BIO 151 - FINAL STUDYGUIDE
BIO 151 - FINAL STUDYGUIDE Biol 151
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anna Proulx on Sunday May 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 151 at University of North Dakota taught by Professor Felege in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at University of North Dakota.
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Date Created: 05/08/16
FINAL STUDYGUIDE BIO 151 14 The Gene 15 DNA 16 Genetic Code 17 Transcription & Translation 18 Gene Expression 20 Engineering Genes 25 Evolution 26 Evolutionary Processes 27 Speciation 36 Viruses 29 Bacteria 31 Plants 32 Fungi 30 Protists 33 Animals 34 Protostomes 35 Deuterostomes 52 Intro to Ecology 53 Behavioral Ecology 54 Population Ecology 55 Community Ecology 56 Global Ecology THINGS TO STUDY Your own notes Skim the book chapters (especially the endofchapter review section!!!) Review past studyguides!!! (more extensive, this studyguide is a broad overview) Carmichael’s videos on Youtube Felege’s PowerPoints Past ALEs Review the pre and postassignments OLD TESTS! KEY CONCEPTS 14 – The Gene Pedigrees Genes/alleles, homozygous/heterozygous Laws of segregation and independent assortment Monohybrid/dihybrid crosses and genotypic/phenotypic ratios Linked genes, incomplete/codominance/multiple alleles (polymorphy), epistasis, pleiotropy, epigenetics 15 – DNA HersheyChase expt: genes made of DNA not protein MeselsonStahl expt: DNA replication is semiconservative, not conservative or dispersive Synthesis tools: DNA polymerase I and III with sliding clamp, DNA helicase, single strand binding proteins, topoisomerase, primers, primase Okazaki fragments linked by DNA ligase Telomeres shorten in somatic cell chromosomes, cause aging Damage repair: proofreading, mismatch repair, nucleotide excision repair 16 – Genetic Code Central dogma: DNA RNA proteins Transcription: DNA used to make RNA Translation: mRNA translated through ribosomes into protein Mutations: point, missense, silent, frameshift, nonsense Chromosomal defects: polyploidy/aneuploidy, inversion, translocation, deletion, duplication 17 – Transcription & Translation **Review Test 1 studyguide for indepth description of processes Transcription: RNA polymerase makes RNA strand 5’ 3’, initiation when it binds to DNA template (using sigma protein at 35 and 10 boxes in bacteria, using basal transcription factors in eukarya), elongation, termination (RNA forms hairpin and breaks off in bacteria, occurs after poly(A) signal in eukarya) mRNA processing: only in eukaryotes, introns spliced out and exons expressed in mRNA, 5’ cap and poly(A) tail for protection and recognition for translation Translation: mRNA translated into protein/polypeptide, through tRNAs (their anticodons pair with mRNA codons) in ribosome 18 – Gene Expression Converting DNA info into functional molecules in a cell Controls: Transcriptional (saves energy), translational, posttranslational (most rapid) Operons!!! (lac [under negative control, lactose is inducer and binds to repressor to make it fall off] and ara [under positive control, arabinose binds to initiator] operons) Positive control (gene expression off, must be initiated by activator), Negative control (gene expression on, must be stopped by a repressor) Repressor binds to operator to shut down transcription 20 – Engineering Genes Gel electrophoresis: DNA moved from negative to positive end, short segments travel faster PCR (polymerase chain reaction): used to copy genes without cloning. Denature Anneal Extend, Mix the gene + dNTPs + primers + Taq polymerase, heat the mix so DNA denatures, cool the mix so primers anneal, heat the mix and Taq polymerase will synthesize complementary strands. Gene therapy: normal/healthy genes inserted into patient, often using retroviruses as the vector 25 – Evolution Evolution is descent with modification + change in allele frequency overtime Homology (similarity between species from shared ancestry, modified function) and convergent evolution (analogous structures, similar function but different ancestry) Evolution evidenced by fossils, transitional features between ancestor and descendant, and vestigial traits leftover Postulates of natural selection must be met for evolution to occur: individuals vary in traits, traits are heritable, not all offspring survive, organisms have differential success False misconceptions corrected: populations change not individuals, change is not purposeful, no selfsacrificing behavior, organisms are not perfected 26 – Evolutionary Processes Natural selection (increases alleles that increase fitness), genetic drift (changes allele frequencies randomly, includes founder effect and genetic bottleneck), gene flow (homogenizes allele frequencies), and mutations (introduces new alleles) HardyWeinberg model used to determine if evolution is occurring in a population At HW equilibrium, no evolutionary processes can be occurring and no random mating Not at equilibrium, evolution is occurring, chisquared is greater than 3.841 Selection can be directional (reduces genetic diversity), stabilizing (reduces genetic diversity), or disruptive (increases genetic variation) 27 – Speciation Occurs with no gene flow, other evolutionary processes may still occur Species concepts: biological, morphospecies, phylogenetic Allopatric speciation (through geographic isolation, by dispersal or vicariance) and sympatric speciation (populations living close enough to interbreed) When separated populations come back into contact, they can undergo fusion, reinforcement (each population’s differences are reinforced), hybrid zone (hybridization in a geographic region), extinction, or formation of a new species Prezygotic reproductive barriers: behavioral, temporal, habitat, mechanical, and gametic isolation Postzygotic reproductive barriers: low hybrid viability, low hybrid fertility 36 – Viruses cells, organization, metabolism, response to environment, growth, reproduction, evolution/adaptation (lines thru ones viruses lack or cannot carry out on their own) Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites dependent on a host cell Can have RNA or DNA genomes Lytic cycle (virus enters host, transcribes its genome, makes proteins, replicates viral genome, virions exit and destroy cell) Lysogenic cycle (dormant stage, incorporated into cell genome with no viral proteins produced) Unknown origin, but originated more than once, paraphyletic phylogeny 29 – Bacteria Prokaryotes: bacteria (peptidoglycan in cell walls) and archaea Gram positive (purple, walls with peptidoglycan) and Gram negative (red, walls of peptidoglycan + outer membrane) Feeding strategies: photo/chemoorgano/chemolitho + auto/hetero + troph Koch’s postulates: Same germ present in all sick individuals, isolate said germ and grow in culture, use culture to induce same sickness, isolate same germ from newly sickened individual Studied through enrichment cultures, metagenomics, and direct sequencing of genes 31 – Plants Alternation of generations: Diploid sporophyte meiosis haploid spores growth haploid gametophytes mitosis haploid gametes fertilization diploid sporophyte Gymnosperms (unenclosed seeds, often in cones) vs angiosperms (seeds within ovary/fruit, in flowers stamen make pollen and carpel makes eggs) Adapt from aquatic to terrestrial environments: retain water with cuticle and stomata, flavonoids absorb UV light, upright growth with vascular tissue, gamete protection in gametangia, retaining eggs instead of shedding 32 – Fungi Most are mutualists. Mycelia made up of hyphae filaments Heterotrophs, nutrition from dead/living organic matter EMF (ectomycorrhizal, hyphae form outer sheath on root) AMF (arbuscular mycorrhizal, hyphae penetrate cell wall and contact plant cell membrane) Lichens are fungi + cyanobacteria/algae Chytrids (swimming gametes), zygosporangia (yoked hyphae), basidiomycota (club, 4 spores), ascomycota (cup, 8 spores) Plasmogamy (cytoplasm fusion) and karyogamy (nucleus fusion) 30 – Protists Paraphyletic, mainly aquatic, all eukarya excluding animals, plants, and fungi No shared synapomorphy between protists Sexual reproduction originated in protists Three feeding styles: ingestive, absorptive, photosynthetic 33 – Animals All are multicellular, no cell walls, heterotrophs, move under own power. monophyletic Ingest before digest Diploblast (endoderm + ectoderm) and triploblast (endoderm + mesoderm + ectoderm) tissues present in embryo Feeding methods: suspension, deposit, fluid, mass Fertilization: viviparous (live young), oviparous (lay eggs), ovoviviparous (retain eggs and birth live young) 34 – Protostomes Mouth develops first Main phyla: lophotrochozoa (rotifera, platyhelminthes, annelida, mollusca) and ecdysozoa (nematode and arthropoda) 35 – Deuterostomes Anus develops first Includes chordate (pharyngeal gill slits, dorsal nerve cord, notochord, postanal tail) Chordates include vertebrates 52 – Intro to Ecology Ecology: study of how organisms interact with each other and their environment Understand distribution/abundance of organisms, determined by biotic and abiotic factors Climate vs. weather, Hadley cells, effects of mountains and oceans Components of climate: temp, moisture, sunlight, wind NPP (biomass, available as food) = carbon fixed – carbon oxidized Terrestrial biomes vs. aquatic biomes 53 – Behavioral Ecology Study of how organisms respond to environmental stimuli Proximate/mechanistic causation: how actions occur, based on hormones/neurons etc Ultimate/evolutionary causation: why actions occur, based on history and adaptations Behaviors: Fixed (fixed action patterns, performed same way) or Flexible, Innate (FAPs are an example) or Learned Key topics: eating, mating, location (piloting, compass orientation, true navigation), communicating, cooperating (kin selection, altruism, reciprocal altruism among nonrelatives) 54 – Population Ecology Study of change in # of individuals in a population over time and space Metapopulations: population of populations connected by migration Demography depends on birth/immigration and death/emigration rates Survivorship: Type I (high), Type II (same probability of dying each year), Type III (low initially) Exponential growth (density independent, r does not change, cannot continue indefinitely) vs logistic growth (density dependent, r increases overtime, continues to carrying capacity) Age pyramids 55 – Community Ecology Study of interactions between species Fundamental (theoretical range) vs. realized (portion actually occupied) niche Standing vs inducible defenses Mimicry: Batesian (resemble unpalatable species) and Mullerian (both unpalatable, co mimicry) Keystone species: huge impact on distribution and abundance of other species Primary (removes soil and organisms) vs secondary (removes organisms) succession Species richness (# different species in a community) vs species diversity (abundance of each species) 56 – Global Ecology GPP (chemical energy produced in a given area by primary producers) vs NPP (chemical energy not invested in respiration, used for growth) Biomagnification: chemicals that increase in concentration at higher trophic levels Trophic cascade: changes in food web when a top consumer is affected Water cycle Nitrogen cycle: bacteria both fix and release N2 Carbon cycle Dead zones: excess nitrogen causes algae blooms, which die and are decomposed by microbes that deplete oxygen
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