Study guide for Final ARTH 1305
Study guide for Final ARTH 1305 ARTH 1305
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Grecia Sanchez on Saturday May 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ARTH 1305 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Max Grossman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see History of Art I in Art History at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 05/07/16
GENERALITIES OF EACH CIVILIZATION PALEOLITHIC Time refers to the period before the invention of writing First subject of depiction were animals in profile Second object of depiction were nude women and lastly men To be heavy those days meant to be wealthy Life was through tribes following animals Carve paintings are in the deepest place inside a cave (reason why they have been recently discovered) NEOLITHIC Climate warmed, separation of England happened Humans are sedentary, they now live in villages Development of agriculture, tools for art, increased survival Diversification of society (they are not only hunters anymore, we have metalworking, clothing, pottery, etc.) Villages were fortified and some had no streets ANCIENT NEAR EAST (SUMER, AKKAD, BABYLON, ASSYRIA, PERSIA) Constant warfare Civilizations arise and fall rapidly Culture of urbanization began Monotheism is invented Each city had an emsi (king), and various gods (one god was the protector of the city) Writing developed in Sumer (first civilization), commerce and pictographs are getting better Ziggurats were the markers of each city (reason why they were huge) First poet was Enheduanna, her votive disk is the first artwork that depicts honor for a woman Hammurabi is the first law Assyrians built the first empire Citadel refers to a fortified city There are 7 wonders of the ancient world, 2 are from New Babylonia (city walls and hanging gardens) There has always been a clash of civilizations between Persia and Greece EGYPT UNDER PHARAONS (PREDYNASTIC, OLD, MIDDLE AND NEW KINGDOMS) Also developed writing Civilization dependent on Nilo River Dessert served as protection Rosetta stone displays three languages: Ancient demotic, ancient hieroglyphic, ancient Greek Civilization deeply religious, they had their own mythology and were extremely obsessed with the afterlife. When you died, your body (with removed organs) had to be mummified and your ka (soul) would be placed on your body or statue at the pyramid Old Kingdom is the period of the Great pyramids of Gizeh, New Kingdom is often depicted in the Bible Larger families were buried together in their respective tombs. Imhotep is the first recorded man as an artist, he invented pyramids and columns Sculptures of Egyptians are symmetrical, idealized images for their pharaohs New kingdom introduces horses, imperialism and there are no pyramids by now Only the priest was allowed to enter to a pyramid or a temple With the portrait of Nefertiti, we begin to see distortion (abstraction) AEGEAN (CYCLADIC, MINOAN, AND MYCENANEAN) Cycladic architecture didn’t survive, they weren’t literate. Their art is abstract completely, almost geometrical figures as artworks. The lyre was the common instrument. Minoans were civilized. They had language and they were monarchic societies. Knossos was the largest city at the time. Minoans had columns (because of trade with Egypt). Minoan women are lighter skin than men. They had large palaces. Mycenaean existed in the dates of the Troyan war. They are the ancestors of Greece. Major military force. ANCIENT GREECE (DEVELOPMENTAL PERIOD) Greeks represent highest point of Europe civilization according to scholars Greeks constructed their temples honoring their gods with the most expensive material available. Only priesthood was allowed to enter to temple. Temples were originally painted in bright colors. Divided between citystates. Women were seen as second level people (could not vote and were not citizens) Greek artists often signed their work First civilization in awarding talent (you could be a major citizen if you were talented at something) Optimistic hope of perfection. There is universal values of beauty, democracy, and truth. They believed they could become gods if they perfected themselves. At geometric period you could see geometric patterns in all artworks. At Orientalizing period there is an inclination to the Orient (forms inspired by nature). In archaic period, Greeks become an independent civilization, there is an independent style; there is interest in male nudity; statues tend to be rational, geometric and balanced; all women are depicted in clothing, except for slaves; we have the doric and ionic orders; Temple of Hera I is truly archaic. ANCIENT GREECE (CLASSICAL PERIOD) Dying warrior east sculpture marks the shift to Classical. Archaic smile disappears. Statues are anatomically correct. Persians are the largest empire and are starting to become a threat to Greeks. Barbarians are the Persians for Greeks. Athens was burned by Persians in 480 BC giving birth to Classical period. Since this event, Greece focused on fortifications and security to protect themselves. There is an explosion of culture in all of its branches (art, philosophy, etc.) Statues are 100% naturalistic with contrapposto. Nude males are the perfection for Greeks. Most of Greek sculptures are Roman marble copies. Gods were often the subject in art. They incorporated mathematical calculations to art (giving an order). In High Classical appears the Corinthian order. Not commonly used except for religious purposes. Delian treasure was transported from Delos to Athens and General Pericles used it to construct Acropolis (Parthenon, Erechteion, Temple to Athena Nike, Propylaia) In the late classical, Alex the Great appears in history, he managed to extend empire. With his death, Late classical begins. In this period, there is a development of individualism, goddess are depicted nude and placed on temples for the first time; we move away from stylistic to naturalism. Late classical was the shift to war, instability, and tyranny. There are not universal values anymore. Goddess are depicted as mortals. We have ordinary events depicted with gods, gods are reachable psychologically, strong sense of pathos in sculptures. There is experimentation in the sculptures. ANCIENT GREECE (HELLENISTIC PERIOD) Empire got to expand with Alex the Great, but with his death the empire splits into two. You can multiple capitals with different kingdoms.. Although it was a war time, the quality in art still continues, but it is dark ages politically. Greeks are going to spread their language, culture to other foreign civilizations. Experimentation increases, we have urban planning trusted to the intellectuals, statues at this period tended to have violent movements, energetic release, everything in the statue is dynamic; enemies, slaves, ordinary and poor people are now the common subject, not just gods; there is a fascination to other characters of the society (true art) ETRUSCANS Roman people who dominated North and Middle Italy. Etruscans are the origin of Italian culture. Gesturing is primary communications. Great miners and metalworkers. They had their own mythology. We do not have any building surviving from this civilization (because of the perishable materials used). Their language is not decoded yet. Monarchic societies. Orientalizing period refers to Etruscans trade with Egypt and Orient civilizations, Archaic is the highest point in their culture, Classical/Hellenistic era is their decline. They constructed temples as shelters for their gods, their temples had only one entrance, deep porches, podium (instead of stylobate), statues on the roof of the temple and they have their own order of columns: Tuscan columns (unfluted and with bases). Women were equal as men, they processed high level of status inside society, they retained their names when they married, they could own property, etc. In sculptures, there is not an obsession with naturalism or proportion. What is emphasized is the gestures. In painting, men are dressed (except for slaves). ROMAN REPUBLIC Before republic, there was a monarchy of 7 kings in Rome; they lived in villages as farmers and warriors Romans were represented by law. Government, religion and commerce was found at this civilization. Warlike people. They had three classes: patricians, plebeians, and slaves. Anyone could be slave (no discrimination of color). Romans have their own language. Romans used cremation. Senate was the most important body of government conformed of elder men. Popular assembles held a balance between two primary classes. In times of crisis, Senate would name a dictator who would rule a period of 6 months and decided the life or death of each citizen. At temples, Romans had influence from Etruscans and Greeks, but their temples were constructed out of cheap materials. Temples were constructed by civic men. Romans were experts at arches and vaults. Portraits for Romans were just the head or busted; they used verism. It was illegal to depict slaves. Roman home was the private refugee from the outside. It was a place of business. Depending on your rank, you were allowed to enter more at the house. ROMAN EMPIRE We return to monarchy. Began with JulioClaudians. Augustus was Imperator, Pontefex Maximus and first citizen of Rome. He pretended to be an ordinary man, used propaganda well, brilliant general. He claimed to be son of Venus. Pax Romana refers to relative peace at Rome and comes to end with death of Marcus Aurelius. Romans perfected aqueducts. Agora for Romans is the Forum, at the end of the Empire they built the Imperial Fora. Many dynasties were ended because of a tyrannian. Nero was one case, Domesian is another, etc. Severan emperors were the first not Roman emperors. This was a period of short living for emperors. Then, soldier emperors were the ones who ended the empire of Rome. Tetrarchy system came and they did their experiments which lasted for 4 years. Constantine ended this tetrarchy and established an Empire. He made Christianity only legal religion. He uses spolia because of the instability of the system, there was a instability in arts and culture. Aula Palatina and Basilica are the influences of churches LATE ANTIQUITY Triumph of Christian faith Begins with Soldier Emperors Beginning of temple works of Jews (synagogue) and Christians (public houses) For Jews it is forbidden to depict God, there are no distractions to project the message of God. Christians had debates at first, they would gather in houses for mass and didn’t cremate. Life expectancy at this period is short (children died soon). We don’t have primary sources for the early spread of Christianity Families are honoring saints and martyrs at this time, they believe the rests have power. There is exegesis first (prefiguration of Christ). Churches had three purposes: martyrium, funeral hall, and pilgrimage. Churches had no chairs. Roman Empire began declining because Honorius and Arcadius inherited empire and they split it into two: East and West. Culture divides. BYZANTINE EMPIRE Eastern Roman Empire stays the same. It is now called Byzantine. Middle Ages. Period of ignorance from Late Antiquity to Renaissance. Emergence of many different countries There are many tribes at East Roman Empire Christianity continues to spread Scandinavia and Russia are the last places in reaching Christianity There are various copies of texts (we are able to connect Antiquity with Renaissance because of Byzantine copies) Justinian is the powerful ruler of Byzantine. Great general, conquered Byzantine territory. He united church with state. There is the birth of Islam, militarized religion from the beginning. The Byzantine loses territories because of the victory of Islam Purposes of Hagia Sofia are the church of Tatriarch, coronation cathedral and greatest repository Dome means heaven ISLAM Prophet Mohammad is leader Follows hills of Byzantine Followers are Muslims = the one who submits Caliph is the successor of Mohammad Every Muslim temple tends to outshine Christian temples because of materials used (gold) You cannot depict God in an image in Islam, there are only patterns and inscriptions at the temples Minbar, maqsura and mihrab are essential in each temple They added mathematical calculations to their architecture EARLY MEDIEVAL EUROPE More than hundred tribes occupated Western Europe There was a chaos after the fall of Rome. Many countries emerged by this period (Germany, France, Spain, etc.). Period of dark ages, return to ancient ages. These are the first 500 years of Middle Ages At first, tribes were illiterate, they did not know how to carve, and they lost all knowledge. Eventually they would convert to Christianity and learn from there. Germanic tribes began living in villages. Some buildings were carved and the majority wasn’t. Their art is pure abstraction, geometric forms. They have no classes. Anglosaxons established themselves in what is now England. Vikings were the terror. They came from North Europe and they were great sailors. Germanic buildings tend to be vertical, all influence is from natural world (forest), and gorgons are put at the top of the churches to scare the devil. In Ireland, we see celtic people (the ones who didn’t have any contact with Greeks and Romans) Carolingians empire marked the first Renaissance (return to classical, prosperity and culture). With Ottonian dynasty, there is a tendency of metal work ROMANESQUE Economic and cultural revival It is a regional phenomena We have the development of modern nations Culture of ´pilgrimage develops The term refers to church buildings more than other type of structures Roots of Romanesque are at the Carolinguian Empire Refers to the spolia of Classical forms and figures into modern buildings to project the prosperity lived at those times. BUILDINGS IN WHICH WE HAVE TO PAY ATTENTION 1. Stonehenge 2. White temple and ziggurat 3. Ishtar gate 4. Great pyramids 5. Mortuary temple of Hatshepsut 6. Palace at Knossos 7. Temple of Hera I 8. Parthenon 9. Temple of Apollo 10.Plan of a typical Roman house 11.Flavian Amphitheater 12.Pantheon 13.San Vitale 14.Hagia Sofia
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