Feeds and Feeding Final study guide
Feeds and Feeding Final study guide ANSC 3232
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This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by Dragon Note on Saturday May 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANSC 3232 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Dr. Meyer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Feeds and Feeding in Animal Science at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Date Created: 05/07/16
New Exam 3 material What are the major differences between grasses and legumes? Legumes have higher CP and can cause frothy bloat when over consumed What are the major differences between cool season and warm season grasses? Cool season: C3, two growth peaks, higher protein, less digestible, less deterioration, higher lignin Warm season: C4, one growth peak, lower protein, more digestible, low lignin What are the major positives and negatives of endophyte-infected tall fescue? Positives: high tolerance to poo drainage, heat stress, cold temperature, overgrazing Negatives: alters blood flow, changes prolactin, increases heat stress of animal, decreases feed intake, decreases animal production, poor hair coat What are the goals of forage harvest for hay? Have the lowest nutrient loss possible, obtain maximum yield and quality How are yield and quality affected by timing? Harvesting hay at optimal timing and conditions will produce maximum yield and quality hay What is silage? How is it produced? Stalks that are sore in an anaerobic environment in order to ferment and form organic acids such as lactic acid What factors affect mineral content of a feedstuff? Soil and water, type of feedstuff/plant, part of parent compound What minerals and vitamins are most often of concern when feeding livestock? Vitamin A, Ca:P, NaCl, Cu, Zn, and Se What particular minerals and vitamins are supplemented to specific species or physiological stages? NaCl: should be supplemented Magnesium: low in the springtime Fe: neonatal pigs, if parasites are present Zinc: based on animal stress Cobalt: Ruminants Vitamin A: for skin, eyes, and reproduction Vitamin C: humans and Guinea pigs can’t synthesize Vitamin K: supplemented for insurance B vitamins except 1 and 12 supplemented to swine B12 and B1 are supplemented to cattle Is soil mineral concentration concerning in MO? Iodine, and cobalt What units are used? Macro: % Micro: ppm (mg/kg) Vitamins: IU What is a “feed additive”? Nonnutritive compounds added to feed to improve animals well being What types of feed additives are included in livestock feed? Why? Antimicrobial: prevent of ameliorate illness Anthelmintic: Deworming Direct-fed microbials: change environment to affect microbial pop Metabolic modifier: improve meat quality What are the major effects of ionophores? Change fermentation by changing rumen microbe population What are the major effects of β-agonists ? Enhance lean growth in livestock, treat asthma, arrest premature labor and treat cardiac irregularities in humans What is the VFD? paper or electronic “prescription” for feed-grade antibiotics How does the VFD affect producers, feed mills, and veterinarians? Producers cannot sell to feedlot for a certain number of days after giving certain medications Feed mills cannot distribute meat with certain medications in them Veterinarians are in charge of establishing the VFD Exam 1 material Give 3 reasons for caring about nutrition Health, money, output vs input What is nutrition? The act or process of nourishing or being nourished What are the four parts of nutrition? Ingesting, digesting, absorbing, assimilating What is feedstuff? Edible materials consumed by animals that contribute nutrients to the animal's diet What is a diet? Feed ingredient of mixture of feed ingredients that is consumed by an animal What is a ration? The amount of total feed provided to an animal over one day What is a nutrient? Any chemical substance that provides nourishment to the body What are the six nutrient classes? Water, protein, carbs, lipids, vitamins, minerals What does organic mean? Contains carbon What does it mean when a nutrient is required? Animal must consume nutrient to live What is a building block? Monomer that makes up nutrient polymer How much of the body is water? 65-75% What are the 3 sources of water? Free water, water content of feedstuff, metabolic water Give 3 functions of water? Biological solvent, heat dissipation, dietary source of minerals Is water a required nutrient? Yes What is the main component of feeds for domestic animals? Carbs How are carbs formed? Photosynthesis What percent of plant material is made up of carbs? 50-80% What is the building block of carbs? Monosaccharides What are the 3 types of carbs? Sugars, starches, fiber Describe polysaccharides Long chain Give two examples of polysaccharides Starch, cellulose What is the difference between starch and cellulose? Starch alpha 1,4 cellulose beta 1,4 Give 2 functions of carbs Energy, provide building blocks for other nutrient Are carbs required? No What is the building block of nitrogenous compounds? Amino acids Give two example of NPN Peptide, urea, amino acid What is an essential AA? Amino acid that cannot be synthesized by animals in adequate amounts What is a non-essential AA? Amino acid that is not needed in the diet due to having the substrates for synthesis What are the essential amino acids? Phenylalanine, valine, threonine, tryptophan, isoleucine, methionine, histidine, arginine, leucine, lysine What amino acid is only needed by cats? Taurine What are the four parts of amino acids? Amino group, H, carboxyl group, R group Give 3 function of nitrogenous groups? Structural, metabolic, movement, immune functions, energy Are nitrogenous compounds a required nutrient? Yes What is the building block of lipids? Fatty acid + backbone What are the 3 types of lipids? Simple, compound, sterols What is different about saturated fats? No double bonds What do the number on lipids mean? #C: # double bonds How much more energy do lipids have compared to other energy sources? 2.25x What are the 3 essential fatty acids? Linoleic acid, linolenic acid, arachidonic acid Give 3 functions of lipids Energy, essential fatty acids, carrier for lipid soluble vitamins, cell membranes Are lipids a required nutrient? Yes What is the short term storage of energy? Glycogen What is the long term storage of energy? Adipose What are the 2 types of minerals? Macro, micro What are macro-minerals measured in? % What are micro-minerals measured in? Ppm Name 4 macro-minerals Ca, P, Na, Cl, S, K, Mg Name 4 micro-minerals Fe, Se, Co, Mo, Cu, Zn, Cr, Mn, I, F Give 3 functions of minerals Co-factors for enzyme and metabolic reactions, body structure, pH and water balance Are minerals required? Yes What are the 2 types of vitamins? Water soluble, fat soluble Are vitamins required? Yes Give 3 functions of vitamins Co-factors for enzymes, immune function, hormone regulation, bone formation, antioxidants, vision, blood clotting What is DM? Dry matter What is AF? As fed What is OM? Organic matter What is CP? Crude protein What is NDF? Neutral detergent fiber What is ADF? Acid detergent fiber What is EE? Ether extract What is CF? Crude fiber/ crude fat What is TDN? Total digestible nutrients What is DE? Digestible energy What is ME? Metabilizable energy What is NE? Net energy What is NEm? Net energy maintenance What is as fed? Feedstuff or ration as presented to the animal What is dry matter? Feedstuff or ration remaining after water is removed Why does DM matter? Non-water nutrients on same basis, $ to transport water What animals do you use DM? Ruminant and horses Which has a greater percent nutrient, DM or AF? DM What is the lumen? Surface of GI tract that touches digesta Is the lumen inside or out? Outside What are the two types of digestive tracts? Monogastric and ruminant What type of monogastic stomach do cats and dogs have? Simple What type of monogastic stomach do poultry have? Complex foregut What type of monogastic stomach do horses and rabbits have? Hindgut fermenters What ruminants are concentrate selectors? Deer and moose What ruminants are intermediate selectors? Goats and elk What ruminants are grass/roughage eaters? Cows and sheep What is the fermentation location of ruminants? Rumen, reticulum, omasum, large intestine What is the fermentation location of simple monogastrics? Large intestine, cecum What is the fermentation location of avians? Large intestine, ceca What is the fermentation location of hindgut fermenters? Large intestine What is the dietary contribution of fermentation in ruminants? VFA, microbial CP What is the dietary contribution of fermentation in avians? minimal What is the dietary contribution of fermentation? VFA Give 3 functions of saliva? Increase moisture of feed, lubrication, buffer, amylase and lipase Name 2 gastric secretions of the stomach Enzymes, HCl, mucus What helps to digest protein? Acid, pepsin What are the 3 regions of the small intestine? Duodenum, ileum, jejunum What is the main function of the small intestine? Main site of nutrient absorption What is the turnover of the small intestine surface? 2-4 days What are the parts of the large intestine? Cecum, large and small colon, rectum What is the function of microbial fermentation in the hindgut (3) Break down fiber, produce VFA, synthesis vitamins What is absorbed in the large intestine? Water, VFA, ammonia, minerals, vitamins What is the other function of the large intestine? Expels waste What is the main difference in hindgut fermenters? Large intestinal size Give 3 differences between horses and cattle digestive tracts Horses have less digestive tract capacity, passage rate is higher in horses, about 30%, horses can't utilize microbial nutrients as well What are the 4 avian differences in the digestive tract? Crop, proventriculous, gizzard, less cecal fermentation What is the function of the crop? Holds feed What is the function of the proventriculus? Gastric stomach What is the function of the gizzard? Teeth What is produced by the pancreas (2)? Digestive enzymes, metabolic hormones Give 3 functions of the liver Bile, metabolism, storage of some vitamins and minerals, glycogen storage, detoxification What is the function of the gall bladder? Stores and releases bile What animals don't have gall bladders? Rats, horses What is the function of the kidney (3)? Detox, urea cycle, water balance What is the gastrointestinal function of the brain (3)? Satiety, production of metabolic and GI hormones, target of hormones What makes ruminants different? Foregut fermentation, regurgitation and rumination, eructation of gasses, stomach setions How much digesta is located in the stomach? 65-80% Describe the reticulo-rumen 102.5 temp, anaerobic, lots of water, pH fluctuates What is absorbed in the reticulo-rumen? VFA, ammonia What are the functions of the omasum? 2 Controls passage to abomasum, absorption What is the function of the abomasum? Gastric compartment Why are GMOs not a problem? We eat DNA and RNA What enzyme degrades stage and sugar? Amylase What is the pH when starches and sugar are degraded by microbes? 5-6 What is produced from the fermentation of starches and sugar? VFA and lactate What happens if sugars and starches escape the rumen? They will be digested and absorbed by the small intestine What is the pH when fiber is degraded in the rumen? 6.5-7.2 What happens if fiber escapes the rumen? It is fermented by hindgut microbes What do lipids generate? Fatty acids and glycerol What is done to fatty acids? Biohydrogenated, isomerized, used in microbe reproduction Are lipids used for microbial energy? No What are proteins used for in the rumen? Microbial protein synthesis, deamination, reamination What is needed for microbes to synthesize AA? NH3 and C skeleton What determines if a feed particle gets fermented? Ability and time What do rumen microbes eat? 4 Soluble carbs, RDP, NPN, fatty acids Give 3 pros of rumen microbes Ability to utilize fiber, better utilize fermentation products, improved consistency of AA to small intestine, can have low protein or NPN diet, able to recycle N Give 3 cons of rumen microbes Decreased efficiency of soluble starch and sugar, decreased efficiency of protein use, increased gas and heat production Where do the substrates for synthesizing AA in the rumen come from? Deamination Where is N digested? Rumen What are ruminants being fed? Anything left after microbe consumption and CP from dead microbes What is the major site of carb digestion in simple monogastrics? Small intestine What is the major site of protein digestion in simple monogastrics? Stomach What is the major site of lipid digestion in simple monogastrics? Small intestine What is the major site of carb digestion in hindgut fermenters? Small intestine What is the major site of protein digestion in hindgut fermenters? Stomach What is the major site of lipid digestion in hindgut fermenters? Small intestine What is the major site of carb digestion in avians? Small intestine What is the major site of protein digestion in avians? Provestriculus What is the major site of lipid digestion in avians? Small intestine What is the major site of carb digestion in ruminants? Small intestine What is the major site of protein digestion in ruminants? Abomasum What is the major site of lipid digestion in ruminants? Small intestine What is the major site of carb absorption in simple monogastrics? Small intestine What is the major site of protein absorption in simple monogastrics? Small intestine What is the major site of lipid absorption in simple monogastrics? Small intestine What is the major site of carb absorption in hindgut fermenters? Small intestine What is the major site of protein absorption in hindgut fermenters? Small intestine What is the major site of lipid absorption in hindgut fermenters? Small intestine What is the major site of carb absorption in avains? Small intestine What is the major site of protein absorption in avains? Small intestine What is the major site of lipid absorption in avains? Small intestine What is the major site of carb absorption in ruminants? Small intestine What is the major site of protein absorption in ruminants? Small intestine What is the major site of lipid absorption in ruminants? Small intestine How does the location of fermentation affect simple monogastrics? There is very little fermentation in simple monogastrics How does the location of fermentation affect hindgut fermenters? They are unable to effefiently utilize nutrients prodced by microbes How does the location of fermentation affect avian? Very little fermentation in avian How does the location of fermentation affect ruminants? Allows animal to more efficiently utilize nutrients produced by microbes What is NRC? Average minimum nutrients required by a group of similar animals for a specific function What is needed to make nutritional management decisions? GIT, special considerations, nutrient requirements, feed options What is the law of diminishing returns? At some point increasing inputs by 1 unit will yield progressively smaller output increases What is deficiency? Negative physiological response to not having enough of a given nutrient What are the three types of deficiency? Subacute, chronic, extreme What is toxicity? Negative physiological response to having too much of a given nutrient What protein requirements are used in ruminants? Metabolize protein, ruminally degradable protein, ruminally undegraded protein, AA What protein requirements are used in swine? AA What protein requirements are used in horses? CP, AA What fat requirement is used? Essential fatty acids, energy What energy requirements are used? NE, ME, DE What is the order of importance of energy? NE> ME> DE What special energy is used in beef? NEg What special energy is used in dairy? NE L What are some factors that affect overall nutrient requirements? Species, breed, age, sex, BW, physiological state What %DM=AF? 90% What is the conversion between density, requirement and intake? Intake= nutrient requirement/nutrient density How many components does ADF have? 2 How many components does NDF have? 3 What is energy? Ability to do work or cause change What is heat? Temperature change What is work? Force acting through a distance In what forms are energy lost? Heat, gas, urine, feces Where do species differences occur? Ruminants produce much more gas and don't have as much urinary loss How are these losses used? Ruminants are able to better keep warm and recycle the NPN that is excreted in urine in other animals What can net energy be used for? Maintenance and recovered/retained What affects maintenance energy requirements? Basal metabolism, voluntary movement, thermoregulation What is a thermoneutral zone? What does it mean for the animal? The temperature between lower and upper critical temperature What happens to feed intake and animal performance during heat stress? Feed intake will decrease What happens to feed intake and animal performance during cold stress? Increase when possible What are the parts of NDF? Hemicellulose, cellulose, liguin What are the parts of ADF? Cellulose and liguin What is the formula for apparent digestability? (intake- outake)/intake What is the formula for true digestability? Intake- (output-endogenous)/ intake Examples: Your fish food is analyzed to contain 5.2% N on a DM basis. What is its %CP? What is the apparent DM and CP digestibility of this steer’s diet? – Diet intake (as-fed basis) = 22.4 lb – Diet % DM = 88% – Diet % CP = 14% – Fecal output = 35 lb – Fecal % DM = 20% – Fecal % CP = 8.4% What is the NDF Digestibility (%)? Alfalfa haylage Feces DM % 44 18 Intake, lb (as fed) 22 -- Recovered, lb (wet) -- 21.5 NDF % (DM basis) 52 36 3.2 Mcal ME/kg = ____ Mcal ME/lb? 0.9 Mcal NE mlb = ____ Mcal NE mkg? 1.2 Mcal NE mlb = ____ Mcal NE mkg? 2.9 kcal ME/kg = ____ Mcal kcal ME/lb? What is the cost per Mcal NE Grass Hay: 86% DM 0.5 Mcal NE /lb (DM basis) $80/ton (as fed) m m What is the cost per Mcal NE Corn silage: 34% DM 0.73 Mcal NE /lb (DM basis)$100/ton (as fed) L L How many Mcal NE is aLlactating dairy cow receiving if she consumes 31.5 lb DM of a ration that is 2.2 Mcal/kg (DM basis)? How many lb CP is a lactating dairy cow receiving if she consumes 45 lb AF of a ration that is 72% DM and 14% CP (DM basis)? How many kcal ME is a growing barrow consuming if he eats 0.8 lb (as fed) of a ration that is 3400 kcal/kg (AF basis)? How many g CP is a dog receiving if she consumes 0.5 lb (as fed) of a dry food that is 27.5% CP (AF basis)? 3.5 tons of shelled corn: How many lb? How many bushels (56 lb corn/ bushel)? How many kg? How many g? Silage (33% DM) 100 lb DM = ? lb AF 100 lb AF = ? lb DM A beef cow grazing tall fescue pasture (25% DM) in May eats 24 lb of forage on a DM basis. How much does she consume as fed in lb? A dog eats 0.6 lb of wet dog food that is 78% moisture. How much DM does she consume (lb)? Silage (33% DM) 6% CP (as fed basis) = ? % CP (DM basis) You purchase 1 ton of soybean meal that is 90% DM and 42% CP (as fed) What is the %CP on a DM basis? Cost/lb DM? Alfalfa Haylage: 55% moisture 15% CP (DM basis) $80/ton (as fed) Cost/lb CP? Alfalfa Haylage: 55% moisture 15% CP (DM basis) $80/ton (as fed) Exam 2 material 1. How do plant and animal proteins compare overall? 2. What are the major nutritional characteristics of each protein source type discussed? 3. What are the main protein sources used? Why? 4. Why are animal proteins used? 5. How and why are NPN sources used? 6. Why do we feed cereal grains to livestock and other animals? 7. Know the nutrient composition of corn. 8. What do common cereal grains have in common? How do they differ? How do these compare with corn? 9. What are other high starch feedstuff options? 10. What is soluble fiber? Why do we feed it? To what animals? 11. How do common high soluble fiber co-products compare to one-another? Positives and negatives 12. What are some concerns with feeding high soluble fiber co-products? 13. What are associative effects? 14. What are examples of associative effects? 15. When/why do we feed molasses? (Nutritional reasons and Non-nutritional reasons) 16. What nutrients do milk co-products contain? 17. When/why do we feed high fat feedstuffs? 18. What high sugar and high fat feedstuffs are available for use in livestock feeds? 19. What is the correct order for balancing rations as we discussed in class? 20. What is the most used protein feed for livestock? 21. What is the common name for the disease that results from sheep and goats eating an excess of carbohydrates? 22. What can poorly fermented silage cause? 23. How does tannins decrease grazing animal performance? 24. What cereal grain has the least CP 25. What cereal grain has the highest energy for non-ruminants? 26. What is phytate? 27. When are NPN sources such as urea or biuret likely to cause ammonia (or urea) toxicity? 28. Can urea be fed to non-ruminant animals? 29. Why do we feed much less synthetic AA to ruminant livestock? 30. What do we mean by "soluble fiber"? 31. Why might fibrous co-products be included in pet foods? 32. Why do we pellet high fiber so products? 33. What is the most variable in nutrient composition and parent grain components? 34. What animals are bakery and potato co-products and waste fed to? 35. What are some examples of high starch feedstuff? 36. Milk co-products such as whey and lactose primarily provide what in the diet? 37. If a lactating dairy cow requires 16.9% CP (DM basis) when DMI is 12.0 kg, what is her daily CP requirement (kg/day)? 38. If a mid-gestation beef cow requires 0.38 Mcal NE mlb when DMI is 24.0 lb, what is her daily NE mequirement (Mcal NE /dam)? 39. If a growing horse requires 1015 g CP/d, and you want to deliver this in 14 lb DM/day of hay, what is the necessary % CP (DM basis) of the ration? 40. If you need to supply an additional 5.2 Mcal ME/d to a late gestation beef cow, and want to do this in a 2 lb/hd/day supplement, what is the necessary Mcal/lb of the supplement? 41. Balance a diet for 910 lb steer, finish weight of 1300 lb, ADG of 3.21 Ingredient % DM % CP NEm, NEg, % Ca % P % in (DM) Mcal/kg Mcal/kg (DM) (DM) diet (DM) (DM) (DM) Corn 89 9.1 2.24 1.55 0.02 0.35 SBM 90 47.2 2.06 1.4 0.33 0.71 Dicalcium 94 - - - 19 22 phosphate Limestone 94 - - - 34 - Nutrient x 10.7 1.67 1.06 0.39 0.2 density required 42. ingredient % DM % CP NEm, NEg, % Ca % P % in Mcal/kg Mcal/kg ration (DM) High 72 10.7 2.33 1.62 0.02 0.32 moisture corn SBM 89 49.9 2.06 1.4 0.33 0.71 Grass hay 88 9.5 0.75 0.2 0.4 0.3 5 Mineral 93 - - - 17 - 1.5 mix Dicalcium 94 - - - 19 22 phosphate limestone 94 - - - 34 - Nutrient - 13.7 1.98 1.34 0.52 0.26 density necessary 43. 1200lb cow DM basis Poor TF hay (70% NDF) Alfalfa hay (45% NDF) 2% BW, lb DMI 1.2% NDF, lb DMI 1.2% NDF as a % BW 44. 1200 lb cow in early lactation consuming poor quality tall fescue hay (70% NDF, 7.2% CP, 0.9 Mcal/kg) 2.83 cp/day 16.3 Mcal NEm/d. How many pounds AF of shelled corn (9.5% CP, 2.18 NEm, Mcal/kg, 90%DM) would she need to meet these needs? Key 1. Animal proteins have more appropriate AA profile, no true fiber in animals, greater RUP in animal protein 2. Oilseeds meals: 35% CP, 90% true protein, high in lysine, anti-nutritional factors. Soybean meal: 44% CP, High lysine low Met, best plant protein source. Mill feeds: low CP, high fiber, low lysine, high Met. 3. The main protein sources used are soybean mean and fish meal because they are the most readily available sources. 4. Animal proteins have a more appropriate AA profile 5. NPN is used for ruminants for microbes to build amino acids or utilize urease 6. Moderate vitamin E, contains P, starch- energy 7. 72% starch, low niacin, zinc, low in Lys and Trp, 46% RDP 8. High in starch a. CP, energy, fiber, RDP b. Not as palatable, less starch, increased CP 9. Barley, oats, wheat, milo, rye, triticale 10. A fiber that is easy to digest and is highly soluble a. Ruminants: more fiber and energy, fill, associative effects Non ruminants: decrease nutrient density and improves fecal consistancy 11. Moderate CP, low Niacin, higher Ca than parent product 12. Highly variable 13. Animal performance from a combination of feedstuffs is different from that expected from adding the individual feedstuffs 14. Positive associative effects: soy hulls + tall fescue hay Negative associative effects: corn + tall fescue hay 15. Conditioner- controlling dust, keep feed together, Palatability, Pellet binder, Feed additive vehicle, minerals + vitamins, Liquid supplement base- ruminant supplement, add energy 16. Proteins, lactose and minerals 17. Add energy to diet 18. Bakery wastes, candy waste, milk co products, tallow, grease, vegetable oils 19. Protein, Energy, P, Ca 20. Oilseed 21. Overeating disease 22. Neurologic disease 23. Decreased palatability 24. Corn 25. Corn 26. A P-containing compound that is lowly digestible for non-ruminants 27. When animals graze a pasture or field that was fertilized with N too soon, when feed containing these is not mixed thoroughly enough 28. No 29. Rumen microbes degrade AA in feed unless they are "protected" 30. Digestible fiber 31. Improved fecal consistency, Decrease nutrient density for weight control formulas 32. They are bulky and low density 33. Fines 34. Ruminants 35. Barley, potatoes, bread waste 36. Non-fiber carbohydrates 37. 2.03kg CP/day 38. 9.12 Mcal/day 39. 16% 40. 2.6 Mcal/day 41. % in diet 93.1 4.9 0 2 100% 42. % in diet 83.63 8.8 - - 0 1.07 100 43. 24 lb DM 24 lb 20.5 32.04 1.71 2.67 44. 15.9 lb
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