Intro to Cinema 2120 Final Study Guide
Intro to Cinema 2120 Final Study Guide FILM 2120
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kay Patel on Saturday May 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to FILM 2120 at University of Georgia taught by Dr. Seiving in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Cinema in Fine arts at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 05/07/16
Avant garde - (experimental films) Non-conformist approach to cinema. Not main stream cinema. Challenge normal notions of what a movie can show and how it can show it. Work independently of the studio. Non narrative formal systems - Representational, non-representational, associational, categorical, rhetorical Abstract - Films are non-narrative visual/sound experiences with no story and no acting. Rely on quality of motion, rhythm, light and composition inherent in the technical medium of cinema to create emotional experiences. Representational abstract - There are recognizable forms and objects in the film Nonrepresentational abstract - Unrecognizable forms and objects in the film. Associational form - Film's parts are juxtaposed to suggest similarities, contrasts, concepts, emotions and expressive qualities. "A movie" Categorical form - Uses simple patterns of development (Move from small to large, local to national, personal to public) Rhetorical - Addresses the viewer openly, trying to move the viewer to a new intellectual conviction, to a new emotional attitude or action. Emphasis on opinion. A type of filmic organization in which the parts create and support an argument. Flicker film - It's about editing, no subject matter. Objective is editing rhythm. Part of nonrepresentational abstract. "Mothlight and Composition in blue" Not about what's actually going on, rather than, the texture, shape, colors, and rhythm of the film. Oskar Fischinger - "Composition in blue" Stop motion. Non- representational. Shirley Clarke - "Bridges go round" representational abstract, showed various bridges around new york. Martin Arnold - "Passage a' l'acte" representational, took a scene from a movie and re-edited it and added different sounds. Basically, rewinds short segments to create repetition. "Annoying To Kill a Mockingbird recreation" Bruce Conner - "A movie" associational, collage of scenes from different movies and other b-roll with a single musical score. Stan Brakhage - Reflections of black, Delicacies of molton horror synapse. A lyrical filmmaker. Scratches, paints and writes directly on film stock to cause effects. Duplicates burst of light one sees after rubbing hands on eyes. writing poetry and the camera is my pen. romantic tradition Maya Deren - American avant-garde filmmaker: Meshed of the Afternoon exemplifies trance films psychoanalytical Trance film - Meshes of the afternoon. Avant garde film. Knives, flower and telephones usually symbolize this kind of film. Maya Deren lyrical film - Purest form of romantic manifestation "Mothlight, delicacies of the molton horror synapse" BRAKHAGE Andy Warhol - Made films full time. Recordings of everyday life. Used LONG takes, no story line and no sound. (Just turned camera on) "Sleep and eat are popular films" his films invited viewers to question the traditional standards of film arts wanted to make art into a commodity Fluxus group - Means continuous flow. Believed art had become to professionalized. Raised questions about the true meaning of art, larger questions followed. Believed anyone can create art. Nam June Paik: Zen for head. (Dragged head across a paper with red paint) Screen tests - "Edie sedgwick" A girl's face starring and blinking into the camera. Warhol wanted to see what people would do in front of a camera film animation - way of making a movie by using series of drawings, computer graphics or photographs of objects that are slightly different from one another and that when viewed quickly after one another create the appearance of movement Winson McCay - Gertie the Dinosaur cartoonist small team drawing the images-artisanal 6 months to create a 7-minute animation recycling - majority of the frames/images are reused in order to save time and focus on more important parts JR Bray - Introduced to animation by McCay Stole McCay's techniques and then sued him Bray used McCay's techniques to break animations into segments that would be given to separate animators key animator - animates the most prominent parts and key frames in-betweener - fills in the blanks usually the computer Cel animation - you only have to draw the background once Is the use of transparent pages to create a sense of movement 2-D computer animation - creation of moving pictures in a two-dimensional environment 3-D computer animation - the creation of moving pictures in a three- dimensional environment; Objects can be rotated and moved like real objects John Lasseter - found Pixar Luxo Jr. - John Lasseter the name of the short movie that PIXAR made about a lamp This character later became the iconic logo for the company. music in animation - silly symphonies merry melodies mickey mousing: try to accentuate movement through the use of music Foley sound recording - They watch the projected film and simultaneously generate live sound effects-footsteps, the rustle of leaves etc on a Foley stage. Named after the legendary Jack Foley. documentary form - film through certain conventions creates the illusion that the events depicted were not controlled by filmmakers. narrative form - automatically highlight certain events as important causes when in reality they might not have been and other events could be downplayed or eliminated together rhetorical form - makes argument documentary's manipulations of reality: Stylistic level - decisions made about cinematography, framing, mise-en-scene editing for our interpretation creative geography documentary's manipulation of reality: organizational - narrative form and rhetoric form documentary's manipulation of reality: institutional context - considering who finances the film and how that affects the validity documentaries distributed to museums John Grierson - an early promoter of the documentary form, coined the term documentary, championed documentaries that explore social problems traditional documentary conventions of traditional documentary - planned. Nanook of the North. Shots redone if necessary. Staged. Lighting, sound and camera movements all planned. Omniscient voice that is never diegetic. conventional of direct cinema - Smaller more portable equipment led to unplanned less controlled seemingly objective captured reality with minimum interference used Nagra and16mm camera more spontaneous and intimate style compared to traditional more flexibility in moving around "voice of god" narrator - Can't see the narrator non-diegetic documentary and "objectivity" - more objective captures reality with minimum interference photographic recording if the world Errol Morris - The Thin Blue Line saved a person wrongly convicted by reenacted crime and showed that there was not enough evidence authorship - authorship criticism proposes that a single person usually director, may be primarily responsible for important features of the films The idea of authorship is very strong in art and experimental film, but in Hollywood, directors have much less power. Much is held by studios and producers. authorship's industrial context - the notions of authorship has been super influential for a director Hollywood mode of production - director is under contract with the studio hierarchy of labor The Wizard of Oz - making of this film typifies the classical Hollywood mode of production had multiple directors final director: Victor Fleming, who did very little compared to the previous directors the authors were the screenwriter who worked on the script or the same definition could be used for the producers the studio system - factory system industrialized organization producing films to be more effected lower risk the hierarchy of labor - top: head of production second: Unit producers last: departments head of production - responsible for yearly planning, the budgets, how many films to be released, who would be the producer/the main cast unit producers - assigned by the head of production, they organize the various personnel: cinematographers, directors, etc... final say over a cut other department under the hierarchy mode of production - in charge of costumes, music, make-up, set design coordinate the work for everyone technical work overseen by the unit producers directors- hierarchy of production - they have very little control over the decision of the movie art cinema directors have more control over the movie than the producers evolution of authorship criticism - caught on early-late 1950s Cahiers du cinema - French new wave directors began as film critiques who wrote for this journal politique de auteur - François Truffaut-film critic that coined "tradition of quality" cinema vs. "auteur's" cinema idea that the authors who aren't slaves to the screenplays make the best films director had full control no distinctive style considered to be trashy and distasteful ex: bicycle thieves "tradition of quality" - stylistically uninteresting high prestige polished look focused on the art respectable literature author did not have to have a main character ex: the hunch back of Notre dame Andrew saris - played central role in how the directors were thought about in America wrote a book on "The American Cinema" coined the term auteur saris' premises/criteria of value - 1. technical competence- "technician" 2. evidence of distinguishable personality -"stylist" 3. core of "interior meaning" - auteur, conflict between style and content a good director must meet all the criteria strongest personality should be the director Pauline Kael critique saris - 1. technical competence problems: poor directors for not having the same techniques as someone else 2. distinguishable style problem: sometimes the style used is not always good even if it is different 3. core meaning of "interior meaning problem" benefits of the auteur theory - led to greater acceptance of film as an art form led to the reevaluation of American films and directors put emphasis on the visual style had an impact on film practice drawbacks of the auteur theory - privileges consistency over quality privileges directors who operate under studio constraints champions director's contributions at expense of collaborators problem with intentionality-sometimes the lied in order to avoid drawbacks elements of authorship: plot- Orson Welles - larger than life tragic hero trait he seems of have in his film Citizen Kane: strong central character elements of authorship: narrational strategies-Orson Welles - Welles was known for this known for omniscient unrestricted narration elements of authorship: stylistic strategies- Orson Welles - Hawkes-classical, continuity system, nothing sets people apart The Bourne Ultimatum (Greengrass, 2007)-fragmented The Shining and Mission Impossible - Camera work Welles- virtuosic, dramatic, has influenced a lot of people, moving camera with long take common, deep space and deep focus The Magnificent Ambersons - long take and everything is staged, people are passing by in front of the camera, lots of movement The Lady from Shanghai - long takes (still), then frenetic short takes, the mirrors. evolution of Alfred Hitchcock's critical reputation - before the auteurists began to focus on Hitchcock, he was best known as a solid craftsman and at worst he was known morally objectionable creator of trash work was not taken seriously considered to be the single creator of his films "Hitchcock: The first 22 films"- Claude Chabrol and Eric Rohmer: first book on the study of Hitchcock and his work summary of Hitchcock's career - three standing periods: early British films, early Hollywood, and late Hollywood Hitchcock- early British period - 1920-1939 made movies primarily for the middle class audience only a few at this point are thought to contain the style of classic Hitchcock the man who know too much Hitchcock- middle Hollywood - first: Rebecca flashy attention getting style rope: seemingly shot in one very long take; tons of camera movement; elaborate staging Hitchcock- later Hollywood - most studied by auteur critics also had a tv show: Alfred Hitchcock presents Hitchcock’s public persona - became a brand name also known for his cameo appearances his name was used to market his films the auteur critics began to label him as a great artist elements of Hitchcock’s Authorship-Psycho - there were parallels between Norman and Marion- they were both escaping reality elements of Hitchcock’s authorship- rear window - point-of-view shot set in one location protagonist is immobile need to to make it more interesting parallels between Lisa and Mrs. Thorwald: both crying of attentions unrestricted narration: serves a purpose of sense because we know Jeff is in danger, but Jeff does not plot and narrative patterns in Hitchcock’s films - ordinary people plunged into danger: usually naive, they have unique skill that puts them in danger the innocent person usually gets mixed up in an unfortunate circumstance: the man who knew too much pure coincidence drags them into danger position: North by Northwest The wrong man transference of guilt - narrative Pattern-Hitchcock even though the protagonist is innocent, they still hold some responsibility doubling - Hitchcock refers to establishing parallels and similarities between the protagonist and the antagonist and once it is established, guilt is then transferred from the antagonist to the protagonist Hitchcock and range of narration - most unifying element manipulates the range of narration in order to create suspense suspense vs surprise - suspense: unrestricted narration surprise: restricted narration Hitchcock and the depth of narration - perceptual subjectivity is more common through point of view shots careful transition from restricted to unrestricted narration is the most important characteristic of a Hitchcock film manipulates the range and the depth of narration style in Hitchcock film - point-of-view editing innovative sound: compliments his objectives virtuosic visual style: works against the classical Hollywood ideals, murder scenes frequently stylized; conveying essential information through his flashy techniques genre studies major approaches - definition/classification: what makes a bunch of films genre convention: what are the conventions of any given genre history: how do genres change over time function/affect: why are people drawn to genres definition of genre - a field of familiar conventions that filmmakers can draw on when making films and that audiences can draw on when trying to make sense of the film genre convention: narrative - depends on the idea that everyone is familiar with what is going on gangster films often revolve around the rise and fall genre convention: thematic - general meaning that are summoned again and again themes are bit more specific sci-fi: deals with technology as a boon or a potential threat genre convention: stylistic: icons - iconography: visual images through repetitions come to reproduce certain meaning conventions are made tangible on the screen through mise-en-scene guns is western vs horror: honor vs dangerous Thomas schatz- history/stages of genre evolution - experimental development: classic, refinement, baroque all four stages are not distinct but rather overlapped experimental- Thomas schatz - one rare occasions genres sprouts from real life conventions are still being worked out classic: development: Thomas schatz - conventions are understood by the audiences and filmmakers and they start to adapt it refinement: development: Thomas schatz - embellishments baroque: development: Thomas schatz - baroque: extreme parity and spoofs of the genre push the conventions to the point of absurdity evolution of the western - Early in Cinema history (est. by 1910) Based on historical reality (Settlers, Tribes, outlaws, cowboys) Central theme: Conflict between civilized order and the lawless frontier. Iconography: wagon railroad costumes campfire, canoe "good bad man" Filled with racist stereotypes of Native Americans & Hispanics hybrids - cross genre mixes mixes two or more genres subgenres - subsets subcategories not linked to particular period of time cycles - short term fad social function/affect- Charles Altman - films arouse emotion by touching on deep social uncertainties but then channel those emotions into approved attitudes. rituals that confirm cultural values. repetitive ideas-raises anxieties, but also confirms them in some way. reflection of contemporary cultural concerns, values. Andrew Tudor on horror - published monsters and mad scientists effective approach should consider the audience's perceptions, one they might not be aware of Tudor: horror's general plot structure - instability introduces to a stable situation threat to stability is resisted-longest threat removed and stability is restored-shortest Tudor on threat - supernatural vs secular external vs internal autonomous vs dependent secure horror - horror comes from outside the community or outside our world it can be defeated Cat People threat is external and autonomous expert characters play a central role in defeating the threat a return to stability and order is seen as desirable we are more afraid of losing control than we are afraid of control itself paranoid horror - we produce the monsters psycho a return of normality and order is not as desirable threat may not be defeated threat is secular/human-related doubtful about outcome and social order the roots of the monster are in our society no clear boundary between the monster and reality no expert character to destroy the monster the universal horror cycle of the 1930s: German expressionist influence; Dracula - German expressionist influence: visual style; historians claim that horror first emerged in German studios; they were not meant to be horror, but they were meant to be art film Dracula: filmed in Germany called "Nosferatu"; his destruction is desirable outcome-the world is not seen safe 1930s: sense of classic horror comes from this period; secure horror Val Newton's horror cycle at RKO - Cat People hired by RKO. Produced nine horror films in which he had free reign with except given the titles. He focused on a film noir esque way of shooting. Not wanting to reveal the monster, thinking Universal's way to not be well. Often had female monsters like the femme fatal. focused less on the monster social function of horror: genre continuity - repression model each genre must have a long lasting social function social function of horror: genre evolution - reflectionist approach reflect contemporary concerns, attitude, and emotions robin wood and the psychoanalytical approach to horror - fueled by Hitchcock, Freud, and Marxism basic repression - as we age we have thought that are bad of our conscious and therefore we must repress them surplus repression - varies by culture and conditions us to act by norms other urges, feelings, and activities must be repressed individual repression --> social oppression - ex. sexuality -when born we have potential for bisexuality but one part becomes oppressed through society -homophobia defined as ones own repression of homosexual nature wood on horror conventions - Horror genre endures because it provides a necessary and continuous outlet for repressed, abnormal impulses. manifest content - according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream latent content - according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream paradox of horror - unconscious pleasure there is potentially political pleasure to be gained from some horror films: the reason why he is attracted to the genre; conscious interpret of response; judge how films represent on monsters progressive horror - sympathetic monster monsters that are partly human monster is product of American family or society victims not entirely sympathetic: repress what the other represents and no questioning of normality reactionary horror - monsters=pure evil non-human minsters monster is product of foreign land, sexual deviancy, the occult victims are sympathetic deaths linked to sexuality/deviant behavior startle effect - the response to unexpected loud noise summary of wood's argument: assumptions, arguments, methodology, and conclusion - assumptions: psychoanalysis can explain the mind; civilization relies on repression; society is analogous to the mind, repression- >oppression; repression never totally succeeds arguments: films are like dreams; they respond to interpretation; horror films, especially, are lined to collective unconscious, especially sexual desires methodology: interpretation: reading the films for their physical psychoanalytical reading conclusions: horror films are popular because of links to the repressed; horror reflects the broad socio-political climate; horror can serve progressive or reactionary aims noel Carroll’s definition of horror - films are intended to arouse the emotion of art-horror in the audience-where the object of art horror is a monster, and where art-horror is produced by fear and disgust caused by threat and impurity intention, art-horror, emotion emotion: physical states - emotion involves going from a physical phase to an emotion emotion must involve some sort of physical agitation emotion: belief states - commit us to believe whether the object is real or not evaluative thought: does not commit us to believe they exist but we still feel the emotion properties of Monster-Carroll - 1. the monster does not exist to contemporary science- the monster alone is not sufficient to make horror films 2. the monster is threatening-provoking fear 3. the monster is impure-provoking disgust; an object is impure if it all falls between categories or is categorically incomplete or pointless types of monsters: fantastic biologies: Carroll - fusion: result of combining categories; unite basic cultural distinctions fission: spatial fission (multiplies in space; both human and monster) and temporal fission (divides the monster in time rather than space; either monster or human, but not both at the same time) magnification Massification horrific metonymy: part of something that stands in part of the whole Carroll on paradox of fiction - 1. we can only have emotional responses to something that we believe exists 2. we are scared by the monsters in horror films 3. we know that monsters do not exist Carroll on paradox of horror - belief cues horror psychoanalytic view does not explain the genre as a whole our pleasure comes from our conscious exercise with our judgement and feelings illusion theory - getting rid of paradox of fiction #3 pretend theory - getting rid of paradox of fiction #2 thought theory - getting rid of paradox of fiction #1 source of fascination in horror- characters/monsters - fascination comes from contemplating monsters the monster is an anomaly and non-existence to science monster has got to violate what we know source of fascination in horror- plots/narrative - how aspects of the monsters are disclosed we like these stories because it creates curiosities and enigmas Overreacher plot - precedes from a specific state to a specific state Frankenstein complex discovery plot - onset, discovery, confirmation, confrontation onset - the monster's presence is established for the audience we know about the monsters before the character's do discovery - starts when the main characters discover the audience confirmation - proof; important authorities should be convinced of the existing monster confrontation - battle between human and monsters the longer we put this off the stronger the monster becomes the more people die summary of carols argument assumptions, arguments, methodology, conclusions - Assumptions: •Emotions require belief and are cued by objects •Entertaining thoughts about fictions can give rise to emotions •We assimilate character's situations—we react to the thought of them Arguments: •Horror narratives intend to arouse art-horror •Art-horror is an emotion cued by thought (not by belief) •Horror's appeal is tied to the monster and to narrative Methodology: •Refute competing explanations via counterexamples Conclusions: •Horror's fascination is elicited by the monster's impurity •Horror's pleasure is elicited by how the monster's properties are disclosed in the narrative •Disgust/fear is the price we pay for thus pleasure
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