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Music as a World Phenomenon: Finals Material- Study Guide from Ch. 1-13

by: Carla Notetaker

Music as a World Phenomenon: Finals Material- Study Guide from Ch. 1-13 Mus 22121

Marketplace > Kent State University > Music > Mus 22121 > Music as a World Phenomenon Finals Material Study Guide from Ch 1 13
Carla Notetaker

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About this Document

Covers material from chapters 1 -13; includes vocabulary and sample questions.
Music as a world phenomenon
Andrew Shahriari
Study Guide
Music, kent state, final study guide, final, Vocabulary
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Carla Notetaker on Saturday May 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Mus 22121 at Kent State University taught by Andrew Shahriari in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 310 views. For similar materials see Music as a world phenomenon in Music at Kent State University.


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Date Created: 05/07/16
Music as a World Phenomenon -1 Finals Week: Study Guide Finals Week: Make up Exam’s for anything missed from Ch. 1 -13 Vocabulary  4 Parts of Music o pitch, volume, duration, and quality  Accent o something that is emphasized/stressed  A cappella o only voices  Aerophone o a vibrating column of air produces the sound  Animism o spirits in all things  Animistic belief system: o Where the sounds are intended to imitate the sounds of nature. In doing so a person was able to tap into the spiritual power of their environment.  Aural/Rote o using your ear to learn, not written notation, "oration tradition"  Beat o the regular pulse of the music  Bira o ceremony connected with mbira (Zimbabwe)  Call and Response o Solo first and then group responds  Chord o at least two notes played together  Chordophone o vibrating strings are the source of sound production  Classical Music o orchestra, instrumental, non-synchapated, organized in movements, formality o music created in context of surplus wealth, years of practice  Comparative Musicology Music as a World Phenomenon -2 Finals Week: Study Guide o An early term for the field that became ethnomusicology, when research emphasized comparisons of folk and non-western music with western practices  Conjunct o notes that are close together  Consonant o sounds right together  Cultural relativism o a research approach embraced by ethnomusicologists that encourages the acceptance of differing cultural perspectives  Disjunct o notes that are far apart in range  Dissonant o builds suspense, almost sounds sour  Dung kar: made of conch shells. o Rare contributing to their sacred value.  Dung chen: is made of metal and usually 5 – 12’ long. o Is said to wake the gods.  Dynamics o how loud or soft a sound is  Ensemble o a group  Ethnocentrism o the culture you were raised in shapes your beliefs, "people-centric" o The unconscious assumption that one’s own cultural background is “normal” while that of others is “strange” or “exotic”.  Ethnomusicology o the study of the relationship between culture and music o the scholarly study of any music within its contemporary cultural context  Phases of Ethromusicological Research (4 basic phases) Music as a World Phenomenon -3 Finals Week: Study Guide o (1)Preparation  Research and prepare by learning as much as possible, learn language, need recording equipment & knowledge to deal w/ both technical &social issues o (2)Field Work  Few days to several years, the more you experience the more it is that you feel needs to be understood o (3)Analysis and (4)Disseminate  Spreading info widely by technology, writing, etc.  Extramusical o outside of the actual music  Fieldwork o The first-hand study of music in its original context, a technique derived from anthropology  Folk Music o older, passed down, tells a story, acoustic, meaning "people," informal o music created & performed by people of modest means, requires less energy  Folklore o The study of orally transmitted folk knowledge and culture  Form o the "roadmap" of the musical piece  Harmony o a supporting part to the melody o simultaneous combination between three or more pitches  Heightened Speech o Listeners from one culture misjudge sounds from another culture by assuming, from their own experience, that this or that performance is song.  Heterophonic o different sound  Hocket/Interlocking o two parts coming together to make a whole  Homophonic Music as a World Phenomenon -4 Finals Week: Study Guide o same sound  Idiophone o the instrument itself vibrates to produce the sound  Improvisation o spontaneously making something up  Indigenous o native to a particular area  Interval o the distance between two notes  Jali o oral historian, Senegal-Gambia  Jali with Kora o Senegal-Gambia, uses syllabic singing, praise-singing sometimes called "spraying" Kang dung: traditionally made of human thighbone. Now made of metal.  o To remind performer that the body is impermanent.  Kamanche o Violin  Kora o a harp-lute or bridge-harp, Senegal-Gambia  Ladysmith Black Mambazo o isicathimiya group (a capella) from South Africa  Lute/ harp o a type of chordophone (harp played in Zimbabwe)  Mbira o lamellophones found in Africa (Zimbabwe)  Melismatic o multiple pitches per syllable  Melody o a string of pitches, the most recognizable o an organized succession of pitches forming a musical idea  Membranophone o the source of sound production is a vibrating membrane  Meter o the way the beats are organized  Mihrab o window facing east toward Mecca Music as a World Phenomenon -5 Finals Week: Study Guide  Minaret o a tall tower of a mosque, used for the Islamic call to prayer  Monophonic o one sound, one line of music  Organology o the study of musical instruments through their classification  Ornamentation o an embellishment of a melody  Ostinato o a part that is reprinted, rhythmic pattern  Phrase o a segment of music that goes together  Pitch o a frequency, a certain note/tone  Polyphonic o multiple sounds  Popular Music o changing, mass-market, current, repetition o widely disseminated by various types of media and supported by a broad base of relatively casual consumers; needs to appeal to a broad spectrum of the population to be success.  Range o the highest and lowest that occur  Rhythm o the feeling of movement in time  The Sachs Hornbostel o classification system of music into idiophone, membranophone, chordophone, and aerophone  Scale o specific group of notes arranged in a particular order  Semiotics Music as a World Phenomenon -6 Finals Week: Study Guide o The study of signs and systems of signs, including in music.  Song vs Piece o The music has words vs The music does not have words  Strophic o repeated portions  Syllabic o a text setting in which only one pitch is sung per syllable  Syllabic Text Setting o one pitch per syllable  Syncopation o unexpected to the regular pulse  Talking Drums o pitched drums used for communicating o Ghana, surrogate speech, it's said that drums give words more power  Tantric Buddhism o is the predominate religion in Tibet  Tempo o the speed of the music  Text Setting o the relationship of words to melody  Texture o light or dense, the amount of things happening  Through-composed o new compositional material, nothing repeated  Timbre o how something sounds, how you can tell instruments apart, specific characteristics that define a sound  Traditional Music o beliefs and values, transmission  Union bagpipes o Ireland, made as dance tunes, played at pubs and sessions  Unison o all together Music as a World Phenomenon -7 Finals Week: Study Guide  Vocal Polyrhythm o pygmy music  World o transcendence, foreign cultures – isolates Sites and music types  Review sites and types of music before taking exam to refamiliarize yourself with sounds of instruments/ vocals. Ethnic Groups  Shona ethnic group o From Zimbabwe  Mbuti ethnic group o pygmy  Zulu ethnic group o South Africa Instrument Classifications  Aerophone o air is vibrating (flutes, reeds, trumpets)  Membranophne o stuck with hand, struck with a stick or other device, "rubbed" or "singing" membranes  Idiophone o thing itself is vibrating (plucked, struck, or shaken) Lammellophone  o idiophone with a tongue Questions  _____, _____, and _____ are the three basic elements of Javanese gamelan performance. Music as a World Phenomenon -8 Finals Week: Study Guide o Principal melody, periodic punctuation, melody embellishment  New Delhi is considered part of the _____ cultural region of India. o Northern or North or Hindustani  _____, also described as texture, refers to the organizational relationship between or among musical sounds. o Phonic structure  A smaller drum resonator I made from _____ o Coconut  The pipa is a _____ from China common to the sizhu ensemble. o Pear- shaped plucked lute  Sambda is a popular music associated with carnival in _____. o Brazil  The “high lonesome sound” is associated with _____. o Bluegrass  how do sufi's use music and how is it different? o sufi's seek union with Allah through musical trance, music is essential for them to connect with Allah. Suni's and Shii's think music is secular and that is distracts from the divine  how is history of European music influenced by the middle east? o Bulgaria- tuning system and shared musical instruments and rhythm complexities blended with European harmonies Spain- gypsies brought improvised dense noted on the guitar, decorated melodies, rhythmic complexities and vocal is very melismatic Music as a World Phenomenon -9 Finals Week: Study Guide  how is polyrhythmic music created in Sub-Saharan Africa o there are three layers in the Ghana polyrhythmic ensemble, the master drummer who signals everything that happens, the support drums, and the bell that plays timeline pattern for rhythm. Highlife music creates polyrhythm with 2 guitars and percussion  what are the linguistic elements that make the drums talk? o tonal languages, master drummer also matches rhythm of speech  what defines music as classical or folk in European context? o classical in paneuropean but folk is usually specific to one culture, biggest influence classical has on folk is tonal harmonies, folk provided a wealth of melodies and dance rhythms for classical  why are Muslim and Jewish chanting not considered music? o it's a form of heightened speech and it done out of respect for G-d and the holy texts  _____ is a narrative drama found in South Korea. o P’ansori  Popular music from the “Western” world, i.e., Rock and roll, is regarded as “illegitimate” musical activity in accordance w/ mainstream Islamic beliefs.  The omnipresent being referred to as “God”by English- speaking Christians is called ____ by Islam. o Allah  Byzantine chant is typical of the religious singing of the ____. o Greek Orthodox Church  What are the two types of Beijing Opera? o Civil (Melodic) and Military (Rhythmic and loud aerophones)  Kodo is a famous performing ensemble from Japan associated with _____. Music as a World Phenomenon -10 Finals Week: Study Guide o taiko  A distinctive feature of the Russian ______ is its triangular shaped body. o balalaika  ______, ______, and ______ are the three principal philosophical/religious systems found common to the Chinese population. o Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism  ______ is defined as "an organized succession of pitches forming a musical idea." o Melody  A ______ has "no neck." Most of the instrument is used as a resonating body. o Zither  The sound of the hurdy gurdy is produced by ______. o turning a crank attached to a wheel to vibrate the strings  The “Uillean” pipes are distinctive because ______. o the performer pumps a bellows with his elbow to fill the air bag o Bob Marley plays what type of music?  Reggae o Ethiopian flag is what colors  Gold, Green and Red o Lead voice of a Bahamian rhyming spiritual is known as what?  Rhymer o Terminology associated w/ Vodou rituals  Loa, Legba/ Ogoun o The individual patterens of African- based polurhythm are known as what? Music as a World Phenomenon -11 Finals Week: Study Guide  Time- lines  Common contexts for Country Blues artists to perform in the early 1900s included o Brothels, Medicine shows, Juke joints  Audio- “ la pan de ron w/ bells” = Cajun music  _____ is a “martial arts- dance” created by runaway slaves in Brazil o Capoeira  _____ were a music record label category that targeted African American audiances o Race Records  Harriet “Moses” Tubman was one of the key figures in association w/ _____ o The underground railroad  Audio- “Come and go to that land” o Spiritual music  Audio- “How can this blood on your shirt leave me in tears” o ballad music  A melodic instrument is _____ o Siku  The Amazon basin is largely found in _____ o Brazil  The _____ is a type of button- box accordion common to tango music. o Button- box accordion


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