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by: Anna Proulx


Marketplace > University of North Dakota > Biology > Biol 151 > BIO 151 FINAL STUDYGUIDE
Anna Proulx
GPA 4.0

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Overview of all chapters for Biology 151, CH 14 - 56
General Biology
Professor Felege
Study Guide
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anna Proulx on Sunday May 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 151 at University of North Dakota taught by Professor Felege in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at University of North Dakota.


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Date Created: 05/08/16
FINAL STUDYGUIDE BIO 151 14 The Gene 15 DNA 16 Genetic Code 17 Transcription & Translation 18 Gene Expression 20 Engineering Genes 25 Evolution 26 Evolutionary Processes 27 Speciation 36 Viruses 29 Bacteria 31 Plants 32 Fungi 30 Protists 33 Animals 34 Protostomes 35 Deuterostomes 52 Intro to Ecology 53 Behavioral Ecology 54 Population Ecology 55 Community Ecology 56 Global Ecology THINGS TO STUDY  Your own notes  Skim the book chapters (especially the end­of­chapter review section!!!)  Review past studyguides!!! (more extensive, this studyguide is a broad overview)  Carmichael’s videos on Youtube  Felege’s PowerPoints  Past ALEs  Review the pre­ and post­assignments  OLD TESTS! KEY CONCEPTS 14 – The Gene  Pedigrees  Genes/alleles, homozygous/heterozygous  Laws of segregation and independent assortment  Monohybrid/dihybrid crosses and genotypic/phenotypic ratios  Linked genes, incomplete/codominance/multiple alleles (polymorphy), epistasis,  pleiotropy, epigenetics 15 – DNA  Hershey­Chase expt: genes made of DNA not protein  Meselson­Stahl expt: DNA replication is semiconservative, not conservative or dispersive  Synthesis tools: DNA polymerase I and III with sliding clamp, DNA helicase, single­ strand binding proteins, topoisomerase, primers, primase  Okazaki fragments linked by DNA ligase  Telomeres shorten in somatic cell chromosomes, cause aging  Damage repair: proofreading, mismatch repair, nucleotide excision repair 16 – Genetic Code  Central dogma: DNA  RNA  proteins  Transcription: DNA used to make RNA  Translation: mRNA translated through ribosomes into protein  Mutations: point, missense, silent, frameshift, nonsense  Chromosomal defects: polyploidy/aneuploidy, inversion, translocation, deletion,  duplication 17 – Transcription & Translation  **Review Test 1 studyguide for in­depth description of processes  Transcription: RNA polymerase makes RNA strand 5’  3’, initiation when it binds to  DNA template (using sigma protein at ­35 and ­10 boxes in bacteria, using basal  transcription factors in eukarya), elongation, termination (RNA forms hairpin and breaks  off in bacteria, occurs after poly(A) signal in eukarya)  mRNA processing: only in eukaryotes, introns spliced out and exons expressed in  mRNA, 5’ cap and poly(A) tail for protection and recognition for translation  Translation: mRNA translated into protein/polypeptide, through tRNAs (their anticodons  pair with mRNA codons) in ribosome 18 – Gene Expression  Converting DNA info into functional molecules in a cell  Controls: Transcriptional (saves energy), translational, post­translational (most rapid)  Operons!!! (lac [under negative control, lactose is inducer and binds to repressor to make  it fall off] and ara [under positive control, arabinose binds to initiator] operons)  Positive control (gene expression off, must be initiated by activator), Negative control  (gene expression on, must be stopped by a repressor)  Repressor binds to operator to shut down transcription 20 – Engineering Genes  Gel electrophoresis: DNA moved from negative to positive end, short segments travel  faster  PCR (polymerase chain reaction): used to copy genes without cloning. Denature   Anneal  Extend, Mix the gene + dNTPs + primers + Taq polymerase, heat the mix so  DNA denatures, cool the mix so primers anneal, heat the mix and Taq polymerase will  synthesize complementary strands.   Gene therapy: normal/healthy genes inserted into patient, often using retroviruses as the  vector 25 – Evolution  Evolution is descent with modification + change in allele frequency overtime  Homology (similarity between species from shared ancestry, modified function) and  convergent evolution (analogous structures, similar function but different ancestry)  Evolution evidenced by fossils, transitional features between ancestor and descendant,  and vestigial traits leftover  Postulates of natural selection must be met for evolution to occur: individuals vary in  traits, traits are heritable, not all offspring survive, organisms have differential success  False misconceptions corrected: populations change not individuals, change is not  purposeful, no self­sacrificing behavior, organisms are not perfected 26 – Evolutionary Processes  Natural selection (increases alleles that increase fitness), genetic drift (changes allele  frequencies randomly, includes founder effect and genetic bottleneck), gene flow  (homogenizes allele frequencies), and mutations (introduces new alleles)  Hardy­Weinberg model used to determine if evolution is occurring in a population  At HW equilibrium, no evolutionary processes can be occurring and no random mating  Not at equilibrium, evolution is occurring, chi­squared is greater than 3.841  Selection can be directional (reduces genetic diversity), stabilizing (reduces genetic  diversity), or disruptive (increases genetic variation) 27 – Speciation  Occurs with no gene flow, other evolutionary processes may still occur  Species concepts: biological, morphospecies, phylogenetic  Allopatric speciation (through geographic isolation, by dispersal or vicariance) and  sympatric speciation (populations living close enough to interbreed)  When separated populations come back into contact, they can undergo fusion,  reinforcement (each population’s differences are reinforced), hybrid zone (hybridization  in a geographic region), extinction, or formation of a new species  Pre­zygotic reproductive barriers: behavioral, temporal, habitat, mechanical, and gametic  isolation  Post­zygotic reproductive barriers: low hybrid viability, low hybrid fertility 36 – Viruses  cells, organization, metabolism, response to environment, growth, reproduction,  evolution/adaptation (lines thru ones viruses lack or cannot carry out on their own)  Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites dependent on a host cell  Can have RNA or DNA genomes  Lytic cycle (virus enters host, transcribes its genome, makes proteins, replicates viral  genome, virions exit and destroy cell)  Lysogenic cycle (dormant stage, incorporated into cell genome with no viral proteins  produced)  Unknown origin, but originated more than once, paraphyletic phylogeny 29 – Bacteria  Prokaryotes: bacteria (peptidoglycan in cell walls) and archaea  Gram positive (purple, walls with peptidoglycan) and Gram negative (red, walls of  peptidoglycan + outer membrane)  Feeding strategies: photo/chemoorgano/chemolitho + auto/hetero + troph  Koch’s postulates: Same germ present in all sick individuals, isolate said germ and grow  in culture, use culture to induce same sickness, isolate same germ from newly sickened  individual  Studied through enrichment cultures, metagenomics, and direct sequencing of genes 31 – Plants  Alternation of generations: Diploid sporophyte  meiosis  haploid spores  growth   haploid gametophytes  mitosis  haploid gametes  fertilization  diploid sporophyte  Gymnosperms (unenclosed seeds, often in cones) vs angiosperms (seeds within  ovary/fruit, in flowers stamen make pollen and carpel makes eggs)  Adapt from aquatic to terrestrial environments: retain water with cuticle and stomata,  flavonoids absorb UV light, upright growth with vascular tissue, gamete protection in  gametangia, retaining eggs instead of shedding 32 – Fungi  Most are mutualists. Mycelia made up of hyphae filaments  Heterotrophs, nutrition from dead/living organic matter  EMF (ectomycorrhizal, hyphae form outer sheath on root) AMF (arbuscular mycorrhizal, hyphae penetrate cell wall and contact plant cell membrane)  Lichens are fungi + cyanobacteria/algae  Chytrids (swimming gametes), zygosporangia (yoked hyphae), basidiomycota (club, 4  spores), ascomycota (cup, 8 spores)  Plasmogamy (cytoplasm fusion) and karyogamy (nucleus fusion) 30 – Protists  Paraphyletic, mainly aquatic, all eukarya excluding animals, plants, and fungi  No shared synapomorphy between protists  Sexual reproduction originated in protists  Three feeding styles: ingestive, absorptive, photosynthetic 33 – Animals  All are multicellular, no cell walls, heterotrophs, move under own power. monophyletic  Ingest before digest  Diploblast (endoderm + ectoderm) and triploblast (endoderm + mesoderm + ectoderm)  tissues present in embryo  Feeding methods: suspension, deposit, fluid, mass  Fertilization: viviparous (live young), oviparous (lay eggs), ovoviviparous (retain eggs  and birth live young) 34 – Protostomes  Mouth develops first  Main phyla: lophotrochozoa (rotifera, platyhelminthes, annelida, mollusca) and  ecdysozoa (nematode and arthropoda) 35 – Deuterostomes  Anus develops first  Includes chordate (pharyngeal gill slits, dorsal nerve cord, notochord, post­anal tail)  Chordates include vertebrates 52 – Intro to Ecology  Ecology: study of how organisms interact with each other and their environment  Understand distribution/abundance of organisms, determined by biotic and abiotic factors  Climate vs. weather, Hadley cells, effects of mountains and oceans  Components of climate: temp, moisture, sunlight, wind  NPP (biomass, available as food) = carbon fixed – carbon oxidized  Terrestrial biomes vs. aquatic biomes 53 – Behavioral Ecology  Study of how organisms respond to environmental stimuli  Proximate/mechanistic causation: how actions occur, based on hormones/neurons etc  Ultimate/evolutionary causation: why actions occur, based on history and adaptations  Behaviors: Fixed (fixed action patterns, performed same way) or Flexible, Innate (FAPs  are an example) or Learned  Key topics: eating, mating, location (piloting, compass orientation, true navigation),  communicating, cooperating (kin selection, altruism, reciprocal altruism among  nonrelatives) 54 – Population Ecology  Study of change in # of individuals in a population over time and space  Metapopulations: population of populations connected by migration  Demography depends on birth/immigration and death/emigration rates  Survivorship: Type I (high), Type II (same probability of dying each year), Type III (low  initially)  Exponential growth (density independent, r does not change, cannot continue  indefinitely) vs logistic growth (density dependent, r increases overtime, continues to  carrying capacity)  Age pyramids 55 – Community Ecology  Study of interactions between species  Fundamental (theoretical range) vs. realized (portion actually occupied) niche  Standing vs inducible defenses  Mimicry: Batesian (resemble unpalatable species) and Mullerian (both unpalatable, co­ mimicry)  Keystone species: huge impact on distribution and abundance of other species  Primary (removes soil and organisms) vs secondary (removes organisms) succession  Species richness (# different species in a community) vs species diversity (abundance of  each species) 56 – Global Ecology  GPP (chemical energy produced in a given area by primary producers) vs NPP (chemical  energy not invested in respiration, used for growth)  Biomagnification: chemicals that increase in concentration at higher trophic levels  Trophic cascade: changes in food web when a top consumer is affected  Water cycle  Nitrogen cycle: bacteria both fix and release N2  Carbon cycle  Dead zones: excess nitrogen causes algae blooms, which die and are decomposed by  microbes that deplete oxygen


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