SOC 102 Final Exam
SOC 102 Final Exam SOC 102
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nia Gibson on Saturday May 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 102 at Syracuse University taught by J. Adamo in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Social Problems in Sociology at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 05/07/16
SOC 102 Final Exam Study Guide Chapter 8 1 Identify the functions of education There are four major functions of education. The first function is instruction. Instruction involves the students learning the knowledge and skills necessary for future occupational roles, self-development,and social functioning. The second is socialization. This teaches students to respect authority. The third is sorting individuals into statuses. Schools sort individuals into statuses by providing credentials for individuals who achieve various levels of education at various schools within the system. Lastly there is custodial care. this educational system serves the auction of providing custodial care by providing supervision and care for children and adolescents until they are 18 years old. 2 How do Black and Hispanic Americans preform in primary and secondary schooling? In comparison to whites, blacks and hispanics are less likely to succeed at every level. Both minority group have lower mean achievement scores in reading in math as early as kindergarten. By fourth grade 80 percent of blacks and hispanic are reading below grade level; similarly that by 8th grade 83 percent are below grade level in mathematics. 3 What impact do race and ethnicity have on education? Because race and ethnicity are so closely tied to socioeconomic status, it appears that race and ethnicity determines school success. Although race and ethnicity may have an independent affect on educational achievement, their relationship is largely a result of the association between race and ethnicity and socioeconomic status. 4 Identify some problems in the American Educational System of Education. There are many variables that contribute to this problem. Theres lack of financial support; education in America is very important but efforts to increase state funding are often rejected. Then there is low level of academic achievement; academic achievement is based on three indicators, and that is current levels of performance, improvement over time and achievement gap between the poor and non poor learners called the poverty gap. Based on an 100 point scale the nations average is a 69.7 percent. School Dropouts is another serious issue. Crime, violence, and school disciplines; there are school shootings, victimization of teachers in school, disciplinary issues, and cases of extreme bullying. These are just a select few of issues that happens in the American school systems. 5 What challenges do colleges and university face? As the economy began to recover in 2012, the college enrollment rate dropped 2 percent as students began returning to the workforce. The cost of higher education increased by 7 percent for instate students and 4 percent for out of state students. The increase in college became a huge burden on most families, and many students were forced to choose between higher education and certain living expenses. Racial and ethnic minorities access to a higher education became problematic. The attendance of minorities at two year colleges are significantly higher than those at a 4 year, it should be noted, that about 9 percent of black students attend HBCUs. Community colleges can offer a high quality education, and enrollments continue to increase. These colleges are a starting point for most Americans who hope to eventually transfer to a 4 year school. Chapter 9 1 What are the similarities and differences of race and ethnicity? Race is a category of people who are perceived to share distinct physical characteristics that are deemed socially significant. Ethnicity refers to a shared cultural heritage, nationality, or lineage. When it comes to similarities, both are often grouped together when regarding segregation, genocide, or expulsion of a groups of people. 2 Can one change their race? ethnicity? One can change their physical appearance; however it is hard to say if you can change you biological race. You may still share some features of the race you're trying to stray away from even after lightening/darkening your skin, or having reconstructive surgery. you can not change your ethnicity though, because in the definition it has nothing to do with your appearance. You can not go back in time and change your lineage. 3 Explain the Sb 1070 law. The SB 1070 law, also known as the Support Our Law Enforcement and Safe Neighborhoods Act, is one of the toughest illegal immigration bills in the country. It is basically when federal law requires that legal immigrants carry registration papers with them at all times. Th law also criminalized anyone who transported unauthorized immigrants, this constitutes as smuggling human beings. 4 How does racism lead to prejudice? Because racism is the belief that race accounts for differences in human character and ability and that a particular race is superior to the other, it automatically leads to negative attitudes and feelings towards or about an entire category of people which is prejudice. 5 What are some cause of HATE crimes? There are three distinctive motivations for hate crimes. Thrill, defensive, and mission. Thrill motivation is committing unlawful acts of violence against people you may be prejudice against just for the fun of it; Defensive hate crimes involve offenders who believe its necessary to commit these crimes in order to defend their community; and mission hate crimes are for people who have dedicated their lives to bigotry. for example white supremacist groups. 6 Describe the role of the EEOC. The EEOC is the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. it is a U.S. federal agency charged with ending employment discrimination in the United States, and is responsible for enforcing laws against discrimination. The EEOC investigates, mediates, and may file lawsuits against private employers on behalf of alleged victims of discriminations. Chapter 10 1 Who is the more advantaged gender? Why? Men are the more advantaged gender because women had to fight for simple rights such as the right to vote, equal pay for comparable work, quality education, entrance into male dominated occupations, and legal equality. Women have lower incomes, hold fewer prestigious jobs, earn fewer graduate degrees, and are more likely than men to live in poverty. 2 Why does the gender pay gap exist in 2016 The gender pay gap exists because there is a belief that there is a difference between men and women in levels of education, skills, training, work experience, and the like. Also the work women due are deemed less valuable than the work men perform; and even when men and women have the same amount of education and experience working the same job men still would get paid more. 3 What types of social problems exist for transsexuals? Some social problems would be figuring out which gender to identify with, along with people discriminating against them because they decided to undergo a sex change. 4 Identify some strategies that can be helpful to end gender inequality. Putting women and men in categories that they are stereotypically more likely to be in or deeming what is right or wrong for each gender. For example the woman is supposed to be in the kitchen cooking, cleaning, and raising the kids, while the husband is at work. 5 What are some problems caused by traditional gender roles? Cultural Sexism. Society forces girl to focus heavily on appearance and sex appeal which may cause a female to stray away from her studies and career; and with men, gender roles encourages them to focus on education because they are supposed to be the breadwinners later on in life. The only problem with that is that it causes men to have a tendency to lack emotion. Chapter 11 1 Is a person born gay? Although many people believe they were born gay, there is no biological or genetic “gay gene” that you can be born with. There is no DNA test that can prove homosexuality. 2 Can gay people change their sexual orientation? No; people have attempted, however forms of reparative therapy almost never work. Many people believe gay people choose to be gay and can just change their mind to who they are attracted to. 3 Identify ways in which gay Americans are discriminated. There are hate crimes against gay citizens, they get discriminated socially, and in the job force. There are homophobic people and religious group who obviously are blatantly against it. Also there are many forms of harassment that they deal with on a daily basis, including physical violence and name calling. There is also marriage inequality which was most recently changed. 4 In what ways is the classification of individuals into sexual orientation problematic? Because it gives people a sense of who they are supposed to be based on their classification an dil may be complicated based on the people around them. 5 What is the stigma of "gayness"? Some would consider it a disgrace based on their religious beliefs. Also stereotypes are created adding more to the debilitating affects on gay people as whole, and just like racism the sexual minority are at a disadvantage. Chapter 12 1 Do you believe the world’s population is increasing or decreasing? Give examples to support your answers. The world’s population is continuously increasing, however not at a point where it is believed to double in size again. Based on the United Nations chart the population of the least developed countries is projected to double from 898 million in 2013 to 1.8 billion people in 2050. Along with that the Worlds population as a whole is projected to grow from 7.2 billion to to 8.1 billion in 2025, to 9.6 billion in 2050, and 10.9 billion by 2100. 2 Describe some of the factors that contribute to the population aging. One aspect can be longer life expectancies.The aging of the populations the result go both increased longevity and declining fertility rates. Global life expectancy rates increased from 47 years between 1950 and 1955 to 69 years between 2005 and 2010, and is expected to increase to 76 years between 2045 and 2050 and to 82 years between 2095 and 2100. In the United States, population agains is also occurring as the baby boomers. 3 What are some problems in the United States of the population growth? Some problems are how wealth and power, and lack thereof, affects population problems. The more people the less wealth and power. People believe that more pope would lead to food shortages which would lead to war, diseases and starvation. 4 Would you find yourself agreeing or disagreeing with China’s once One Child Policy? I see where and why they would come up with the policy however you are crippling the privileges of some families who desire to have multiple children. It is unfair that a mother is only allowed to give birth once due to the rules made by the country. 5 Explain the different kind of retirement plans. The different kind of retirement plans include traditional pensions and defined contributions. Traditional pensions are defined benefit plans, in which retirees receive a specified annual amount until their death; and defined contribution is plans in which workers contribute money to their 401k plans or individual retirement accounts (IRAs), without any guarantee of what their future benefits will be. 6 Explain how the social security system works. The social security system also entitled “Old Age, Survivors, Disability, and Health Insurance” is a federal insurance program established in 1935 that protects against loss of income due to retirement, disability, or death. Chapter 13 1 Describe how humans have altered the ecosystems in the United States. Humans have altered the ecosystem in a number of ways. The energy used, The hairspray used, the cars produced, the heavy reliance on oil and so much more proves that Human beings are the biggest reason, if not the only reason the ecosystem is the way it is and there is a hole in the ozone layer leading to global warming. 2 Do you agree or disagree with the concept of ‘global warming”? I agree with the concept because I am living in it. There is a blatant change win the weather that I have noticed from when I was 10 versus no, and I am now 19 years old. The winters are warmer, the sea levels are rising due to the melting ice glaciers, etc. The increasing average global temperature is frightening along with scientific hypothesis that some cities will be under water soon due to the sea levels. Along with the increase in greenhouse gases. 3 Identify some social causes of environmental problems. Population Growth has an direct link to the environmental problems. Each and every person uses air, water, and land. They also use the products and technologies that causes environmental problems to begin with such as cars. Also Militarism adds to the one-thirds of the nations toxic waste that pollutes the air. 4 Discuss some strategies that might be used to help with environmental problems. Some strategies would be lessening the reliance on oil. Using reusable bags at supermarkets rather than disposable plastic bags. There can also be more carpooling done; and no air polluting hair products. 5 What are some concerns with nuclear energy? Some concerns with nuclear energy is disposing of the nuclear waste and dangerous potential nuclear accidents that can potentially happen. Chapter 14 1 Describe some internet global trends. E-Commerce is one of the trends. It is the buying and selling of goods and services over the internet, and primarily includes online shopping and online backing. Another trend is Health and digital medicine. Many americans turn to the internet to address health issues and concerns. Another includes games and entertainment. Over half of all Americans play video games, and 51 percent of all U.S. households have a dedicated home game console. 2 What is meant by outsourcing, who does it, and why? read the textbook for this answer 3 What is meant by the term Technological Revolution? When they say Technological Revolution, they are referring to the rapid advancement of technology from the past to now. For example less than 50 years ago a long distance call was a memorable event and now it is a regular everyday task. 4 What is the Human Genome Project? The U.S. Human Genome Project was a 13 year effort to decode human DNA, and was completed in 2003. Conclusion of the project is transforming medicine. 5 Where do you see technology in the next 50 years? Give specific examples? In 50 years I see the world having flying cars, cures for the different cancers in the world along with HIV and AIDS. Technology is advancing at such a rapid pace that it is quite possible. 6 What nation is the leader in emerging technology? Be specific and give specific reasons for your answer. read the textbook for this answer Chapter 15 1 Identify some common causes of war. Some of the causes of war include conflict over land and other natural resources, conflict over value and ideologies, and racial, ethnic, and religious hostilities. 2 Describe the different types of terrorism. There are two types of terrorism. It is transnational terrorism and domestic terrorism. Transnational terrorism occurs when a terrorist act in one country involves victims, targets, institutions, governments, or citizens of another country. Domestic terrorism, sometimes called insurgent terrorism, is exemplified by the 1995 truck bombing of a nine-story federal building in Oklahoma City. Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols were convicted for the crime . McVeigh was reported to be apart of a group that opposed the U.S. government. 3 What are the roots of terrorism? The roots of terrorism are a failed or weak state Rapid modernization Extreme ideologies A history of political violence, civil wars, revolutions Repression by a foreign occupation Large-scale racial or ethnic discrimination The presence of a charismatic leader 4 Explain Americas response to terrorism. The government can see both defensive and offensive strategies to fight terrorism. Defensive strategies include metal detectors, and X-Ray machines at airports and strengthening security at potential targets. Offensive strategies include retaliatory raids, such as the U.S. bombing of terrorist facilities in Afghanistan, group infiltration, and preemptive strikes. 5 Is it possible to live in a world without war? No. Because there will always be conflict between two countries and discrepancies. There will always be allies and enemies. 6 What are the social problems associated with war and terrorism? The social problems associated with terrorism are dead and disability, rape, forced prostitution, and the Displacement of Women and Children, Social-Psychological Costs, Diversion of Economic, and Destruction of the Environment.
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