympics were a disaster that year, because the attention was solely directed to the Olympics o 1904—3 Olympic games in St. Louis Another disaster because it was tied to another major event, the Louisiana Purchase Exhibition U.S.A. won 80 of the 100 gold medals o 1906—Interim Olympics Olympic games needed a shot in the arm after the last two disasters Went back to its’ roots The International Olympic Committee (I.O.C.) gave out medals, but did not give the games an official number Probably saved the entire Olympic movement from folding o 1913 First time seeing the Olympic rings 5 rings: 5 original continents At least 1 of the top 3 colors (blue, black, or red) is in every country’s flag o 1916—6 Olympic games in Berlin Cancelled due to WWI st o 1924—1 winter Olympic games th o 1932—10 Olympic games in Los Angeles Held in 16 days compared to 79ish First time the duration was cut short US temporarily suspended prohibition laws so Italian and French athletes could bring their own wine Introduced the threetiered medal podium th o 1936—11 Olympic games in Berlin Adolph Hitler used the Olympics as a stage for his doctrine of Aryan superiority Outstanding facilities, Berlin was sparkling clean US almost boycotted, but United States Olympics Committee (USOC) voted 5856 to attend First torch relay, lit at the temple of Zeus in Greece Any German athlete who communicated with a black player, would be punished or put to death Jesse Owens an AfricanAmerican from Alabama won four gold medals refuting Hitler’s Aryan supremacy First Olympic village for men and women Debut of Basketball, (outdoors) U.S. won the gold in the rain Best moment of James Naismith’s life because basketball became an international sport o 1940—12 Olympic games in Tokyo/Helsinki Cancelled due to WWII o 1944—13 Olympic games in London Cancelled due to WWII th o 1952—15 Olympic games in Helsinki USA wins Men’s Basketball Gold, coached by Phog Allen, with 7 KU players Basically the University of Kansas won a gold medal o 1956—16 Olympic games in Melbourne First Olympics Soviet Union won more medals than the USA First and only time Olympics held in two countries because of strict quarantine laws the equestrian events were held in Sweden earlier Because Australia won’t let the equestrians of other countries bring their horses o Afraid of disease from horses th o 1960—17 Olympic games in Rome CBS bought the TV rights for $394,000 broadcasting world wide for the first time 18 year old Cassius Clay (Mohammed Ali) won the light heavyweight gold th o 1964—18 Olympic games in Tokyo Volleyball makes its’ debut Billy Mills won the gold medal in the 10,000 meters KU school of education graduate o 1968—19 Olympic games in Mexico City Altitude a concern 1968 a year of turmoil… Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and Robert Kennedy were assassinated, Vietnam War protests – Kent State etc. Mexican student protests the night before opening ceremonies resulted in 49 deaths Civil Rights movement in the US…Black athlete boycotts including Lew Alcinder and others Al Oerter won his fourth discus gold medal in four different Olympics AfricanAmerican sprinters Tommie Smith and John Carlos raised their gloved clenched fists during their medal ceremony in protest of US discrimination. Were stripped of their medals, banned from the US team, and ordered to leave the Olympic Village. Sex and drug testing begins, only one disqualification, a Swedish Pentathlete lost his bronze for excessive alcohol th o 1972—20 Olympic games in Munich “Munich Massacre” Palestinian terrorists took Israeli athletes hostage wanting freedom for some 200 prisoners in Israel. 19 hours later 17 dead: 11 Israeli athletes, 5 terrorists, and 1 German Police officer Mark Spitz won 7 swimming gold medals for the USA o 1980—Winter Olympic games Miracle on ice Friday, February 22 The United States national team, made up of amateur and collegiate players and led by coach Herb Brooks, defeated the Soviet Union national team, which had won the gold medal in six of the seven previous Olympic games USA team went on to win the gold medal o 1972—24 Olympic games in Seoul Greg Louganis repeats doublegold despite injury HIV positive Hit his head in the water, and kept swimming while bleeding o 1992—Last time both Summer and Winter Olympics were held in the same year o 1994—Winter Olympic games were held again to stagger years o 1996—26 Olympic games in Atlanta 100 anniversary of the modern Olympics Bomb exploded at Centennial Olympic Park leaving 2 dead and over 100 injured Transportation system was a nightmare Turned into the world’s largest marketing tool, CocaCola leading the way th Carl Lewis wins 10 gold winning the long jump Muhammad Ali lit the Olympic Flame o 2008—26 Olympic games in Beijing First time ever (summer or winter) Olympics held in China USA wins most medals 110… China wins most gold 51 USA Swimmer, Michael Phelps wins a record 8 gold medals in one Olympics… enough said! o Olympiad 4 year intervals st Games are consecutively numbered; starting with the 1 modern Olympic games Even cancelled games (due to war) received a number Cancelled winter Olympic games did not receive a number o Creed: the most important thing is not to win, but to take part, just as the most important thing in life is not the triumph, but the struggle. The essential thing is not to have conquered, but to have fought well. o Motto: "Citius, Altius, Fortius," Literal: Faster, Higher, Braver Modern: Swifter, Higher, Stronger o Oath: "In the name of all the competitors, I promise that we shall take part in these Olympic Games, respecting and abiding by the rules which govern them, committing ourselves to a sport without doping and without drugs, in the true spirit of sportsmanship, for the glory of sport and the honor of our teams." 1 athlete from the host country takes the oath on behalf of all participating athletes Turnverein movement Zeus (?) Sparta Great Britain “golden age” of PE father of German gymnastics Per Henrik Ling barbarians what inspired the invention of basketball? Renaissance asceticism and scholasticism Native Americans Puritan belief first state to have a lasting law requiring physical education
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