Quiz 3 Study Guide
Quiz 3 Study Guide EVE12
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elizabeth P. on Saturday May 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to EVE12 at University of California - Davis taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Life in the Sea in Biology at University of California - Davis.
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Date Created: 05/07/16
Quiz 3 Study Guide 1. What are the distinguishing features of vertebrates (Phylum Chordata) and how do they differ from invertebrate phyla? a. Vertebrates are characterized by a backbone and a series of vertebrate bones that enclose a nerve cord. Invertebrates lack these bones as well as the central nerve cord. 2. What are the major distinguishing features of families of fishes? a. Sharks and rays (or rayfinned) fishes: These organisms lack calcified bones and instead, have a skeleton of cartilage. Sharks have dorsal and tail fins while rays have a flattened body with both eyes on their dorsal side. b. Families of bony fishes: Bony fishes have a skeleton comprised of calcified bones (see each family’s characteristics below). 3. What is a lateral line and what purpose does it serve? a. A lateral line is essentially a sensory system. Through a series of pores between their scales, fishes can sense pressure waves created by water flowing around them. The pores connect to nerve cells (neuromasts), which are connected to the brain. The lateral line is why schools of fishes never run into each other and why they stay streamlined and balanced despite drag. 4. Describe the feeding modes of fishes and name a specific species for each mode. a. Fish can be filter feeders, meaning that they filter particles from the water column. They can be herbivores that feed on sea grass, seaweed or coral. They can also be predatory and can eat other, smaller fish. 5. What species or kinds of fishes are experiencing population decline and what is a cause of each decline? a. Sharks are currently experiencing a serious decline, as they are deliberately overfished for food, fins and chonodroitin. They are also caught in fishing nets and are victims of bycatch. Sharks, in particular, are vulnerable to extinction because they recover slowly from population decline. They reproduce late in life (621 years) and only have a small number of pups (810 every other year), which means that if juveniles are killed or caught, they won’t be able to add to the population count. 6. What is broadcast spawning? Name a fish example (What other groups/phyla of sea life are broadcast spawners? a. Broadcast spawning refers to casting eggs and sperm into the water and relying on fluid flow to fertilize the eggs. Larvae develop in the water but are prey for other predators that are feeding on the zooplankton. Pacific Herring broadcast spawn in order to reproduce. 7. What is a serial hermaphrodite? Name an example a. A serial hermaphrodite is an organism that changes gender during its lifetime. The Barramundi cod begins life as a female and eventually changes into a male. The CA Sheephead is also an example of a serial hermaphrodite. 8. Name a fish family that does not free spawn and describe how they reproduce? a. Pipefish and seahorses both bear they young live. The male seahorse will actually practice parental care after the young are born. These organisms have a simple life history. Bony fishes (distinguishing characteristics, trophic levels, reproduction, morphology) a. Herring: i. Free spawners (freely release sperm and eggs, no physical mating) ii. Fertilized eggs develop into larval fishes in the zooplankton community, iii. The last urban fishery is in CA and they are in serious decline b. Seahorse/pipefish i. long snouts, slender bodies with bony segments, very slow moving, camouflage well ii. seahorses have prehensile tails, use suction feeding: open mouth quickly and engulf their prey whole, eat small crustaceans) iii. Simple life histories c. Parrotfish:(wrasse family) i. powerful herbivores ii. distinguished by big scales and swim with pectoral fins, teeth fused into a beak, hard mill in esophagus to grind plant matter iii. Some species switch from seaweeds to corals as adults, Mill grinds up food, including the calcium carbonate skeletons of corals, Produce coral sand iv. Sleep in mucous nests (Open at the ends for water flow, Secreted in 30 minutes, Protection from predators, Sleep behavior makes them vulnerable to capture by divers) a. Butterflyfish: eastern triangular butterflyfish, Indo Pacific, i. Deep bodies, eye stripe, small mouths, ii. Eat coral polyps, also small crustaceans and worms iii. Typically swim in pairs b. Triggerfish: Front dorsal spine that erects and locks into place if a predator tries to pull them out of a crevice, i. Heavy body and strong sharp teeth, they blow jets of water out of their mouth (they will blow sand away from nest, which they guard, this aerates the nest) ii. the Titan triggerfish is the largest species (3ft long) and is aggressive to divers, other triggerfish species feed on zooplankton during the day, (red toothed triggerfish) c. Anglerfish: include frogfish and the deep sea anglerfish i. Modified first dorsal spine (esca) ii. Functions as a lure for prey iii. Large upturned mouths open wide to engulf prey iv. Camouflage very well, Good for ambushing prey or avoiding predators d. Tuna: apex predators and sport fish i. Sleek form, silver blue color, finlets (short dorsal fins) ii. Built for cruising 1. Pectoral fins fold into groove 2. Eyes do not protrude 3. Swim continuously for oxygen delivery to gills and to maintain buoyancy 4. Aerobic, high metabolic rates 5. Require high blood flow and O2 6. Heart pumps fast at low temperatures 7. Circulatory system conserves heat iii. Northern bluefin tuna 1. Heavily hunted for food sushi, $50,000 per tuna 2. Open ocean farming for bluefin tuna is being tested in New Zealand and Mexico 3. All species of tuna are prized as game fish d. Causes of population declines in fisheries i. Over fishing for food, medicine ii. Accidental by catch in nets/trawls/dredges iii. Loss of spawning habitat iv. Pollution 9. Marine fish conservation what are some different strategies to conserve marine fish populations a. Fisheries regulations to limit how many fish can be harvested, breeding and harvesting fish in man made hatcheries so as not to deplete wild populations b. Marine protected areas: areas where disturbances to marine life, even fishing, are restricted 10. What are the shared distinguishing features of sea snakes, birds, and reptiles? a. Lay eggs b. Scales or modified scales c. Lungs-air breathers 11. What is the difference between snakes and birds? a. Birds have scales modified into feathers b. Endothermic (warm blooded from regulating their temperature) 12. Discuss the factors that threaten a marine reptile (including birds) with extinction. a. Marine plastic: effects of plastic ingestion include ulcerations, infections, reduced meal size and lower breeding success b. Loss of habitat due to development/agriculture c. Pollution, some birds like the pelicans are still recovering from DDT 13. Discuss the special adaptations of a species or ‘group’ of marine reptiles (which include birds). a. Sea snakes are adapted to living in the sea i. They have long lungs and can dive up to 150m and study underwater for 2 hours ii. They have a salt excretion gland under their tongue iii. They shed their skin every 26 weeks to reduce their fouling community iv. They have narrow heads to poke into cracks and crevices in reefs (eat benthic fish) 14. Discuss the role of a particular marine species in a food web. What does it eat, what is its foraging behavior, what type of food web does it belong to? a. The green sea turtle is the only herbivorous species of sea turtle. They prefer to eat sea grass by clipping it and returning about a week later to clip it again. They are threatened with extinction because of their tendency to develop tumors. 15. Why are populations of murres and auklets (species of sea birds) declining in CA Upwelling Ecosystem? a. Domoic acid build up (caused by dinoflagelletes releasing toxins in response to warmer waters) is causing an accumulation of those toxins in fish, which are eaten by the murres and auklets. 16. Major Characteristics of coral reefs a. Coral reefs occur where conditions are right for coral growth (warm, clear waters, limited sedimentation) and they thrive where herbivores are abundant b. they form massive structures of calcium carbonate that are home to exceptionally diverse sea life. c . Reef morphology i. Fringing: grows next to land ii. Barrier: grows as a barrier further offshore and has a sandy lagoon between it and the land, often covered with sea grass beds iii. Atoll: all that remains of a sinking volcanic island d. Phylum Cnidaria (tentacles, nematocysts, radial symmetry) and are colonies of polyps, many have symbiotic algae (zooxanthellae), ~halfanimal, halfplant and they can reproduce asexually and sexually. e . Reef zonation by depth i. Shallowfastgrowing species: leaf like and highly branching ii. deeper zone= dominated by sponges that help glue the coral framework together iii. soft corals/sponges: don’t secrete a skeleton, sea fans and sea whips f. Competition is fierce i. Result is often a dead zone between two different species, they can overgrow and even eat their competitors g. Many ecological interactions occur on reefs i. Predation: killed by crown of thorns sea star, susceptible to plagues, soft corals eaten by fireworms or gastropods ii. Symbiosis: coral zooxanthellae, banded coral cleaner shrimp h. Coral reef ecosystems are threatened in numerous ways i. Hurricanes and tsunamis ii. Dynamiting for fishing iii. Coral sands used as beach replenishment as well as sedimentation from coastal development iv. Overfishing of top level predators allows coral predators to flourish v. Eutrophication causes seaweed growth (high competition for corals) vi. Disease vii. Climate change: ocean acidification viii. Aquarium trade and aquaculture 17. Summarize human uses of sea life from this and previous lecture for each use, which habitat is most affected? Which specific organisms are most affected by each use? a. Sustenance: tribes like the Inuit and the Makaw abide by rules set by committees such has the International Whaling Commission, which sets quotas on the number of animals that can be taken for sustenance b. Hunting: must be done sustainably, limits on what can be fished recreationally c. Fishing: must stop exploiting populations that take a long time to recover or that are threatened, we must also figure out alternative methods for fishing because by catch/trawling/cyanide/bombs are harming ecosystems and non target species d. Drugs from the sea: marine invertebrates synthesize chemicals for defense that are being used in cancer research trials and that have been found to have anti bacterial/fungal/inflammatory properties, must ensure that species aren’t exploited for the procurement of these chemicals e. Marine ornamental species: shell collecting can be sustainable, aquarium trade can provide livelihoods in developing nations (the family raising seahorses made more money than fishing), the MAC regulates the aquarium trade by creating standards and limitations on how many species can be taken f. Mineral extraction: bad for the environment (salt ponds in SF are now the largest salt marsh restoration project in the US), gas and oil are easily obtained and are cheap sources of energy but oil spills like Deepwater horizon have been disastrous g. Waste disposal: ocean dumping is convenient and inexpensive but overburdens the ocean, causes desalination and introduces chemicals into the water, landfill can be reused but require maintenance, planning and operation h. Marine tourism: can provide income and jobs and is environmentally sustainable when practiced correctly 18. Contrast the benefits and costs of aquaculture, of oil and gas extraction, of marine tourism. a. Aquaculture: must be economically easy to grow and feed and must not interfere with natural populations in order to be sustainable, also can’t introduce pollutants or invasive species into the natural habitat b. Oil and gas extraction: currently unsustainable due to the rate at which we are exploiting these resources, oil spills and contaminations have been incredibly detrimental to marine habitats, popular because it’s cheap c. Marine tourism: provides income for developing nations and benefits everyone when it is done in a sustainable manner, maintenance of tourism can also provide jobs 19. What is the difference between an MPA and NMS? What shared goal do they have? a. An MPA is protected from human activity and includes bans on fishing. An NMS is only protected from oil, gas and mineral exploitation. They both are intended to protect marine habitats as well as declining species. 20. Discuss why the California Coastal Upwelling Ecosystem is important enough to be designated both as a MPA and NMS. a. The CA coastal upwelling ecosystem is one of only four upwelling systems on the planet. It is home to some of the richest waters on earth and has the largest concentration of breeding sea birds in the US. It is home to over 240 species of fish and harbors one third of the world’s whale and dolphin species. It also has the largest concentration of blue whales on Earth. 21. What is fisheries bycatch and why is it a problem? a. A species caught accidentally in a fishery that is designed to a target a completely different species group. This can also include the capture of reproductively immature juveniles of the target species. 22. Define ‘fishing down the food chain’? a. Humans will fish out a favored species and then switch to a less tasty, smaller species. More and more species are thus becoming overfished.
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