GEOL110_Final GEOL 110
Long Beach State
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Doris M on Sunday May 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOL 110 at California State University Long Beach taught by Ewa Burchard in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Natural Disasters in Geology at California State University Long Beach.
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Date Created: 05/08/16
Final Exam Reminders -Scantron -#2 pencil -CLASS STARTS AT 12:30 NOT 2!!! Exam Discussion -75% on weather systems -25% on other chapters -focused on 2nd half -cumulative exam -atmospheric circulation, climate -review the exams -40-50 multiple choice questions Practice Final Exam -practice exam questions are from chapters 7, 9, 10, 11, and 12 -majority of the exam questions are from chapter 12 How is the Earth's climate changing? It is warming probably due to increased levels of CO in the atmosphere. 2 Which of the following is NOT a Paleo-proxy data source? Magma samples Which of the following is NOT a problem associated with ice sheets melting? Melting glacial ice on the Arctic Ocean will contribute most to rising sea level due to its melting directly into the ocean. Which of the following is NOT a source of data used to understand climate? Liquefaction zones from earthquakes stored in the geologic record Which of the following locations has the lowest risk for hurricanes? California Which is NOT an effect of hurricanes? Gradual subsidence of land What is the difference between a distant tsunami and local tsunami? Distant tsunamis move farther from their source before they hit land. Which of the following has the LEAST effect on flood damage? Assume that a moderate amount of development is available for flood damage. Geographic region When the Earth warms, won't the areas that we lose to agriculture (like the U.S. Midwest) just be replaced by new areas that are now too cold for farming (like Northern Canada)? Maybe. There is more to farming than just climate and more needs to be known about the soil characteristics in those areas. Where is the most intense rain and wind in a hurricane? Eye walls What two factors are often used for basic classification of global climate zones? Average monthly temperature and precipitation Which gas accounts for the majority (more than half) of the anthropogenic greenhouse effect? Carbon dioxide Which of the following is NOT a source of carbon dioxide for our atmosphere? Plant photosynthesis Which of the following does NOT contribute to climate change? Earthquake activity What are aerosols and why are they important? Aerosols are very small liquid or solid particles that reflect sunlight. Why does an occluded front form? Fast moving cold fronts overtake warm fronts and push warm air aloft. I-Clicker Questions What is the greatest difficulty in using Global Climate Models for prediction of future change? -Modeling future human behavior Which is not an example of paleoclimate proxy data? -ocean temperatures What are the 3 main time periods for which climate data are available for study? -Instrumental, historical, paleo-proxy Which is not a glacial hazard? -Tsunamis Which of the following is considered a variable gas? -Water vapor Which is not a component of the climate system? -Average daily temperature Which of the following is a statement of climate as compared to weather? -the winters here are dry and warm How could a community/state/country best use a runup map to prepare for a tsunami? -Locate the areas most likely to be inundated to possibly move critical services outside these areas. What did scientists discover about tropical ecology after the 2004 Indonesian Tsunami? -Coastal mangrove forests partly protected villages from the energy of the tsunami where the waves were smaller. What is a difficulty in the probabilistic approach to tsunami hazard risk? -tsunamis are generally rare events at one particular location What is the difference btwn a tsunami watch and a tsunami warning? -watch-an earthquake that can cause a tsunami has occurred warning- a tsunami has been detected and is spreading across the ocean towards the area Even is a community is "tsunami ready" what is the potential problem? -Education of the hazard and what to do in a watch or warning When a tsunami watch or warning is issued, you can take your own personal actions. Which is not an action you should take? -assume the area is safe because there have not been any dangerous waves elsewhere. How can tsunami waves be so deceiving? -all of these are ways that tsunami wave are deceiving -the trough may arrive first -they look small out at sea because of the distance to the horizon -the time btwn waves may be as long as an hr -they normally don’t break like regular ocean waves What was no a problem associated with the 2011 Japanese Earthquake and tsunami? -the small village of Fudai had built a much higher wall than ppl thought was necessary in the 1960s. Magma begins to form if rocks are close to their melting temp and the pressure from above is decreased in the process called… -decomposition melting If you were watching waves from the shore and started counting the seconds btwn one crest to the next, what would you be measuring? -wave period Which doesn’t describe the size and movement of a wave? -swell The size of waves in the ocean or on a lake depend on -the speed and duration of the wind and length of the fetch Which is a serious coastal hazard? -tsunami Which doesn’t affect coastal topography? -population How can the color of the soil help in possible hazard risk assessment? -red soil usually signifies its poorly drained, which can lead to higher slope instability How does the study of soils help evaluate natural hazards? -all these are ways that scientists have used sol in evaluation of natural hazards -the chronology of deformed earth materials from faulting has led to better calculations of earthquake recurrence intervals -the frequency of landslide can be estimated from the relative age of the soils -soil properties can help determine natural floodplains With the addition of levees, how does the natural flood plain change? -the area of wetlands is decreased What distinguishes flashfloods from downstream floods? -flashfloods occur in the upper part of the basin Vocabulary and Extra Notes (CH 12) -Climate: the characteristic atmospheric conditions of a given region over long periods of time such as years and decades -weather: the atmospheric conditions of a given region for short periods of time, such as days or weeks. -climate zones: the simplest classification is by temperature and precipitation but climate at a particular place or region may be complex. -ex. Ocean currents can affect the temp and precipitation of areas far removed from the coast; warm currents traveling north along the E. Atlantic bring mild temps to N Europe -climate zones are connected to recognizing threats from natural Hazards -Atmosphere: composed of Nitrogen, oxygen and smaller amounts of other gases -permanent gas: forms a constant proportion of the mass in the atmosphere. Ex. Nitrogen, Oxygen and Argon -variable gas: gases whose proportions change based on time and space. Ex. Carbon dioxide -aerosols: microscopic particles that change based on time and space -glacier: cluster of glaciers that form an ice sheet, an accumulation of snow, ice, rock, sediment, and liquid water that flows from high areas to low areas due to gravity -glacial hazards -its flowing and melting have been the cause of property damage, injuries, and deaths. -glaciers can expand or surge and overrun villages, fields, roads, and other structures -proxy- data: data that isn't strictly climactic but can be correlated with climate -paleo-proxy record: the instrumental record is short, and most of the historical info isn't quantitative. -has provided some of the strongest data to support and test recent climate change -How we study Past Climate Change and Make Predictions -tree rings: growth of trees are influenced by climactic conditions. The width, density, and isotopic composition of the tree ring provide info about past climate change -sediments: oceans around the world are responsible for the sediments from the land delivered by rivers, wind, and volcanic eruptions -ice cores: glaciers contain records of the snow that has been transformed into glacial ice over hundreds of years. Obtained by drilling -pollen: pollen accumulates in different environments. Scientists study the pollen to investigate past climate -corals: Calcium carbonate is extracted from corals in seawater and contains isotopes of oxygen and other metals that can be used to estimate the temperature of the water where the coral grew -carbon-14: has connection to the atmosphere and solar energy. Solar activity can be observed from the frequency of sunspots. The more the sunspots, the more energy reaches the earth -CO2: located in the atmosphere. The most important proxy from global temp change -global climate models: describes numerically the linkages and interactions btwn natural processes. -global warming: the observed inc in the avg temp of the near-surface land and ocean environments of earth during the past 60 yrs. Caused by the burning of vast amounts of fossil fuels -greenhouse effect: trapping of heat in the lower atmosphere by the absorption of infrared energy by water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxides, halocarbons, and other gases -greenhouse gas: a substance that absorbs infrared radiation, and contributes to global warming of the lower atmosphere. -climate forcing: an imposed change of Earth's energy balance -solar forcing: solar variation should be evaluated as a possible cause of climate change. Has small effects -volcanic forcing: volcanoes can hurl vast amounts of matter into the atmosphere. The aerosol particles are transported by strong winds around Earth. -anthropogenic forcing: human-related forcing-emissions of greenhouse gases -climate sensitivity: the response of climate to a specific climate forcing after a new equilibrium has been established. -abrupt climate change: a large-scale change in the global climate system that takes place over a few decades or less
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