Final exam study guide
Final exam study guide BZ 101
Popular in Humans and Other Animals (GT-SC2)
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by AlliSlaten on Saturday May 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BZ 101 at Colorado State University taught by Karen M Raines in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 88 views.
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Date Created: 05/07/16
CHAPTER 24 1. Deﬁne or describe: autosomes, sex chromosomes, sex-linked, X-linked, carrier. Autosomes- Out of the 23 pairs of chromosomes, 22 are called autosomes and the one one pair is called sex chromosomes(below) Sex Chromosomes- X and Y chromosomes that determine a persons sex. XX (female) XY(male) Sex- linked- traits that are controlled by the genes on the sex chromosomes X- linked- found on the X chromosome. Most sex linked traits are X- linked. Carrier- Someone that does not express the gene but can pass it along to future generations 2. List inheritance patterns, signs and symptoms of the following conditions: red-green color blindness, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Fragile X syndrome, HemophiliaAand B. Red Green color blindness- x-linked recessive gene. More common in males than in females because they only need one recessive allele from the mother to show this. Duchenne muscular dystrophy- X-linked recessive disorder that is characterized by wasting away of muscles. Symptoms include wasting gait, toe walking, and frequent falls. Can be seen usually when a child starts walking and they don’t usually live past age 20.Acarrier mother can pass it along to a carrier daughter which is how this can stay in the population. Can cause muscles to look larger than they are due to the accumulation of of ﬁbrous tissue in the muscles. Fragile X syndrome- Caused by an abnormal number of repeat sequences in the genome. Usually caused by inherited mental impairment. Results can range from learning disabilities to sever intellectual disabilities. Repeat of CGG instead ofATGC HemophiliaA- due to the absence of or minimal persence of a clotting factor known as factor VIII Hemophilia B- due to absence of clotting factor IX Hemophilia causes the blood to either not clot or clot very slowly. Not only do people with this bleed externally, they also bleed internally particularly around joints. 3. Deﬁne or describe: karyotype, Barr body (p. 486), nondisjunction, trisomy, monosomy, syndrome, Down Syndrome, Klinefelter, Turner Syndrome, Poly-X syndrome, Jacobs syndrome, Williams syndrome, inv dup 15 syndrome,Alagille syndrome, chromosomal mutations, deletion, duplication, inversion, translocation, Gart gene, pedigree, amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling. Karyotype- visual inspection of the chromosomes, can detect changes in chromosome number such as when this occurs in Down Syndrome. Barr Body- inactive X chromosome Nondisjunction- failure of chromosomes or chromatids to separate during meiosis. Results in trisomy or monosomy when fertilized Trisomy- when there is an additional chromosome Monosomy- when there is a lacking of one chromosome Syndrome- the association of several clinically recognizable features, signs, or symptoms that often occur together and are characteristic of a diseases or disorder Down Syndrome- Karyotype has an extra chromosome 21. Cause cause abnormal features, weigh gain, and intellectual disabilities. Klinefelter- When a male has 2 X chromosomes and one Y. Most don’t experience symptoms so they aren’t diagnosed but can experience speech and language delays. Some are given testosterone supplementation at the beginning of puberty. Turner Syndrome- When a women only receives one X chromosome. They can have malformed features like webbed neck, high palate, and small jaw. Usually don’t menstruate or undergo puberty. Usually no learning disabilities but nonverbal disabilities have been a symptom. Poly X Syndrome- When a female has more than one X chromosome. Usually there are some language delays but no intellectual disabilities and they are tall and skinny. Menstruate regularly. Jacobs Syndrome- When a male as two Y chromosomes and one X. This can occur because of nondisjunction. They are usually taller than average, suffer from persistent acne, and have speech and reading problems but other than that they are the same and XY males. Williams Syndrome- results from a loss of a smal piece of chromosome 7. Can have learning disabilities, great musical abilities, and are very social and they all have a lot of the same facial features. Inv dup 15 Syndrome- inverted duplication on chromosome 15. Low muscle tone, autistic characteristics, and a curve in the spine. Caused by translocation. Alagille Syndrome- caused by translocation. Individuals can have atypical ﬁngernails, internal organs that don’t function properly. When information from 1 chromosome exchanges with another chromosomes that isn’t homologous. Chromosomal mutations- Occurs when chromosomes break. Deletion- when a single break causes a chromosome to lose an end piece or when two simultaneous breks lead to the loss of a internal chromosomal segment. Duplication- a chromosomal segment is repeated in the same chromosome or in a non-homologous chromosome. More than 2 alleles for certain traits. Inversion- segment joins in the direction opposite from normal. Translocation- the exchange of chromosomal segments beetween two non-homologous chromosomes. Gart Gene- protein coding gene Pedigree- family tree that shows whether or not future generations will be affected Amniocentesis- when amniotic ﬂuid is removed from the uterus for testing or treatment. Chrioionic Villus Sampling- test done during early pregnancy that can ﬁnd certain problems with the baby (fetus). CHAPTER 25 4. Describe the structure of DNA. List components of a nucleotide. List the 4 different types of bases associated with the DNAmolecule. DNA- chain of nucleotides made up of a phosphate, pentose sugar, and a nitrogen containing base Nucleotide- complex made up of 3 subunits Bases- Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Thymine (T), and Cytosine (C). 5. What is complementary base-pairing? Aalways pairs with T and G always pairs with C 6. Why is DNAreplication described as semiconservative? What is the role helicase? DNA polymerase? DNAligase? Each daughter DNAmolecule consists of one new chain of nucleotides and one chain from the parent DNAmolecule Helicase- unwinds and unzips the double stranded DNA Polymerase- what the pairs are positioned and joined with Ligase- seals and breaks the sugar-phosphate backbone 7. Describe the structure of RNA. List components of the nucleotide and the 4 different bases. Describe the functions of mRNA, tRNA, rRNA. Structure- Nucleotide- complex of 3 subunits Bases- Adenine, Guanine, Uracil, and Cytosine mRNA- takes a message from the DNAto the ribosomes becasue DNA cannot leave the nucleus by itself so it is copied and messaged tRNA- transfers amino acids to ribosomes rRNA- makes up ribosomes along with proteins 8. Describe transcription. What is the role of RNApolymerase? Takes place is the nucleus and a portion of the DNAserves as a template fro mRNAformation. Processing of mRNA, primary mRNA contains bases complementary to both intron and exon segments of DNA. 9. Describe translation. What is a ribosome?Apolyribosome? Translation- Takes place in the cytoplasm and sequence of mRNA determines the sequence of amino acids in polypeptide. Leads to protein synthesis. Ribosome- site of protein synthesis Polyribosome- 10. How do exons differ from introns? Exons are the portion of the gene that is expressed. Only exons result in protein product. Introns are intragene segments and are removed. 11. What is the genetic code? a codon that is made up of 3 nucleotide bases 12. What is a codon? What is an anticodon? Codon- Triplet of three bases that code for a speciﬁc amino acid There are 64 different mRNAcodons Anticodon- triplet of three bases complemetary to a speciﬁc codon of mRNA ex. Codon- CGG,Anticodon- GCC,Amino acid-Arginine 13. What is a gene mutation? What causes mutations? What is a point mutation? What disease is caused by a point mutation (see p 511)? What is a frame-shift mutation? Gene mutation- permanent change in a sequence of bases in DNA. Effects can range from none (neutral) to complete inactivity of the protein Causes: 1. error in replication 2. Mutagens- substance that cause mutations. Substances like chemicals that can be in the air we breathe, what we eat or drink. Viruses can be mutagens. 3. Transposons- jumping genes have the ability to move from one location to another on a chromosome or even to a different chromosome. Ex. corn Point mutation- involve a change in a single DNAnucleotide (effects a single letter) Point mutation can cause sickle cell anemia which causes ineffective hemoglobin so the blood cannot transfer blood properly. Frame shift mutation- one or more nucleotides are either inserted or deleted from the DNA. 14. IF a mutation occurs in a germ-line cell, what are the consequences? They can effect the sex cells and can be passed onto future generations. Can lead to cancer. 15. Are all mutations bad? No. Some mutations can be neutral meaning that even if there are mutations the same protein can be coded or there can be no effect. CHAPTER 26 16. List applications of gene cloning. Genomes, transgenic organisms 17. Deﬁne or describe: genetic engineering, biotechnology, GMOs, transgenic, recombinant DNA, vector, PCR, DNAﬁngerprinting, gel electrophoresis. Genetic engineering- altering the genome Biotechnology- products produced by GMOs GMOs- genetically modiﬁed organisms Transgenic- Organisms with foreign DNAor genes inserted into them Recombinant DNA- contains DNAfrom two or more different sources. Such as a human cell and a bacterial cell. Can treat some diseases by inserting genes. Vector- carries the “working copy” of the gene PCR- can create billions of copies of a segment of DNAin a test tube in just a few hours. It targets a very speciﬁc DNAsequence DNAFingerprinting- entire genome tested with restriction enzymes. Fragments are separated by gel electrophoresis which results in distinctive pattern of bands. Gel electrophoresis- Used to separate fragments when testing the genome 18. How is DNAﬁngerprinting used in forensics? It is used to determine who the criminal is or who was involved by tracing the bands in the ﬁngerprint with gel electrophoresis 19. How and why have scientists genetically altered some of our crop plants? Increase the nutritional value of the products, provide resistance of insects, provide resistance to herbicides, produce human pharmaceuticals 20. List beneﬁcial applications for the use of transgenic animals. Transgenic animals have bGH inserted into them so tat they are larger and produce more food. They also can produce pharmaceuticals 21. Deﬁne or describe: gene therapy, ex vivo gene therapy, in vivo gene therapy. 22. List examples cited in class of ex vivo and in vivo gene therapy. Gene therapy- cloned genes are used to modify a human Ex vivo gene therapy- SCID (severe combined immunodeﬁciency) and Familial hypercholesterolemia (treat liver cells) In vivo gene therapy- Cystic ﬁbrosis (gene sprayed into the nose, gene delivered to respiratory tract by virus vector or liposomes) CHAPTER 27 23. How does the fossil provide evidence of evolution? Biogeography? ComparativeAnatomy? Embryology? Biochemistry? Evolution- any evolved trait that helps an organism be more suited to its environment Biogeography- studies the range and distribution of species throughout the world ComparativeAnatomy- Embryology- the study of how many different species start out with a lot of the same features and then as time goes on they develop into their more adult form. Biochemistry- basically that all organisms share the same basic biochemical molecules (DNA,ATP, identical or nearly identical enzymes) 24. Deﬁne or describe: transitional fossils (links),Archaeopteryx, homologous structures, analogous structures, vestigial structures, Pangaea, continental drift. Transitional fossils (links)- represent evolutionary links between groups Archaeopteryx- oldest bird. It had teeth and a long tail with a vertebrae and scientist link this to birds and reptiles Homologous structures- Analogous structures- Vestigial structures- Pangaea- referred to as the large land mass that started as all of the continents connected Continental drift- shift of large land masses (continents) then and now 25. Deﬁne or describe: population, gene pool, gene ﬂow, genetic drift, population bottleneck, founder effect, Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (the rare type of dwarﬁsm associated with the founder effect). Population- all members of a species occupying a particular area at the same time Gene pool- the sum totoal of all alleles of all genes in a population Gene ﬂow- movement of alleles between populations. Keeps gene pools or two or more populations similar Genetic drift- change in allele frequencies due to chance Population bottleneck- when a population decreases signiﬁcantly and when they become repopulated there is a lack of genetic variation Founder effect- when only a few individuals represent Ellis- van Creveld syndrome- autosomal recessive condition that occurs with an increases frequency among theAmish in PA. They have 6 ﬁngers on each hand 26. List and describe agents of evolution. Mutations- raw material for evolutionary change. Permanent genetic change, and arise randomly. Genetic drift- change in allele frequencies due to chance Found effect- a few individuals found a colony and their collective genes represent only a fraction of the original gene pool Bottleneck effect- when a population is decreased signiﬁcantly and when they are repopulated there is a lack of genetic variation Gene ﬂow- movement of alleles between populations Nonrandom mating- occurs when individuals pair up according to phenotype or genotype (inbreeding) Natural selection- because of certain traits or characteristics help them survive better, those individuals can reproduce and then those genes are passed onto later generations 27. How does Lamarck’s theory differ from Darwin’s? Lamarck’s theory describes and entire population evolving generation by generation into what they need to live in their environment where as Darwin’s theory describes natural selection which means that those with the desirable trait will survive and reproduce offsprings with that desirable trait 28. Deﬁne: adaptation Adaption- any evolved trait that helps an organism be more suited to its environment 29. List critical elements of Darwin’s natural selection theory.-p 548 Individual variation, inheritance, overproduction, and differential reproductive success 30. Deﬁne or describe: prezygotic reproductive isolating mechanisms and postzygotic isolating mechanisms. Prezygotic reproductive isolating- prevents the fertilization of eggs Postzygotic isolating- prevents the formation of a fertile offspring 31. Brieﬂy discuss divergent feeding habits of Galapagos ﬁnches and how that led to adaptive radiation. (see pp 536 and 553) Adaptive radiation is when there is a proliferation of a species by adaption to different ways of life. Galapagos Finches originated as one kind on the main island but it is said that they ﬂew to other islands and adapted to the environment there speciﬁcally their beaks changed to adapt to the kind of food they were eating. Through natural selection the ﬁnches adapted on each island. 32. List and characterize the 3 domains of life. Eukarya, Bacteria(prokaryotic),Archaea (prokaryotic that live in extreme conditions) 33. Beginning with the most inclusive, list the taxonomic categories. Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order Genus, and Species 34. How do we denote the scientiﬁc name of an organism? Genus and then speciﬁc epithet in latin CHAPTER 28 35. How are microbes beneﬁcial? some bacteria in the human GI tract can produce vitamins K and B12, some bacteria can prevent other bad bacterias from getting in and on our bodies, there are decomposers that can help in the environment, can be used in medicine, food processing, and biotechnology 36. How do archaea differ from bacteria? How are the two groups similar? They are both prokaryotes but bacteria usually has peptidoglycan in the cell wall and archaea doesn’t. Neither of them have a nuclei or membrane bound organelles 37. Deﬁne or describe: Gram +, Gram-, peptidoglycan, conjugation, transformation, transduction, binary ﬁssion. Gram (+)- Gram (-)- Peptidoglycan- in the cell wall of bacteria and not archaeas Conjugation- form of sexual reproduction of algae and fungi Transformation- living bacteria can pick up DNAfrom dead bacteria Transduction- some viruses infect bacteria and it can carry DNAfrom another bacteria cell which can get into the other bacteria cell Binary ﬁssion- the way to produce asexually 38. What problems can Streptococcus pyogenes cause in humans? Staphylococcus aureus? What is MRSA? Streptococcus pyogenes- causes most diseases of any strep (pharyngitis, impetigo, scarlet fever, rheumatic fever, and necrotizing fasciitis) Staphylococcus aureus- related to skin infections and if it gets into the blood stream it is called a systemic infections which can be very deadly MRSA- resistant staphylococcus aureus. Over 90% of the strains are resistant to penicillin 39. How do tubercles form when a person is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis? If a person has a positive reaction to a TB skin test does that mean that their lungs are diseased? After a person is infected an immune response causes calciﬁed nodules (tubercles) in the lungs. If they test positive it does not mean that their lungs are diseases. 40. How might an adult acquire botulism?Achild? How might a person become infected with Salmonella bacteria? Botulism can be acquired through canned food.Achild can get it from eating honey.Aperson can get infected with salmonella by eating food contaminated with animal feces. These foods usually are poultry, beef, eggs, dairy. and vegetables. 41. How do antibiotics work? What are some problems associated with antibiotic therapy? Antibiotics inhibit bacteria from interfering with unique metabolic pathways. Some problems are allergic reactions, the killing off of normal ﬂora, and bacterial resistance. 42. Deﬁne or describe: archaea, methanogens, thermoacidophiles, halophiles, arsenophiles. Archaea- prokaryotes that survive in extreme conditions Methanogens- live in swamps with little oxygen and live in the digestive tract of cows Themoacidophiles- can survive and thrive in very hot and acidic areas Halophiles- salt tolerant Arsenophiles- only things that can survive in Mono Lake 43. Describe the basic structure of a virus. they all have DNAor RNAgenome and they have a protein coat 44. Viruses are not considered “living,” why? What determines the speciﬁcity of a virus? Hint- receptors They are considered non living because they are surrounded by a protien coat and go int the host cell which is needed in order for them to reproduce and replicate 45. Deﬁne or describe: antigenic drift, antigenic shift. Antigenic drift- when there is a slight change in the proteins that occur because of the mutations in the RNAgenome. This is the reason we have a new ﬂu vaccine every year Antigenic shift- when two different viruses infect a single individual. The viruses can exchange genetic material which creates a new virus 46. List and brieﬂy describe any viral diseases discussed in class. Rhinoviruses cause colds, ﬂu is caused by inﬂuenza viruses, polio, measles, mumps, rubella, chickenpox, ebola, HPV, Herpes, HIV, smallpox CHAPTER 31 47. List characteristics of animals. Heterotrophic (have to get nutrition from an outside source), Multicellular, diploid at adult stage, sexual reproduction 48. Deﬁne or describe: asymmetry, radial symmetry, bilateral symmetry, cephalization, sessile, coelom. Asymmetry- no particular symmetry (sponges) Radial symmetry- circular organization, can be bisected in any place to produce mirror images, some sessile (sea anenamies) Bilateral symmetry- deﬁnite right and left halves; only a cut down the midline will produce mirror images, accompanies by cephalization (there is a head or a concentration of neural cells at one end) Cephalization- there is not distinct head but there is a concentration of neural cells at one end of the worm Sessile- radially symmetrical animals may be permanently attached to a substrate Coelom- 49. Which animals exhibit only the cellular level of organization? Sponges 50. Characterize the following phyla: Porifera, Cnidaria, Platyhelminthes, Mollusca, Nematoda, Annelida,Arthropoda. Be sure to know examples of animals in each phylum. Porifera- sponges that are mostly marine. They have no tissues Cnidaria- mostly marine animals with two layers that make up the endoderm and the ectoderm. Examples are coral, jellyﬁsh, and Portuguese man of war Platyhelminthes- known as ﬂatworms. They are either free living or parasitic. They don’t have a body cavity but have all three levels of tissues. They have a brain and lateral nerve cords, excretory system and gastrovascular cavity Mollusca- marine, freshwater or terrestrial. They have a true body cavity, well developed nervous system, open circulatory system, visceral mass, and mantel cavity Nematoda- known as round worms. They can be either free living or parasitic. They have a fake body cavity that functions as a hydrostatic skeleton. Annelida- segmented worms that include polychaetes, oligochaetes and leeches. They have a complete digestive tract Arthropoda- jointed exoskeleton, segmentation, a well developed nervous system, variety of respiratory structures 51. Deﬁne or describe: hermaphroditic, dioecious, cnidocytes, nematocysts, Planaria, Hermaphroditic- produces both sperm and ova Dioecious- you need both sexes to reproduce Cnidocytes- stinging ceslls that are on the tentacles of animals Nematocysts- in each cnidocyte it’s a toxin ﬁlled capsule that contains a long, spirally coiled hollow thread Planaria- they divide themselves and a head will come from the tail and the tail will come from the head 52. Describe life cycles of the following parasitic ﬂatworms: Taenia solium, Schistosoma spp. How do humans acquire the infections? Taenia- human (primary host) and a pig (secondary host) Solium- acquired by eating insufﬁciently cooked pork Schistosoma spp- 53. What adaptations are seen in tapeworms? It is modiﬁed for its parasitic way of life. It consists of a scolex and many proglottids, which become bags of eggs 54. List the 3 distinct parts of a mollusks- see p. 633 in your book. Visceral mass, foot, and mantle 55. Describe the life cycles of the following parasitic nematodes:Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichinella spiralis. How do humans acquire these infections? Ascaris lumbricoides- Trichinella spiralis- 56. What is elephantiasis? How do humans acquire the disease? When body parts swell to massive proportions 57. Deﬁne or describe: clitellum, setae, parapodia, hirudin. Clitellum- thickened glandular and non-segmented section of the body wall near the head in earthworms and leeches Setae- bristles that anchor the worm or help it move Parapodia- lateral ﬂeshy protrusions Hirudin- naturally occuring peptide in the salivary glands of medicinal leeches 58. How are leeches used medicinally today? They increased blood ﬂow where there could have been a removal or something and then reattached like when a ﬁnger or an ear is removed 59. How many species of arthropods have been described? What is the largest and most successful class of arthropods? 60. List 5 characteristics that have led to the success of the phylum Arthropoda......see pp 639-641 Rigid but jointed exoskeleton, segmentation, well developed nervous system 61. Why are some arachnids medically important? maggots can be used to determine if a dead body has been moved or how long the corpse has been dead. CHAPTER 32 62. List features characteristic of all chordates. Notochord, dorsal tubular nerve cord that develops into brain, pharyngeal pouches, postanal tail, thyroid gland or endostyle 63. Deﬁne or describe: tunicate, lancelet. Tunicate- invertebrate chordates Lancelet- invertebrate chordates 64. How do vertebrates differ from the invertebrate chordates? Vertebrates have an embryonic notochord that is replaced by a vertebral column, strong jointed endoskeleton, 2 pairs of appendages, closed circulatory system, high degree of cephalization, and jaws in most 65. Characterize the jawless ﬁshes (hagﬁshes and lampreys), cartilaginous ﬁshes (Chondrichthyes), Bony ﬁshes (ray-ﬁnned ﬁshes and lobe-ﬁnned ﬁshes), amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. Jawless ﬁshes (hagﬁshes and lampreys)- smooth, scaleless skin and no jaws or paired ﬁns Cartilaginous ﬁshes (chrondrichthyes)- they have skeletons of cartilage instead of bone. about 750 species and sharks Bony ﬁshes (ray- ﬁnned ﬁshes and lobe-ﬁnned ﬁshes)- by far the most numerous and diverse Amphibians- jointed appendages, fertilize externally, and their eggs aren’t shelled which is why they have to survive in water or in very moist environments Reptiles- amniotic eggs, fertilize internally Birds- everything in its physical features can be related to its ability to ﬂy Mammals- they all have hair, monotremes are egg laying mammals, marsupials are pouch mammals, and placental mammals are the most successful 66. Discuss the circulatory systems of ﬁshes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. See ﬁg 32.12 Fish- a single look system utilized a two chambered heart Amphibians and Reptiles- the heart has three chambets and some mixing of O2 rich and O2 poor blood takes place Birds and Mammals- the heart has four chambers and send only O2 poor blood to the lungs and O2 rich blood to the body 67. Deﬁne or describe: amniotic egg, extraembyronic membranes, chorion, amnion, yolk sac and allantois. Amniotic egg- type of egg produced by reptiles, birds, and egg laying mammals in which the embryo develops inside an amnion Extra-embryonic membranes- mammals produce amnion, yolk sac, chorion, and allantois Chorion- develops into the fetal side of the placenta Amnion- contains the amniotic ﬂuid Yolk sac- the earliest site of blood cell formation Allantois- 68. Characterize the monotremes, marsupials and placental mammals. Know examples of each. Monotremes- egg laying Marsupials- pouch Placental mammals- this is a majority of mammals and this is the most successful becaus the placenta is good at providing nutrients and development - Question- A man with normal vision marries a color- blind women. What percent of their female children will be color blind? • Answer- 0% - Question- When homologous chromosomes fail to separate during meiosis, this is termed • Answer- Nondisjunction - Question- A person who has an extra copy of a chromosome is said to have a ___ condition • Answer- Trisomic - Question- A nucleotide contains… • Answer- A sugar, a phospate, and a nitrogen base (A,G,C,T) - Question- Which of the following statements about DNA replication is NOT correct? Answer- Replication occurs as each bases is paired with another exactly like it. • - Question- During the process of transcription, the information in • Answer- DNA is converted into RNA information - Question- The genetic code consists of ___ bases that strand for one amino acid • Answer- Three - Question- Organisms with foreign DNA or genes inserted into them are called ____ organisms. • Answer- Transgenic - Question- The human genome consists of approximately ___ base pairs Answer- 3.2 billion • - Question- What are base pairs? • Answer- Nitrogenous bases (adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine ) - Question- Mutations arise in response to need • Answer- False - Question- Which of the following is true about natural selection? • Answer- On average, it favors the survival of young with adaptive characteristics - Question- When only a few individuals survive unfavorable times, thereby losing the majority of genotypes in the next generation, it is called • Answer- bottleneck effect - Question- Which type of prokaryotes are able to live in the most extreme environments • Answer- archaea - Question- They innermost core of a virus’s structure is made up of.. • Answer- either DNA or RNA •
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