Ed psych final study guide
Ed psych final study guide EIPT 3473
Popular in Educational Psychology of Childhood and Adolescent Development
Popular in Education and Teacher Studies
EDAH 2963 - 001
verified elite notetaker
This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Crystal Neill on Saturday May 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to EIPT 3473 at University of Oklahoma taught by Ben Heddy in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see Educational Psychology of Childhood and Adolescent Development in Education and Teacher Studies at University of Oklahoma.
Reviews for Ed psych final study guide
I'm really struggling in class and this study guide was freaking crucial. Really needed help, and Crystal delivered. Shoutout Crystal, I won't forget!
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 05/07/16
Emotional development • Erikson ◦ We have crises at certain points in our lives ‣ Either we get through it in a healthy way or an unhealthy way ‣ Carry the result with you the rest of your life ‣ 8 stages separated by crises ◦ 8 stages ‣ 0-1.5: Trust vs. Mistrust • Does a baby trust its parent to take care of it and calm it? • If care is stable, then trust is established. If care is harsh and inconsistent, mistrust ‣ 1.5-3: Autonomy vs. Self-Doubt • Toddlers building up a sense of independence • If you let them try things by themselves (e.g. putting on clothes) without getting mad when they fail, autonomy is strengthened ‣ 3-6: initiative vs. guilt • Letting kids ask questions, come up with games, make their own art builds initiative. Shutting them down makes them feel like a nuisance and develops guilt ‣ 6-puberty: Competence vs. Inferiority • Encouragement from teachers in achievements will help develop competence • Inferiority complex develops here if teachers or parents are negative and discouraging when kids fail ‣ Adolescent: Identity vs. Role Confusion • Teens may have trouble deciding who they want to be: what job, sexual orientation, etc. • Pressure to decide may leave them feeling like it's not their true identity ‣ Early Adult: Intimacy vs. Isolation • Healthy, close relationships lead to love and intimacy • Failure to let down walls and trust others leads to loneliness and isolation ‣ Middle Adult: Generativity vs. Stagnation • Focus on others beyond yourself, having a family, giving back to the community causes generativity • Failure to integrate with the community or contribute to others' lives leads to stagnation ‣ Later Adult: Ego Integrity vs. Despair • Does an old person feel like they lived a worthy life and have a sense of closure? If yes, ego integrity • If full of regrets, despair • Bioecology ◦ Attachment has an evolutionary advantage in that babies need to be taken care of and forming an attachment with their caregiver causes the caregiver to help them survive ◦ attachments help for reproduction ◦ Parent factors ‣ Response to crying ‣ How often they show affection ‣ Letting baby affect how interaction happens ◦ Child factors that negatively affect attachment: ‣ Early birth ‣ Complications at birth ‣ Illness ‣ May just cry a lot • Four-attachment types ◦ Secure ‣ Likes caregiver over stranger ‣ Use them as a safe place ‣ Look to touch caregiver immediately, crying slows down quickly ‣ Kids will warm up to a stranger eventually ◦ Insecure-avoidant ‣ Doesn't really notice caregivers presence or absence ‣ Slow to crawl back to parent when they return ‣ Treat caregiver and stranger similarly ◦ Insecure-resistant ‣ Notice caregiver's presence ‣ Distressed by leaving, but not usually comforted quickly when parent comes back ◦ Disorganized/disoriented ‣ Very insecure ‣ Back and forth between calm and screaming ‣ Maybe no signs of attachment or maybe even fearing the caregiver • Some emotions start early in life ◦ Interest ◦ Disgust ◦ Distress ◦ Surprise ◦ Happiness ◦ Anger ‣ When they want something and you won't let them have it, starts 2 months ‣ When they are separated from a caregiver or kept from their goals, starts 1 year ◦ Fear ‣ First at 6-7 months with strangers ‣ This fear continues and grows until 2 years ‣ Fears of other things from 7-12 months (declines at a year) • Some emotions come later in life ◦ "Self-conscious" emotions ◦ Way they see themselves ◦ Socialization ◦ Shame and embarrassment at 18 months ‣ Time to potty train because they feel shame when they wet their pants ◦ Guilt, pride, and jealousy at 2-3 years • Adolescent emotions ◦ More negative emotions, especially with parents • How to promote positive emotional development ◦ Comfort crying babies ◦ Label kids' faces (are you feeling sad?) ◦ Teach kids how to communicate emotions ◦ Create a positive, warm environment ◦ Watch your own emotional regulation and model it ◦ Give kids outlets for emotion that are appropriate for their age ◦ Talk about emotions of characters in stories or history ◦ Ask children to hypothesize about others emotions ◦ Understand that kids from different cultures will express differently ◦ Help boys and girls both learn to express and regulate emotion ◦ Help limit stress on kids ‣ Especially for children with special needs • Helping self-regulation ◦ Kids are motivated to regulate emotions by adult expectations ‣ No yelling allowed in the classroom • Temperament in infants and young children ◦ Extroversion/urgency ‣ Sociable: get enjoyment from being with people ‣ Positive affect: it doesn't take a lot for me to experience pleasure ‣ High intensity pleasure: enjoying loud, obvious stimuli ‣ Baby gets happy and excited when others play peekaboo with them or when music is playing ◦ Negative affect ‣ Quickly responding with fear, sadness, discomfort at stimulus, and frustration ‣ Mother leaves or takes a toy, baby immediately starts crying and screaming ◦ Effortful control ‣ Attentional control: can I focus and shift my attention? ‣ Inhibitory control: can I stop myself from doing something inappropriate for the situation? ‣ Activation control: can I make myself do something I don't want to do? ‣ A toddler stops himself from running after a ball when his mom tells him not to, eats something undesirable so he can get dessert • Big 5 personality in children and teens (examples are given for high end of the spectrum) ◦ Extroversion: how outgoing you are in social situations ‣ Kid walks around talking to everyone at a birthday party ◦ Agreeableness: how kind and sympathetic you are ‣ Friend loses pet, kid gives them a hug rather than starting a new conversation about herself ◦ Conscientiousness: how organized and perseverant you are ‣ Teen studies several days in advance for a test ◦ Neuroticism: how much anxiety and fear you have ‣ Kid freaks out when parents leave him with grandparents for the weekend ◦ Openness: how curious you are and how much you use your imagination ‣ Teen enjoys writing plays and researching the historical background Sense of self and social understanding • Sense of self ◦ General trends ‣ Gets more complex over time ‣ Self-worth depends more and more on peer evaluations as we get older ‣ We internalize the evaluations and criteria people use to evaluate us and then evaluate others with the same criteria ‣ Combine speciﬁc perceptions into general concepts of identity • I like math, reading, and video games; I'm a nerd. ‣ Self-worth eventually becomes more stable ◦ Infants ‣ Self as distinct and lovable ‣ Imitate others ◦ Early childhood ‣ Sense of self is about history ‣ Self about physical appearance and simple personality traits ‣ Overconﬁdent and high self-esteem ◦ Middle childhood ‣ Self about physical attributes and psychological aspects ‣ Recognize strengths and weaknesses ‣ Still positive self-esteem ‣ Pick hobbies and niches of things they're good at ◦ Early Adolescence ‣ Think about how others perceive you • Imaginary audience: everyone is watching me! ‣ Personal fable • Belief in uniqueness ‣ Drop in self-esteem, especially for girls ◦ Late Adolescence ‣ Many, sometimes contradicting self-perceptions • Start developing future self • Helping children with sense of self ◦ Ask them about themselves ◦ Recognize successes ◦ Help kids with self-improvement ‣ Tell them a couple things they did well and a couple things they could get better at ◦ Be honest about their weaknesses and give them solutions to overcome them ‣ Saves their self-worth and shows them how to use failure to learn ◦ Give them chances to explore interests and talents ◦ Consider differences in needs between genders ◦ Respect different cultural backgrounds ‣ Small groups where they give examples from their life fosters more cultural understanding ◦ Help them develop a healthy level of self-esteem • Niche-picking allows us to say speciﬁc things about our senses of self that aren't universal ◦ Being good at something improves self esteem and creates group membership • Marcia's Identity development ◦ Foreclosure ‣ Develop identity based on people around you • Especially parents • Teen goes to church and identiﬁes as Christian because her parents do ◦ Moratorium ‣ Actively looking for other options for identity ‣ Teen asks friends about their religions, visits different faith communities ◦ Identity diffusion ‣ Not thinking about or considering your identity ‣ Teen quits worrying about it and doesn't talk to others about it ◦ Achievement ‣ Deciding on an identity ‣ Teen picks a set of beliefs for herself • Erikson's theory ◦ Many things affected in adolescence ◦ Each crisis forms one aspect of our identity (trust or mistrust, initiative or guilt) ◦ Stage 5: Identity Achievement vs. Role Confusion ‣ Psychosocial moratorium: all the people around us offer us options for our identity ‣ The cliques give us a sense of identity ‣ The people who reject us give us a sense of identity (we don't belong with them) ◦ Synthesis of both theories ‣ Erikson: identity achievement, Marcia: foreclosure, moratorium, achievement ‣ Erikson: role confusion, Marcia: diffusion ‣ Achievement is a crisis with a commitment at the end ‣ Moratorium is a crisis you're still in with no commitment yet ‣ Foreclosure is commitment without a crisis ‣ Diffusion is no commitment and no crisis • Process of racial/ethnic identity achievement affected by many factors: ◦ How similar they look to dominant culture ◦ Reason for joining new culture ◦ How much they are accepted by dominant group ◦ How different your cultural values are from dominant group ◦ Family plays a huge role ‣ First source of info about dominant culture and ethnic identity ‣ Lens of perception child looks at the world with ‣ Model how to discuss cultural and ethnic issues ◦ Ethnic community ‣ Strong community supports families, supports strong ethnic identity ‣ Lets more things (school, religion, play) happen in ethnic context ‣ Role models which bolster ethnic identity ◦ Society ‣ Attitude: dominant culture positive toward ethnic group leads usually to positive identity achievement ‣ Ability to pass as a member of the dominant culture gives more options ‣ Girls may associate more strongly with dominant culture because of relational opportunities • Gender socialization and stereotypes ◦ Boys are active and carefree ◦ Masculine: tough, decision making, not emotional, etc ◦ Girls speak more and nurture in play ◦ Feminine: emotional, weak, caring, etc • Gender androgyny ◦ Not conforming to gender stereotypes ◦ Gender expression may be neutral ◦ Not dressing obviously like a girl or boy • Gender socialization ‣ The way we talk to different genders inﬂuences their identity ‣ By mid-elementary, kids know gender is based in biology • Understand it also has a social aspect • Understand some kids might not want things speciﬁc to their gender ◦ Gender segregation ‣ Preference for same gender as playmates by age 3 ‣ Adults don't have to reinforce it ‣ Gender segregation causes more gender segregation ‣ End of elementary school, start tentatively associating with other genders • Gender identity intensiﬁes ◦ Gender identity formation factors ‣ Family acceptance makes a big difference ‣ Community • Gender-expansive helps with self-acceptance and providing role models ‣ Society • How much discrimination there is in the society as a whole Social cognition • Dodge's Model of Social Problem Solving (Info Processing) ◦ 1. Encoding: other people's emotions and thoughts ◦ 2. Interpretation: go to working memory and assign meaning to things ◦ 3. Formulate goal: what you want to accomplish ◦ 4. Generate possible strategies: based on what you've learned in the past ◦ 5. Evaluate possible strategies: based on what you've learned in the past ◦ 6. Enact solution: do what you were thinking ‣ Use outcome to evaluate future decisions ◦ Mental shortcuts ‣ Easier to deal with complex social situations ‣ Examples • Rely on word of authority ﬁgures • If something is expensive, it's better quality • One action someone does means that's their typical behavior ◦ Fundamental attribution error (hostile attribution basis): we assume that what people do is because of their personality ◦ If someone else is late, it's because they're lazy and unorganized ◦ If we're late, it's because trafﬁc was bad ◦ Social-cognitive biases ‣ Somewhat distort thought ‣ Jumping to conclusions ‣ Stereotypes and prejudices • Humans categorize so that we can make quick decisions • Tendency to go too far • Can come from models ◦ Either in reality ◦ Or in the media • Reinforced by conﬁrmation bias: looking for what reinforces our beliefs ‣ Confronting bias • Look at people as individuals rather than group members • Confront prejudice with tact and counterevidence even if it causes uncomfortable situations • Support students in trying to be open-minded ◦ Helping social information processing ‣ Help kids: • Be aware of and interpret social cues • Increase toolbox of possible responses • Improve means-end thinking, how what they do will help them reach their goals • Think more about consequences • Practice responding appropriately • Practice being aware about social interactions • Control emotional outbursts • Control self-talk so it is positive rather than negative Moral development • Distributive Justice ◦ Equality at 5 or 6 ‣ Fair is equal and nothing else ‣ No exceptions ◦ By merit at 6 to 7 ‣ Reward is proportional to contribution ‣ Paying someone back ◦ Benevolence at 8 and up ‣ Trying to compromise between equal, merit, and need ‣ Concern for disadvantages or special needs • Piaget ◦ Moral reasoning ◦ Heteronomous Stage: 5-9 ‣ Rules are morality, doesn't matter if they're unfair ◦ Autonomous Stage: 9-10 ‣ Morality is from your own rules • Kohlberg ◦ Built from Piaget ◦ 3 levels of moral reasoning ‣ Pre-conventional ‣ Conventional ‣ Post-conventional ‣ Each has 2 within, =6 stages ‣ Universal with order maintained, pushed by disequilibrium in the form of dilemmas ‣ Pre-conventional • 1: focus on immediate consequences ◦ What's wrong is what's punished ◦ Mike would turn it in so he doesn't get in trouble ◦ Kid doesn't hit another kid because teacher is watching • 2: marketplace morality ◦ Based on reciprocity ◦ Mike would take some out and then turn it in ◦ Kid doesn't hit another kid because he could get hit back ‣ Conventional • 3: emphasis on relationship implications (early adolescence) ◦ Be a good person for approval and kindness from others ◦ Mike would turn it in and tell people ◦ Kid doesn't hit kid because it's his friend • 4: implications on society (late adolescence) ◦ Follow society's rules or relational obligations ◦ Mike might take it to fulﬁll his obligation to his mom or leave it since stealing is against the law ◦ Kid doesn't hit kid because school is not a place for violence ‣ Post-conventional (into adulthood, not everyone reaches them) • 5: if laws aren't in others' best interests they should be changed so they're based on fairness ◦ Mike turns it in because they earned the money so it's fair they get to keep it ◦ Kid hits other kid because other kid is being a bully, even if hitting is against school rules • 6: universal principles of ethics more important than speciﬁc rules ◦ Mike would keep it because they weren't careful with it and he has the right to keep what he found ◦ Kid doesn't hit other kid because he has personal human rights to not being abused ◦ Neo-Kohlbergian approach ‣ Focus on the way moral categories and schema are built up and change of time (eg. Rights, duty, justice) ‣ Based on schema developing over time, not hard and fast stages ‣ 3 schemas • Personal interest schema= pre-conventional ◦ Emphasis on what the person can gain or lose, no consideration for broader society • Maintaining norms= conventional ◦ Ensuring fairness for everyone based on rules of society • Post-conventional= post-conventional ◦ All moral situations are open to scrutiny ◦ Reasoning based on logic ◦ Reciprocity for all societal members • Overlap between schemas ◦ Can use two at once (cross-stage logic) ◦ Gilligan claims gender effects moral reasoning ‣ Women use more care reasoning and men use more justice reasoning • Care reasoning: special needs, focus on relationships and responsibilities, conﬂicting responsibilities, moral dilemmas in personal terms. ◦ Person takes the side of her friend in an argument, even though she thinks her friend is wrong, because she wants to be loyal • Justice reasoning: impartiality, focus on rights and rules, logic of justice, concerned with competing rights ◦ Person takes the side of a person being bullied, even though her friend is the bully, because the bullied person has a right to personal safety Four Components of Moral Behavior • Moral action depends on 4 aspects ◦ Moral sensitivity ‣ Thinking about moral considerations in a situation ◦ Moral judgement ‣ Which schema is the person using to choose how to act? ‣ Eg. Normative, personal interest, post-conventional ◦ Moral motivation ‣ Once they choose an action, is the person motivated to actually do it? Do they value morals above other things? ◦ Moral character ‣ Does the person have the courage and drive to actually carry out the action? • Ways to foster moral development ◦ Lay out expectations clearly and stick to them ◦ Help kids understand why certain rules exist ◦ Introduce kids to models of good moral behavior ◦ Show them how to reason through dilemmas by talking to them ◦ Show them different viewpoints ◦ Don't shield them entirely from disequilibrium as it helps them mature ◦ "Plus one" reasoning: use reasoning one stage above where they are right then to help them move up gradually ◦ Give praise when kids are good ◦ Inductive "parenting" infractions: help them ﬁgure out why they got in trouble for something ◦ Shame over guilt ‣ Shame is caused by expressing anger and withdrawing love, and it causes feelings of being a bad person and feeling worthless and helpless. ‣ Guilt is caused by showing disappointment and keeping high expectations, and it causes feelings of being a good person who did a bad thing, as well as the desire to ﬁx it. • Behavioral transgressions ◦ Moral: violate rights or needs of others ‣ Hitting others ◦ Social: violate conventions or guidelines for acceptable behavior ‣ Bad table manners • Genetics and Prosocial Behavior ◦ Prosocial behavior: acting in interest of others ◦ Not huge inﬂuence ◦ Somewhat based in temperament ◦ Much more environmentally based • Environmental Inﬂuence ◦ Family socialization ‣ Constructive and supportive discussion help kids develop Prosocial behavior and sympathy ‣ Reason when disciplining and consider other options for them and why those might have been better, as well as considering implications of their behavior for others ◦ Show them people who make good Prosocial decisions ◦ Do prosocial activities yourself ‣ Ex. Go volunteer in the community with your kids • Aggression ◦ "Behavior aimed at harming or injuring others" ◦ Physical aggression: acts that could cause bodily injury ‣ Slows down after early childhood • If it doesn't, either ◦ Reactive aggression: reacting to a situation ◦ Proactive aggression: bullying, initiating aggression just because you feel like it ◦ Relational aggressions: acts that affect personal relationships badly ‣ Calling names, spreading rumors, manipulating ◦ Most teens can control overt aggression, but instances of serious violence increase • Inﬂuences on aggression ◦ Limited genetic component ◦ Much more environmental ‣ Families • Inconsistent discipline • Harsh and cold, non-abusive, physical punishment • Abuse or violence in the home • Negative reinforcement ◦ Parents give in to screaming and demanding ◦ Kid screaming for toy in grocery store ‣ If the parent gives in, teaches them that they can get things by being aggressive ‣ Should just walk away ◦ Double reinforcement. Kid learns aggression makes progress, adult learns giving in makes crying stop ‣ Peers • Aggressive models make kids more aggressive • Antisocial friends • Antisocial peer group in general • Aggressive kids tend to form friendships with other aggressive kids ◦ How to promote prosocial behavior and confront aggressive behavior ‣ Problem-solving in social situations • Be very explicit and name it ‣ Label behaviors as inappropriate or appropriate while they're happening ‣ Plan group activities where they have to work together ‣ Expose to prosocial models • Be very careful about who ‣ Give clear expectations for behavior ‣ Seek intervention when kids or teens are being aggressive
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'