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CSU / Biology / BC 101 / What is the meaning of Autosomes?

What is the meaning of Autosomes?

What is the meaning of Autosomes?

Description

School: Colorado State University
Department: Biology
Course: Humans and Other Animals (GT-SC2)
Professor: Karen raines
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: Biology and BZ101
Cost: 50
Name: Final exam study guide
Description: final exam study guide with clicker questions
Uploaded: 05/07/2016
21 Pages 5 Views 9 Unlocks
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CHAPTER 24  


What is the meaning of Autosomes?



 1. Define or describe: autosomes, sex chromosomes, sex-linked, X-linked,  carrier.  

Autosomes- Out of the 23 pairs of chromosomes, 22 are called  autosomes and the one one pair is called sex chromosomes(below)  

 Sex Chromosomes- X and Y chromosomes that determine a persons  sex. XX (female) XY(male)  

 Sex- linked- traits that are controlled by the genes on the sex  chromosomes  

 X- linked- found on the X chromosome. Most sex linked traits are X linked.  

 Carrier- Someone that does not express the gene but can pass it along  to future generations  

 2. List inheritance patterns, signs and symptoms of the following  conditions: red-green color  

blindness, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Fragile X syndrome,  Hemophilia A and B.  

Red Green color blindness- x-linked recessive gene. More common in  males than in females because they only need one recessive allele from  the mother to show this.  


What is the meaning of Sex Chromosomes?



 Duchenne muscular dystrophy- X-linked recessive disorder that is  characterized by wasting away of muscles. Symptoms include wasting  gait, toe walking, and frequent falls. Can be seen usually when a child  starts walking and they don’t usually live past age 20. A carrier mother  can pass it along to a carrier daughter which is how this can stay in the  population. Can cause muscles to look larger than they are due to the  accumulation of of fibrous tissue in the muscles.  

 Fragile X syndrome- Caused by an abnormal number of repeat  sequences in the genome. Usually caused by inherited mental

impairment. Results can range from learning disabilities to sever  intellectual disabilities. Repeat of CGG instead of ATGC  

 Hemophilia A- due to the absence of or minimal persence of a clotting  factor known as factor VIII  

 Hemophilia B- due to absence of clotting factor IX  


What is X- linked?



 Hemophilia causes the blood to either not clot or clot very slowly. Not  only do people with this bleed externally, they also bleed internally  particularly around joints.  We also discuss several other topics like Storytelling ​​performances ​​consisted ​​of ​​both what?

 3. Define or describe: karyotype, Barr body (p. 486), nondisjunction,  trisomy, monosomy,  

syndrome, Down Syndrome, Klinefelter, Turner Syndrome, Poly-X  syndrome, Jacobs syndrome, Williams syndrome, inv dup 15  syndrome, Alagille syndrome, chromosomal mutations, deletion,  duplication, inversion, translocation, Gart gene, pedigree,  amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling.  

Karyotype- visual inspection of the chromosomes, can detect changes  in chromosome number such as when this occurs in Down Syndrome.  

 Barr Body- inactive X chromosome  

 Nondisjunction- failure of chromosomes or chromatids to separate  during meiosis. Results in trisomy or monosomy when fertilized  

 Trisomy- when there is an additional chromosome  

 Monosomy- when there is a lacking of one chromosome  

 Syndrome- the association of several clinically recognizable features,  signs, or symptoms that often occur together and are characteristic of a  diseases or disorder  

 Down Syndrome- Karyotype has an extra chromosome 21. Cause  cause abnormal features, weigh gain, and intellectual disabilities.

 Klinefelter- When a male has 2 X chromosomes and one Y. Most don’t  experience symptoms so they aren’t diagnosed but can experience  speech and language delays. Some are given testosterone  

supplementation at the beginning of puberty.  

 Turner Syndrome- When a women only receives one X chromosome.  They can have malformed features like webbed neck, high palate, and  small jaw. Usually don’t menstruate or undergo puberty. Usually no  learning disabilities but nonverbal disabilities have been a symptom.  If you want to learn more check out What is Shizophrenia?

 Poly X Syndrome- When a female has more than one X chromosome.  Usually there are some language delays but no intellectual disabilities  and they are tall and skinny. Menstruate regularly.  

 Jacobs Syndrome- When a male as two Y chromosomes and one X.  This can occur because of nondisjunction. They are usually taller than  average, suffer from persistent acne, and have speech and reading  problems but other than that they are the same and XY males.  

 Williams Syndrome- results from a loss of a smal piece of  chromosome 7. Can have learning disabilities, great musical abilities,  and are very social and they all have a lot of the same facial features.  If you want to learn more check out what is Laissez-faire?

 Inv dup 15 Syndrome- inverted duplication on chromosome 15. Low  muscle tone, autistic characteristics, and a curve in the spine. Caused  by translocation.  

 Alagille Syndrome- caused by translocation. Individuals can have  atypical fingernails, internal organs that don’t function properly. When  information from 1 chromosome exchanges with another chromosomes  that isn’t homologous.  

 Chromosomal mutations- Occurs when chromosomes break.  

 Deletion- when a single break causes a chromosome to lose an end  piece or when two simultaneous breks lead to the loss of a internal  chromosomal segment.

 Duplication- a chromosomal segment is repeated in the same  chromosome or in a non-homologous chromosome. More than 2 alleles  for certain traits.  We also discuss several other topics like What is the ways of fooling yourself in an adaptive way, avoid painful truths about self?

 Inversion- segment joins in the direction opposite from normal.  

 Translocation- the exchange of chromosomal segments beetween two  non-homologous chromosomes.  

 Gart Gene- protein coding gene  

 Pedigree- family tree that shows whether or not future generations will  be affected  

 Amniocentesis- when amniotic fluid is removed from the uterus for  testing or treatment.  If you want to learn more check out What are the 5 Senses as measuring devices?

 Chrioionic Villus Sampling- test done during early pregnancy that can  find certain problems with the baby (fetus).  

CHAPTER 25  

 4. Describe the structure of DNA. List components of a nucleotide. List  the 4 different types of bases associated with the DNA molecule.  DNA- chain of nucleotides made up of a phosphate, pentose sugar, and  a nitrogen containing base  

 Nucleotide- complex made up of 3 subunits  Don't forget about the age old question of How will you describe Mendelssohn's Song without Word compositional circumstance and intended audience?

 Bases- Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Thymine (T), and Cytosine (C).

 5. What is complementary base-pairing?  

A always pairs with T and G always pairs with C

 6. Why is DNA replication described as semiconservative? What is the  role helicase? DNA  

polymerase? DNA ligase?

Each daughter DNA molecule consists of one new chain of nucleotides  and one chain from the parent DNA molecule  

 Helicase- unwinds and unzips the double stranded DNA   Polymerase- what the pairs are positioned and joined with   Ligase- seals and breaks the sugar-phosphate backbone  

 7. Describe the structure of RNA. List components of the nucleotide and  the 4 different bases.  

Describe the functions of mRNA, tRNA, rRNA.  

Structure-  

 Nucleotide- complex of 3 subunits  

 Bases- Adenine, Guanine, Uracil, and Cytosine  

 mRNA- takes a message from the DNA to the ribosomes becasue DNA  cannot leave the nucleus by itself so it is copied and messaged  

 tRNA- transfers amino acids to ribosomes  

 rRNA- makes up ribosomes along with proteins  

 8. Describe transcription. What is the role of RNA polymerase?  Takes place is the nucleus and a portion of the DNA serves as a  template fro mRNA formation. Processing of mRNA, primary mRNA  contains bases complementary to both intron and exon segments of  DNA.  

 9. Describe translation. What is a ribosome? A polyribosome?  Translation- Takes place in the cytoplasm and sequence of mRNA  determines the sequence of amino acids in polypeptide. Leads to  protein synthesis.  

 Ribosome- site of protein synthesis

 Polyribosome-  

 10. How do exons differ from introns?  

Exons are the portion of the gene that is expressed. Only exons result in  protein product. Introns are intragene segments and are removed.  

 11. What is the genetic code?  

a codon that is made up of 3 nucleotide bases  

 12. What is a codon? What is an anticodon?  

Codon- Triplet of three bases that code for a specific amino acid There  are 64 different mRNA codons  

 Anticodon- triplet of three bases complemetary to a specific codon of  mRNA  

 ex. Codon- CGG, Anticodon- GCC, Amino acid- Arginine  

 13. What is a gene mutation? What causes mutations? What is a point  mutation? What disease is  

caused by a point mutation (see p 511)? What is a frame-shift  mutation?  

Gene mutation- permanent change in a sequence of bases in DNA.  Effects can range from none (neutral) to complete inactivity of the  protein

 Causes:

 1. error in replication  

 2. Mutagens- substance that cause mutations. Substances like  chemicals that can be in the air we breathe, what we eat or drink.  Viruses can be mutagens.  

 3. Transposons- jumping genes have the ability to move from one  location to another on a chromosome or even to a different  chromosome. Ex. corn

 Point mutation- involve a change in a single DNA nucleotide (effects  a single letter) Point mutation can cause sickle cell anemia which  causes ineffective hemoglobin so the blood cannot transfer blood  properly.  

 Frame shift mutation- one or more nucleotides are either inserted or  deleted from the DNA.  

 14. IF a mutation occurs in a germ-line cell, what are the consequences?  They can effect the sex cells and can be passed onto future generations.  Can lead to cancer.  

 15. Are all mutations bad?  

No. Some mutations can be neutral meaning that even if there are  mutations the same protein can be coded or there can be no effect.  

CHAPTER 26  

 16. List applications of gene cloning.  

Genomes, transgenic organisms  

 17. Define or describe: genetic engineering, biotechnology, GMOs,  transgenic, recombinant DNA,  

vector, PCR, DNA fingerprinting, gel electrophoresis.  

Genetic engineering- altering the genome  

 Biotechnology- products produced by GMOs  

 GMOs- genetically modified organisms  

 Transgenic- Organisms with foreign DNA or genes inserted into them  

 Recombinant DNA- contains DNA from two or more different  sources. Such as a human cell and a bacterial cell. Can treat some  diseases by inserting genes.  

 Vector- carries the “working copy” of the gene

 PCR- can create billions of copies of a segment of DNA in a test tube  in just a few hours. It targets a very specific DNA sequence  

 DNA Fingerprinting- entire genome tested with restriction enzymes.  Fragments are separated by gel electrophoresis which results in  distinctive pattern of bands.  

 Gel electrophoresis- Used to separate fragments when testing the  genome  

 18. How is DNA fingerprinting used in forensics?  

It is used to determine who the criminal is or who was involved by  tracing the bands in the fingerprint with gel electrophoresis  

19. How and why have scientists genetically altered some of our crop plants?  

Increase the nutritional value of the products, provide resistance of insects,  provide resistance to herbicides, produce human pharmaceuticals  

20. List beneficial applications for the use of transgenic animals.

Transgenic animals have bGH inserted into them so tat they are larger and  produce more food. They also can produce pharmaceuticals  21. Define or describe: gene therapy, ex vivo gene therapy, in vivo gene  therapy. 22. List examples cited in class of ex vivo and in vivo gene therapy.  

Gene therapy- cloned genes are used to modify a human  

Ex vivo gene therapy- SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency)  and Familial hypercholesterolemia (treat liver cells)  

In vivo gene therapy- Cystic fibrosis (gene sprayed into the nose, gene  delivered to respiratory tract by virus vector or liposomes)  

CHAPTER 27  

 23. How does the fossil provide evidence of evolution? Biogeography?  Comparative Anatomy? Embryology? Biochemistry?

Evolution- any evolved trait that helps an organism be more suited to  its environment  

 Biogeography- studies the range and distribution of species throughout  the world  

 Comparative Anatomy-  

 Embryology- the study of how many different species start out with a  lot of the same features and then as time goes on they develop into their  more adult form.  

 Biochemistry- basically that all organisms share the same basic  biochemical molecules (DNA, ATP, identical or nearly identical  enzymes)  

 24. Define or describe: transitional fossils (links), Archaeopteryx,  homologous structures, analogous structures, vestigial structures,  Pangaea, continental drift.  

Transitional fossils (links)- represent evolutionary links between  groups  

 Archaeopteryx- oldest bird. It had teeth and a long tail with a  vertebrae and scientist link this to birds and reptiles  

 Homologous structures-  

 Analogous structures-  

 Vestigial structures-  

 Pangaea- referred to as the large land mass that started as all of the  continents connected  

 Continental drift- shift of large land masses (continents) then and now  

 25. Define or describe: population, gene pool, gene flow, genetic drift,  population bottleneck, founder effect, Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (the

rare type of dwarfism associated with the founder effect).  

Population- all members of a species occupying a particular area at the  same time  

 Gene pool- the sum totoal of all alleles of all genes in a population  

 Gene flow- movement of alleles between populations. Keeps gene  pools or two or more populations similar  

 Genetic drift- change in allele frequencies due to chance  

 Population bottleneck- when a population decreases significantly and  when they become repopulated there is a lack of genetic variation  

 Founder effect- when only a few individuals represent  

 Ellis- van Creveld syndrome- autosomal recessive condition that  occurs with an increases frequency among the Amish in PA. They have  6 fingers on each hand  

 

 26. List and describe agents of evolution.  

Mutations- raw material for evolutionary change. Permanent genetic  change, and arise randomly.  

 Genetic drift- change in allele frequencies due to chance  

 Found effect- a few individuals found a colony and their collective  genes represent only a fraction of the original gene pool  

 Bottleneck effect- when a population is decreased significantly and  when they are repopulated there is a lack of genetic variation  

 Gene flow- movement of alleles between populations  

 Nonrandom mating- occurs when individuals pair up according to  phenotype or genotype (inbreeding)

 Natural selection- because of certain traits or characteristics help them  survive better, those individuals can reproduce and then those genes are  passed onto later generations  

 27. How does Lamarck’s theory differ from Darwin’s?  

Lamarck’s theory describes and entire population evolving generation  by generation into what they need to live in their environment where as  Darwin’s theory describes natural selection which means that those  with the desirable trait will survive and reproduce offsprings with that  desirable trait  

 28. Define: adaptation  

Adaption- any evolved trait that helps an organism be more suited to  its environment  

 29. List critical elements of Darwin’s natural selection theory.-p 548  Individual variation, inheritance, overproduction, and differential  reproductive success

 30. Define or describe: prezygotic reproductive isolating mechanisms and  postzygotic isolating  

mechanisms.  

Prezygotic reproductive isolating- prevents the fertilization of eggs   Postzygotic isolating- prevents the formation of a fertile offspring  

 31. Briefly discuss divergent feeding habits of Galapagos finches and how  that led to adaptive  

radiation. (see pp 536 and 553)  

Adaptive radiation is when there is a proliferation of a species by  adaption to different ways of life. Galapagos Finches originated as one  kind on the main island but it is said that they flew to other islands and  adapted to the environment there specifically their beaks changed to  adapt to the kind of food they were eating. Through natural selection  the finches adapted on each island.

 32. List and characterize the 3 domains of life.  

Eukarya, Bacteria(prokaryotic), Archaea (prokaryotic that live in  extreme conditions)  

 33. Beginning with the most inclusive, list the taxonomic categories.  Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order Genus, and Species  

 34. How do we denote the scientific name of an organism?  Genus and then specific epithet in latin  

CHAPTER 28  

 35. How are microbes beneficial?  

some bacteria in the human GI tract can produce vitamins K and B12,  some bacteria can prevent other bad bacterias from getting in and on  our bodies, there are decomposers that can help in the environment, can  be used in medicine, food processing, and biotechnology  

 36. How do archaea differ from bacteria? How are the two groups similar?  They are both prokaryotes but bacteria usually has peptidoglycan in the  cell wall and archaea doesn’t. Neither of them have a nuclei or  membrane bound organelles  

 37. Define or describe: Gram +, Gram-, peptidoglycan, conjugation,  transformation, transduction,  

binary fission.  

Gram (+)-  

 Gram (-)-  

 Peptidoglycan- in the cell wall of bacteria and not archaeas   Conjugation- form of sexual reproduction of algae and fungi   Transformation- living bacteria can pick up DNA from dead bacteria  

 Transduction- some viruses infect bacteria and it can carry DNA from  another bacteria cell which can get into the other bacteria cell

 Binary fission- the way to produce asexually  

 38. What problems can Streptococcus pyogenes cause in humans?  Staphylococcus aureus? What is  

MRSA?  

Streptococcus pyogenes- causes most diseases of any strep  (pharyngitis, impetigo, scarlet fever, rheumatic fever, and necrotizing  fasciitis)  

 Staphylococcus aureus- related to skin infections and if it gets into the  blood stream it is called a systemic infections which can be very deadly

 MRSA- resistant staphylococcus aureus. Over 90% of the strains are  resistant to penicillin  

 39. How do tubercles form when a person is infected with Mycobacterium  tuberculosis? If a person  

has a positive reaction to a TB skin test does that mean that their lungs  are diseased?  

After a person is infected an immune response causes calcified nodules  (tubercles) in the lungs. If they test positive it does not mean that their  lungs are diseases.  

 40. How might an adult acquire botulism? A child? How might a person  become infected with  

Salmonella bacteria?  

Botulism can be acquired through canned food. A child can get it from  eating honey. A person can get infected with salmonella by eating food  contaminated with animal feces. These foods usually are poultry, beef,  eggs, dairy. and vegetables.  

 41. How do antibiotics work? What are some problems associated with  antibiotic therapy?  

Antibiotics inhibit bacteria from interfering with unique metabolic  pathways. Some problems are allergic reactions, the killing off of  normal flora, and bacterial resistance.

 42. Define or describe: archaea, methanogens, thermoacidophiles,  halophiles, arsenophiles.  

Archaea- prokaryotes that survive in extreme conditions  

 Methanogens- live in swamps with little oxygen and live in the  digestive tract of cows

 Themoacidophiles- can survive and thrive in very hot and acidic areas   Halophiles- salt tolerant  

 Arsenophiles- only things that can survive in Mono Lake  

 43. Describe the basic structure of a virus.  

they all have DNA or RNA genome and they have a protein coat  

 44. Viruses are not considered “living,” why? What determines the  specificity of a virus? Hint- receptors  

They are considered non living because they are surrounded by a  protien coat and go int the host cell which is needed in order for them  to reproduce and replicate  

 45. Define or describe: antigenic drift, antigenic shift.  

Antigenic drift- when there is a slight change in the proteins that occur  because of the mutations in the RNA genome. This is the reason we  have a new flu vaccine every year

 Antigenic shift- when two different viruses infect a single individual.  The viruses can exchange genetic material which creates a new virus  

 46. List and briefly describe any viral diseases discussed in class.  Rhinoviruses cause colds, flu is caused by influenza viruses, polio,  measles, mumps, rubella, chickenpox, ebola, HPV, Herpes, HIV,  smallpox

CHAPTER 31  

 47. List characteristics of animals.  

Heterotrophic (have to get nutrition from an outside source),  Multicellular, diploid at adult stage, sexual reproduction  

 48. Define or describe: asymmetry, radial symmetry, bilateral symmetry,  cephalization, sessile,  

coelom.  

Asymmetry- no particular symmetry (sponges)  

 Radial symmetry- circular organization, can be bisected in any place  to produce mirror images, some sessile (sea anenamies)  

 Bilateral symmetry- definite right and left halves; only a cut down the  midline will produce mirror images, accompanies by cephalization  (there is a head or a concentration of neural cells at one end)  

 Cephalization- there is not distinct head but there is a concentration of  neural cells at one end of the worm  

 Sessile- radially symmetrical animals may be permanently attached to a  substrate  

 Coelom-  

 49. Which animals exhibit only the cellular level of organization?  Sponges

 50. Characterize the following phyla: Porifera, Cnidaria, Platyhelminthes,  Mollusca, Nematoda,  

Annelida, Arthropoda. Be sure to know examples of animals in each  phylum.  

Porifera- sponges that are mostly marine. They have no tissues

 Cnidaria- mostly marine animals with two layers that make up the  endoderm and the ectoderm. Examples are coral, jellyfish, and  Portuguese man of war

 Platyhelminthes- known as flatworms. They are either free living or  parasitic. They don’t have a body cavity but have all three levels of  tissues. They have a brain and lateral nerve cords, excretory system and  gastrovascular cavity  

 Mollusca- marine, freshwater or terrestrial. They have a true body  cavity, well developed nervous system, open circulatory system,  visceral mass, and mantel cavity  

 Nematoda- known as round worms. They can be either free living or  parasitic. They have a fake body cavity that functions as a hydrostatic  skeleton.  

 Annelida- segmented worms that include polychaetes, oligochaetes  and leeches. They have a complete digestive tract  

 Arthropoda- jointed exoskeleton, segmentation, a well developed  nervous system, variety of respiratory structures  

 51. Define or describe: hermaphroditic, dioecious, cnidocytes, nematocysts,  Planaria,  

Hermaphroditic- produces both sperm and ova  

 Dioecious- you need both sexes to reproduce  

 Cnidocytes- stinging ceslls that are on the tentacles of animals  

 Nematocysts- in each cnidocyte it’s a toxin filled capsule that contains  a long, spirally coiled hollow thread  

 Planaria- they divide themselves and a head will come from the tail  and the tail will come from the head  

 52. Describe life cycles of the following parasitic flatworms: Taenia  solium, Schistosoma spp. How do  

humans acquire the infections?  

Taenia- human (primary host) and a pig (secondary host)

 Solium- acquired by eating insufficiently cooked pork   Schistosoma spp-  

 53. What adaptations are seen in tapeworms?  

It is modified for its parasitic way of life. It consists of a scolex and  many proglottids, which become bags of eggs  

 54. List the 3 distinct parts of a mollusks- see p. 633 in your book.  Visceral mass, foot, and mantle  

 55. Describe the life cycles of the following parasitic nematodes: Ascaris  lumbricoides, Trichinella  

spiralis. How do humans acquire these infections?  

Ascaris lumbricoides-  

 Trichinella spiralis-  

 56. What is elephantiasis? How do humans acquire the disease?  When body parts swell to massive proportions  

 57. Define or describe: clitellum, setae, parapodia, hirudin.  Clitellum- thickened glandular and non-segmented section of the body  wall near the head in earthworms and leeches  

 Setae- bristles that anchor the worm or help it move   Parapodia- lateral fleshy protrusions  

 Hirudin- naturally occuring peptide in the salivary glands of medicinal  leeches  

 58. How are leeches used medicinally today?  

They increased blood flow where there could have been a removal or  something and then reattached like when a finger or an ear is removed  

 59. How many species of arthropods have been described? What is the  largest and most successful

class of arthropods?  

 60. List 5 characteristics that have led to the success of the phylum  Arthropoda......see pp 639-641  

Rigid but jointed exoskeleton, segmentation, well developed nervous  system

 61. Why are some arachnids medically important?  

maggots can be used to determine if a dead body has been moved or  how long the corpse has been dead.  

CHAPTER 32  

 62. List features characteristic of all chordates.  

Notochord, dorsal tubular nerve cord that develops into brain,  pharyngeal pouches, postanal tail, thyroid gland or endostyle  

 63. Define or describe: tunicate, lancelet.  

Tunicate- invertebrate chordates  

 Lancelet- invertebrate chordates  

 64. How do vertebrates differ from the invertebrate chordates?  Vertebrates have an embryonic notochord that is replaced by a vertebral  column, strong jointed endoskeleton, 2 pairs of appendages, closed  circulatory system, high degree of cephalization, and jaws in most  

 65. Characterize the jawless fishes (hagfishes and lampreys), cartilaginous  fishes (Chondrichthyes),  

Bony fishes (ray-finned fishes and lobe-finned fishes), amphibians,  reptiles, birds and mammals.  

Jawless fishes (hagfishes and lampreys)- smooth, scaleless skin and  no jaws or paired fins  

 Cartilaginous fishes (chrondrichthyes)- they have skeletons of  cartilage instead of bone. about 750 species and sharks

 Bony fishes (ray- finned fishes and lobe-finned fishes)- by far the  most numerous and diverse  

 Amphibians- jointed appendages, fertilize externally, and their eggs  aren’t shelled which is why they have to survive in water or in very  moist environments  

 Reptiles- amniotic eggs, fertilize internally  

 Birds- everything in its physical features can be related to its ability to  fly  

 Mammals- they all have hair, monotremes are egg laying mammals,  marsupials are pouch mammals, and placental mammals are the most  successful  

 66. Discuss the circulatory systems of fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds  and mammals. See fig 32.12  

Fish- a single look system utilized a two chambered heart  

 Amphibians and Reptiles- the heart has three chambets and some  mixing of O2 rich and O2 poor blood takes place

 Birds and Mammals- the heart has four chambers and send only O2  poor blood to the lungs and O2 rich blood to the body  

 67. Define or describe: amniotic egg, extraembyronic membranes, chorion,  amnion, yolk sac and  

allantois.  

Amniotic egg- type of egg produced by reptiles, birds, and egg laying  mammals in which the embryo develops inside an amnion  

 Extra-embryonic membranes- mammals produce amnion, yolk sac,  chorion, and allantois  

 Chorion- develops into the fetal side of the placenta   Amnion- contains the amniotic fluid

 Yolk sac- the earliest site of blood cell formation  

 Allantois-  

 68. Characterize the monotremes, marsupials and placental mammals.  Know examples of each.  

Monotremes- egg laying  

 Marsupials- pouch  

 Placental mammals- this is a majority of mammals and this is the  most successful becaus the placenta is good at providing nutrients and  development  

- Question- A man with normal vision marries a color- blind women. What percent of  their female children will be color blind?  

• Answer- 0%  

- Question- When homologous chromosomes fail to separate during meiosis, this is  termed  

• Answer- Nondisjunction  

- Question- A person who has an extra copy of a chromosome is said to have a ___  condition  

• Answer- Trisomic  

- Question- A nucleotide contains…  

• Answer- A sugar, a phospate, and a nitrogen base (A,G,C,T)  

- Question- Which of the following statements about DNA replication is NOT correct?  • Answer- Replication occurs as each bases is paired with another exactly like it.  - Question- During the process of transcription, the information in  • Answer- DNA is converted into RNA information  

- Question- The genetic code consists of ___ bases that strand for one amino acid  • Answer- Three  

- Question- Organisms with foreign DNA or genes inserted into them are called ____  organisms.

• Answer- Transgenic  

- Question- The human genome consists of approximately ___ base pairs  • Answer- 3.2 billion  

- Question- What are base pairs?  

• Answer- Nitrogenous bases (adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine ) - Question- Mutations arise in response to need  

• Answer- False  

- Question- Which of the following is true about natural selection?  • Answer- On average, it favors the survival of young with adaptive characteristics  - Question- When only a few individuals survive unfavorable times, thereby losing the  majority of genotypes in the next generation, it is called  

• Answer- bottleneck effect  

- Question- Which type of prokaryotes are able to live in the most extreme  environments  

• Answer- archaea  

- Question- They innermost core of a virus’s structure is made up of..  • Answer- either DNA or RNA  

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