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Final Exam Study Guide- Psych

by: Hannah Kirby

Final Exam Study Guide- Psych PSY 2603

Marketplace > University of Oklahoma > Psychlogy > PSY 2603 > Final Exam Study Guide Psych
Hannah Kirby
GPA 3.1

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About this Document

Notes from the textbook and lecture, covering chapters 12, 13, 14, 15, and 16.
Developmental Psychology
Lara Mayeux
Study Guide
Lifespan, development, developmental, Psychology
50 ?




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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hannah Kirby on Saturday May 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 2603 at University of Oklahoma taught by Lara Mayeux in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 91 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Oklahoma.


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Date Created: 05/07/16
Final Exam Study Guide Chapter 12: Gender and Sexuality Perspectives on gender development Biological, social, and cognitive influences, gender differences, and gender identity  development Sex versus Gender  Sex: biological aspect of being male or female  Gender: social and psychological aspects  o Gender roles, expectations, behaviors Biological influences on gender  Classes of Hormones o Estrogens (female)  Estradiol  Development of female sex characteristics and helps regulate the  menstrual cycle o Androgens (male)  Testosterone  Promotes development of male genitals and secondary sex characteristics  Atypical levels of hormones prenatally can affect later behavior o Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (girls= enjoy typical masculine activities as kids) o Androgen insensitivity disorder (boys= some have female gender identity) o Pelvic Field Defect (boys= missing penis, most raised as girls) o Early loss of penis and sexual reassignment (case of Bruce/Brenda/David)  Evolutionary View o Premise: males and females faced different challenges due to different roles in  reproduction o Natural selection favored different strategies depending on sex  Males­ having as many babies as possible and having more resources to  attract mates; violence, competition, and risk­taking  Females­ ensuring survival of as many babies as possible by obtaining  long­term mates that could support a family; devoted effort to parenting Early socialization of gender roles: social cognitive theory of gender  Premise: gender develops via observation, imitation, rewards and punishments for  gendered behavior  Girls and boys are talked to differently, treated differently—from infancy o Communication:  Nicknames  Emotion­focused speech  Focus on anticipated roles o Behavior toward boys and girls  More physical and rough play with boys  Girls are coddled, held close Social Influences:  Parents reinforce gendered behavior during playtime: o Parents intervene when children play with gender atypical toys­ boys can initially  want to play with dolls, and girls can initially want to play with trucks. Fathers  tend to intervene more when child is playing with something not meant for their  gender­ especially if their child is a boy. o Mothers socialize daughters to be obedient and responsible, with less autonomy  than boys o Fathers pay more attention to sons than daughters and engage in more activities  with sons  Parents own behaviors can shape the child’s gender role o “Traditional” parents: child is more likely to expect that is normal and will  assume those roles for themselves o “Peer or partner” parents: child will have more egalitarian views, equal work and  no such thing as “mom’s work” or “dad’s work” there is simply “parents  working”  Media and Peers: o Peers become increasingly important as children age o Sex­appropriate behavior is awarded by peers o Majority of play time between ages 4 to 12 are with same sex peers o Around age 4, children begin playing with peers who like the same activities as  them (typically the same gender) Social role theory  Premise: societal roles impose limits on boys and girls behavior, shape opportunities,  expectations, psychological characteristics  Ex: occupational roles, family roles (women as support; men as leaders) o Boys are allowed more opportunities and autonomy   Parents have less concern about boys being kidnapped than girls; worrying less about boys getting harmed from activities; boys are allowed to play  further from the home and play more risky activities  Boys and girls are channeled into different activities (boys to sports, girls  to girl scouts, relational roles)  Parents provide different environments for boys and girls o Observational study for boys’ vs girls’ bedrooms (1975 & 1990):  Children: 1 month to 6 years old  Boys have lots of vehicles, machinery, army equipment, soldiers,  sports equipment  Girls: family oriented toys, feminine decorated, dolls, flowers and  ruffles Gender Stereotypes:  Females o Expressive, warm, sensitive, subordinate   Males o Instrumental, aggressive, independent, power­oriented Cognitive influences:  Gender schema theory: o Children encode info related to gender beginning in infancy (schemas) o Motivated to conform to their correct schema o Cognitive effects on:   Memory  Self­schemas  Attitudes toward others  Gender differences:  o Physical differences  Body fat (females have higher percent body fat than males)  Height (males typically taller than females)  Life expectancy (women have longer than males)  Infant mortality (higher for male newborns vs female newborns)  Percentage of infants who die before first birthday  More males born than females  Evens out after first year  Physical and mental health (women are less likely to be diagnosed with  overall problems)  Stress hormones (higher concentration in females than males, which is  why men usually have more problems related to stress—heart problems,  etc.)  Brain structure (region for sexual behavior larger in males, emotional  processing larger and more active in females, cognitive and organizational region larger for females)  Behavior can alter brain structure, brain develops in response to  various differences in behavior o Cognitive differences  Visuospatial skills (better in females, difference very small)  Reading and writing (females tend to outperform boys, but not by much)  “Doing School” school environments are better geared toward females   How well do they respond to school environment? How well do  they sit still? How well do they follow curriculum and engage in  structured lessons?  o Social/Emotional differences  Physical aggression (males more so than females)  Relational aggression (males interact differently than females)  Emotional expression (females more so than males)  Emotional regulation (females more so than males) Gender Development  Infancy o No sense of their own gender or sex o By age 1, gender­typed play  Early and middle childhood o Know much about gender expectations by preschool  o Prefer same sex peers by preschool o Boys are socialized more quickly and more strongly  Late childhood o Rules relax some o Gender segregation relaxes o Friendships based less on gender, more on play preferences  Adolescence  o Gender­intensification hypothesis   Gender differences become more pronounced in early adolescence  because of increased pressure to conform to traditional roles   Not all adolescents experience this  Adulthood  o Communication differences   Rapport vs report talk  Rapport is informational but also establishes emotional connection  Report is only information, more formal o Challenges for women:  Self­interest rather than sole focus on nurturing others o Challenges for men:  Role strain—we tell men not to be “traditional” males, but punish them  when they don’t “act like men”  Aging o Roles relax, men and women are more free to be psychologically androgynous   Men experience more change than women o Cultural variations Ch. 13: Moral development, values, and religion Aggression and Prosocial behavior 1. Socialization and prosociality & empathy  2. Types of aggression 3. Development of aggression Moral Development/ Thought  Piaget’s Theory o Heteronomous morality: 4­7 years old  Justice and rules are perceived as unchangeable and removed from human  control  Immanent justice­ if a rule is broken, then punishment will be given  immediately  o Autonomous morality: 10 years—   Aware that rules and laws are created by people   Consider intentions as well as consequences Prosocial behavior­ Voluntary behavior that is intended to benefit another ­Performed for egotistic, other­oriented (altruistic), or practical concerns Development of prosocial behavior  Infancy o Emotional reactions to others’ distress (shortly after birth) o Sharing/ showing toys without being prompted, showing affection (by one year) o Approach and attempt to comfort a distressed child (13­14 months)  Early childhood o By age 2, children show a variety of helping behaviors  Verbal advice  Sharing (although not consistently)  Distracting a distressed person from the source of their upset  Protection/ defense  Environmental influences on the development of prosocial behavior  Parenting o Inductive discipline­ talking, explaining to kids why certain behavior is wrong o Sympathy­ modeled for kids o Warmth/ acceptance­ more likely to internalize parents’ values  Direct modeling of prosocial behaviors  Praising the prosocial nature of children who show prosocial behavior  Television  o “mister rogers’ neighborhood” segments that focus on understanding the feelings  of others, expressing sympathy, and helping others  School  o “The hidden curriculum”  Rules of appropriate behavior  Teachers as models of ethical behavior  “character education” Kohlberg’s stages of moral reasoning  Type of reasoning: preconventional o Behavior driven by rewards and punishments o Stage 1: heteronomous morality­ only act prosocially to avoid being punished  o Stage 2: equal exchange­ act prosocially because they think they will be  rewarded; reciprocity  Second type of reasoning: conventional reasoning o Child follows standards/ rules, but they are the rules of someone else (parents,  teachers, law) o Stage 3: interpersonal expectations­ living up to someone’s expectations, wanting  them to see them as good o Stage 4: social systems morality­ seeing necessity of rules and how they protect  everyone, keep everyone in line  Post conventional reasoning o Internalization of societal rules, development of personal moral codes o Stage 5: social contract­ values, rights, and principles transcend the law o Stage 6: universal ethical principles­ a moral standard based on universal human  rights Justice perspective­ rights of the individual; individuals make their own moral decisions Care perspective­ view relationships with others and concern for others; emphasizes  interpersonal relationships Social cognitive theory of morality: This theory distinguishes between moral competence (ability to produce moral behaviors) and moral performance (performing those behaviors based on the  situation) Empathy: reacting to others’ feelings with a similar emotional response   Cognitive component: perspective taking o Being able to understand another person’s point of view  Emotional component: personal distress o Experiencing the negative emotions that the other person must be feeling o Can also be positive emotions  Is it necessary for prosocial behavior? o Depends: inverted U­shaped relationship  Little empathy: low prosocial behavior   Lots of empathy: tend to show more prosocial behavior   Too much empathy: vicarious traumatization­ experiencing the same level  of trauma as the person sharing their experience Psychoanalytic Theory­   The superego o Ego Ideal­ rewarding by conveying a sense of pride when acting by standards  given by parents o Conscience­ punishes for unapproved behaviors by producing feelings of  worthlessness and guilt Moral Identity­ part of a person’s personality when that person has moral notions and  commitments central to their own life Moral character­ having the strength of a one’s convictions, persisting, and overcoming  distractions and obstacles. Moral exemplars­ people with a moral personality, identity, set of virtues, and character that  reflect a moral excellence and commitment (ideal morality) Social domain theory­ identifies different domains of morality such as: social convention, moral  convention, and personal morality. Social conventional reasoning­conventional rules established by the majority, as opposed to  moral reasoning, which can stress ethical issues Types of Aggression:  Instrumental­ aggressing for the purpose of obtaining a toy or possession  Hostile­ aggressing simply to hurt the other person o Criticizing, ridiculing, name­calling, physical attack  Reactive­ a response to being attacked, threatened, or frustrated   Proactive­ using force to dominate another person or to bully and threaten them o Proactive kids usually grow out of this phase, not a lot of negative outcomes o Reactive kids­ sometimes see long­term continuation, problems with emotion  regulation and anger management o Proactive is often premeditated, planned  Relational­ using the threat of damage to another person’s interpersonal relationships to  manipulate or gain something o Gossip, rumors, exclusion from activities, “I won’t be your friend anymore if  you…” “You can’t come to my birthday party” Developmental changes in aggression  Toddlers: rely heavily on physical attacks to obtain toys, possessions  Older children: use their language skills to verbally assault or threaten others  Preschool: very overt, verbal, dyadic (between two people)  As children get older: becomes more covert, difficult to detect o Involves larger peer group Origins of aggressive behavior:  Biological influences:  Testosterone= aggression? o Boys with higher levels of testosterone…  Rated themselves as more likely to respond aggressively to provocations  Were more impatient and irritable in lab settings o Same effect for girls?  Estradiol   More aggressive verbally in lab setting Family influences:  Some evidence that insecure (especially disorganized) attachment is linked to later  aggressive behavior o Especially when the child faces other risk factors (home environment,  temperament, etc.)  Teaching young boys to defend themselves o “be a man” o Aggressogenic socialization  Parental fighting/ arguing o Models aggressive behavior for children  Parental use of power­assertive discipline  o Especially physical punishment, when in conjunction with low parental warmth  Patterson­ longitudinal study of boys’ aggression o Found differences in the home environments of aggressive children  Lack of monitoring from parents Peer group influences:  Deviancy training­ changing a benign topic to a way to form negative drama, sparks  negative behavior  Peer status­ likeability vs. power­ popular kids are more aggressive  o Particularly relational aggression o Status maintenance? o Power­ tend to be more aggressive, possibly risen out of competition Conduct disorder:  Age­inappropriate actions that violate family/societal norms, rights of others  Typical behaviors include: o Swearing excessively, tantrums, acting out, assault, theft, vandalism  Boys > girls   5% kids and teens get diagnosed  Developmental aggression o Many (50%) children break rules sometimes (self­reported) o When does it become a real problem? 1. Is it getting worse over time? 2. Is it causing problems for functioning? (getting suspended, grounded, etc.) 3. How severe is it? How badly are they violating norms, laws? Juvenile Delinquency:  “Any behavior that gets you involved in the legal system”  very broad  Two kinds of offenses­ o Index­ illegal no matter the age (ex: robbery, aggravated assault, rape, murder) o Status­ only criminal if at a certain age  Minors­ acts performed while under age (ex: running away from home,  drinking, smoking, truancy, sexual behavior)  Majority of cases perpetrated by males o This number is stable/declining  o Acts by females is increasing  Three developmental pathways to delinquency: o Authority conflict:  Childhood stubbornness  Adolescent defiance, avoidance of authority o Covert acts:  Lying property damage, minor, then serious delinquent acts o Overt acts:  Minor aggression  violence  Timing matters:  “Adolescence limited” – minor theft, vandalism, truancy that starts during  adolescence   “Life course persistent” ­ more serious crimes, higher frequency Values and Religion: Values­ beliefs and attitudes about how things should be Religion­ organized set of beliefs that increases a connection to a sacred other (God, higher  power, ultimate truth) Religiousness­ the degree of affiliation with a religion; extent of participation, connection,  involvement  Spirituality­ experiencing something beyond the self in a transcendent manner and living to  benefit others Religion and Spirituality through life:  Childhood and Adolescence  o Religious socialization­ parents will read scripture with children and send them to  religious educational programs o Individuals tend to adopt the beliefs of their parents  o Interest among adolescents declining in 21  century  Adulthood and Aging o Females have shown a stronger interest than men and participate more o Powerful influence in some adult’s lives, but little or no role in other lives  Older Adults o Religious service attendance decreases o Degree of spirituality increases   o Individuals with a stronger religious/spiritual orientation are more likely to live  longer Religion and Health  Religious commitment tends to lower blood pressure  Religious attendance is linked to reduction in hypertension  Lifestyle issues­ o Lower rates of drug use  Social networks­ o Well connected individuals have fewer health problems o Religious groups, meetings, activities provide connectedness  Coping with stress­ o Source of comfort and support during stressful events o Less likely to be psychologically distressed Meaning in Life  Need for purpose o Goals o Fulfillments  Need for values o Positive characterization o Decide whether certain actions are right or wrong  Need for a sense of efficacy o Belief that one can make a difference o Control over environment  Need for self­worth o Gaining self­esteem o Can be pursued individually Ch. 14: Families, Lifestyles, Parenting Reciprocal socialization­ bidirectional; children socialize parents just as parents socialize  children The family as a system­ interaction between children and their parents; child behavior and  development, marital relationship, and parenting all effecting one another Adult lifestyles­ single, married, cohabiting, divorced, remarried, gay and lesbian What makes marriages work:  Establishing love maps  Nurturing fondness and admiration  Turning toward each other instead of away  Letting your partner influence you  Overcoming gridlock  Creating shared meaning Trends in marriage  Marriage rates (51% in 2010)  Marrying young vs marrying later (used to be early 20’s, now late 20’s/early 30’s)  Traditional roles vs the “peer marriage” o Man in primary worker, woman cares for children and home = traditional o Both partners work and contribute to care of home and children = peer marriage  Marriage as the goal vs marriage as one of many goals o Self­worth being measured as ability to find husband  Married men are happier than married women What makes a successful marriage?   Gottman: pioneer in marriage research o Videotapes of marital interaction o Measure of heart rate, blood pressure, etc.   What makes a marriage work? o Communication, emotional openness, “fighting fair,” compromise, friendship (more  important now than used to be) The four horsemen of the apocalypse­ communication styles that predict relationship failure 1. Criticism­ verbally attacking partner’s character or personality  2. Contempt­ attacking your partner’s sense of self with an intention to insult or psychologically  abuse them 3. Defensiveness­ seeing yourself as the victim in efforts to ward off a perceived attack and reverse  the blame 4. Stonewalling­ withdrawing from the relationship as a way to avoid conflict in efforts to convey  disapproval, distance, and separation  Benefits of a happy marriage  Unhappy marriages­ more illness, premature death  Happy marriages­ longer, healthier lives; physiologically soothing  Divorce  Most occur 5­10 years after the marriage began o Differences in early vs mid­life divorcers   Early­ child related stress, loss of passion; volatile and expressive relationships,  romantic love “burns out”  Mid­life­ partner becomes a stranger, alienated; abuse (verbal, physical,  emotional); cheating; partners grow apart Divorce side effects:  Substance abuse  Depression  Sleep disorders  Stress  Financial concerns  Illness (compromised immune responses)  Loneliness  “Second chance”  Remarriage  Improved work opportunities (especially for women)  Focus on parenting or other relationships 6 Responses to divorce: 1. Enhancement a. Things were better off 2. The “Good­Enoughs”  a. Largest group b. Doing fine, but lacking the sense of “better” 3. The “Seekers” a. Immediately searching for a new partner (more men than women) 4. The “Libertines” a. Partying, excited to be single again b. Short­lived, about a year 5. The “Competent Loners” a. Not interested in another partnership at the time 6. The “Defeated” a. Small percentage of sample b. Ill, substance use, negative outlook  How does divorce affect children?  Most children (75%+) do not experience major problems  Typical issues o Depression, anxiety, low self­esteem o Acting out, delinquency  Buffers against divorce related problems  parents still get along  good parenting (authoritative)  older age at divorce  easy temperament  lack of behavior problems before divorce Ch. 15 Peers and the Sociocultural World Why study peer relationships?   Time spent with peers (more) vs adults (less)  Role of peers in the development of the self  Peers as agents of socialization  Peer relationships as predictors of long­term outcomes Levels of analysis:  Individual  o Behaviors (aggression, cooperation) o Personality characteristics (hostility, introverted/ extroverted)  Dyad o Friendships (starting in early school years) o Interactions between two people  o Romantic partners o Enemies  Group (especially in adolescence) o Cliques o Crowds – members share a defining feature Sociometric Status What is it?  How liked or disliked a child or teen is by their peer group as a whole  Based on child’s peer group (usually at school) Tells us­  Child’s social competence  Behaviors, thoughts, emotions  Level of withdrawal or sociability Five status categories:  Popular­ liked by many, disliked by few  Rejected­ liked by few, disliked by many  Neglected­ not nominated as liked or disliked  Controversial­ liked by many, disliked by many  Average­ everyone else  Behavioral correlates of peer status­  What are sociometrically popular kids like? o Easy going, happy, lots of friends  What are rejected kids like? Heterogeneity: differences within group o Some are aggressive and destructive o Some are socially withdrawn, anxious o Some have obsessive habits, poor emotion regulation, poor sanitary habits, etc.   Are these kids rejected because of their characteristics? Or are their  behaviors due to being rejected? Short term consequences of being rejected:  Continued rejection (due to reputational bias)  Loneliness, social isolation o Worse for nonaggressive rejected children than for aggressive­rejected ones  Poorer social skills than other children o Due to lack of interaction  Lower academic achievement Long term consequences of being rejected:  Causal model of peer relationships o Poor status causes later maladjustment   Incidental model of peer relationships o Rejection is a symptom of bigger problem that has lasting effects  Outcomes associated with low peer status  o Dropout o Unemployment o Criminal activity  o Early pregnancy Perceived popularity  NOT sociometric popularity o Sociometric popularity­ who people like o Perceived popularity­ who is “cool”  Lots of social dominance o High status o High social visibility within peer group o High levels of influence (people go along with them­ positive or negative)  What are these adolescents like? o Heterogeneity here, too:  Popular­ prosocial  Popular­ antisocial  How do their peers view them? o Often disliked, yet have a lot of power o Popular antisocial had more power o Some peers want to be part of that “group,” others do not  How do they view themselves? o Variability in status awareness  Gender differences o Popular boys = also well liked  Friendly, cooperative  Good leaders o Popular girls= more likely to be disliked  Manipulative, lots of relational aggression  Romantic rivals  Peers influence on each other  Conformity itself does not change much over time; conformity to antisocial behaviors  does o Increases steadily between grade 3 and 9, peaks at about age 15, then declines  Supportive peers + low parental involvement/ support = greatest likelihood of antisocial  conformity  Best friends are more influential than other peer group members  Boys are more susceptible to antisocial influence than girls are  Parental monitoring, involvement can reduce the impact of peer influence Bullying:   Definition: using superior strength or influence to intimidate someone, typically to force  someone to do what the bully wants  Outcomes for victims:  o Short­term: loneliness, social dissatisfaction, disengaged from school, physical  illness o Long­term: low self­ esteem, long term depression and social anxiety  Who are the bullies? Negative home life, bullies at home, few or no consequences  Friendship:  What functions do friendships serve? o Companionship o Stimulation o Physical support o Ego support o Social comparison o Intimacy/ Affection   How does friendship change over time? o Childhood­   How do kids choose friends?  Similarity of age, gender, activities   What is important to them?  Activity preferences  o Adolescence­  What happens between friends changes  More important for self­concept  Social comparison peaks  Gender composition changes   Co­rumination: pros and cons   Discussing problems or negative experiences without solving the  problem; more like rehashing the experience   Improves friendship qualities; increases friendship intimacy  Can lead to depression, social anxiety (more for girls than boys) o Constant focus on negative doesn’t allow coping and brings on feelings of sadness, distress o Adulthood­  Can be more important than family  Gender differences in expectations from friends   Cross­gender friendships still common   Social circle narrows with time Playtime  Is it important? Yes, most important for children (develop skills) and adults (access and  health)  Functions of play: o Cognitive o Social o Language development  Childhood o Types of play:  Sensorimotor play­ focus is on sensory experience (infants)  Practice play­ practicing a skill through repetition (all ages)  Pretend play­ using imagination, fantasy  Social play­ interacting with peers, siblings  Constructive play­ building to create products (group projects, or alone)  Games­ play that has rules (official or made­up) Leisure­ individuals are free to pursue activities of their own choosing (hobbies, sports, reading) Ch. 16­ Schools, Achievement, and Work Schools:  Education­ two approaches o Constructivist approaches: learner centered; active construction of knowledge by  learner, with teacher as a guide; hands­on, exploratory, critical thinking  o Direct instruction approaches: teacher centered; passive role as learner, teacher as  active  Early childhood & Elementary education o Increasing need for constructivist approach o Child­centered kindergartens   Whole­child approach  Cognitive skills  Social needs  Physical elements  Educating children with disabilities  Learning disabilities (below 70 IQ, severe difficulty with school subject, not related to  severe emotional, neurological, sensory problem)hereditary  o Gender differences  o 5% of all school kids receive services o Does intervention help?  Common diagnoses o Dyslexia (difficulty in reading, writing) o Dyscalculia (difficulty in math computation) o ADHD (inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity)   Boys more than girls  Treated by prescribing stimulants, behavior (cognitive) therapy  Some possible genetic causes, no direct gene inheritance  o ADD (inattention, impulsivity)  Autism spectrum disorders o Social deficits o Communication deficits o Restrictive, obsessive, repetitive behaviors  o Boys more likely to be diagnosed than girls o Need special instruction techniques to help them learn to communicate  o Enrolled in special education classes, apart from peers  Asperger’s syndrome o Trouble interpreting social ques and responding in an appropriate manner o Restrictive, repetitive behaviors o Milder than autism, but on the same spectrum  Developmental changes  Elementary school o Cognitive changes  Learning to think more critically o Emotional changes  Decreasing self esteem o Social changes   Sense of self   Peer relations, social hierarchy   How well they can master tasks   Middle and High School: stressful transitions  o Physical changes  Body image o Social/emotional changes  Decreased dependency on parents  Increased dependency on friends  Increased complexity in self­concept   Romantic interests  Accountability, responsibility  o Poor school fit  Need to have supportive teachers  Harder in large schools to feel supported  o Top dog phenomenon  th th  6  and 9  grades­ behavioral challenges, increases in discipline rules  Trying to gain social status   Problems in secondary education o Dropout (7.1%)  Highest for Latino and Native American students  Gender differences  Pregnancy  Needing to work o Not preparing students for college or work force  Forces students into remedial tracks in college Montessori approach­  Educational philosophy  Students have more freedom of choice in what they learn  Students may have one focus and apply to different topics  Teacher acts as a facilitator, not a director Developmentally appropriate vs. developmentally inappropriate practices Advantages­ reduced stress and anxiety in the classroom; higher motivation; creativity; better work habits; stronger academic outcomes Educating disadvantaged children How do economic disadvantages lead to educational disadvantages? o less educational experiences o less language immersion o labeled as low performing   hard to overcome labeling; self­fulfilling prophecy o long­term effects of this kind of “tracking” as low performing:  dropping out  no college  fewer job opportunities  less overall income Project Head Start (and similar programs):  Nutritional, cognitive, language, social development   Parental involvement  Starts at age 3­4 before they are labeled as low performing  Facilitates getting kids the skills and knowledge they need in order to succeed in school  This is often the first thing that gets cut from budgets   Achievement: Motivation:  Extrinsic vs intrinsic motivation  Extrinsic­ working toward a tangible goal; outcome oriented  Intrinsic­ motivation from within; wanting to do more and having pride in  learning things  Extrinsic can turn into intrinsic, vice versa  Developmental considerations  o Drop in intrinsic motivation in middle school  Mastery vs performance orientation o Mastery­ Interested, engaged in learning o Performance­ wanting the good grade, or wanting to perform better than others  Helpless orientation o “learned helplessness”  o Having trouble in a task and attributing trouble to personal qualities­ leads to  lower motivation What is mindset?—Carol Dweck  Cognitive view of self  Fixed vs growth: o Fixed­ qualities cannot change o Growth­ practice can improve  Effects of culture on achievement­  How do ethnicity and culture affect achievement? o Its Socio Economic S, not ethnicity o Resources that children are exposed to  o How “good” school is  How does US stack against other countries?  15/16  in math  Shorter school year  Teachers spend less time on math and science  Parents are less involved in helping  Parents more prone to attributing cognitive issues in school to  fixed mindset  Work and Retirement­  What affects the career we choose? o Childhood ideas? o Personality o Values o “occupational outlook”   Knowing the state of a certain field (increasing or decreasing needs,  success)  Working Teens o About 85% of teens work at some point during high school  10% working high school seniors work full time o Should adolescents work part time?  Learning good work habits, hot to budget time  Earn money for college, learn how to manage a budget  Less unmonitored time (less chances of getting in trouble)  Academic achievement can suffer  Less school engagement  More substance use  Working adults o Contemporary issues/challenges   Economic climate/ unemployment  Physical problems  Mental health problems  Social/ marital problems  Dual­career couples  Changing roles at work and at home  Inequalities in pay  Retirement o Full vs partial retirement   No more work vs bridge employment  Why do so many people only semi­retire?  Cutting hours back, less involved  Benefits people who enjoy the job and like to stay busy  Good for income, medical bills  Avoid boredom  Maintain social ties


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