Final exam study guide
• Term: The study of human evolution; the study of fossil remains of humans, our ancestors, and other ancient primates in order to understand and explain processes of human evolution
• Significance: This allows us to look back at our own histories and how we have evolved into the humans and societies we are now.
2. Cultural Anthropology
• Term: One of the four fields of anthropology; attempts to explain the many differences and similarities among societies around the world
• Significance: Culture is one of the most important aspects of a society, and studying the similarities and differences around the world help us to see what is important religiously, politically, etc. to a variety of people.
3. Anthropological archaeology
• Term: one of the four fields of anthropology; the study of human culture through material remains such as artifacts, burials, and refuse
• Significance: Material remains are some of the most concrete and detailed information we can gather about a particular culture.
4. Biological anthropology
• Term: One of the four fields of anthropology; studies human ancestors and early primates to determine how the human body has developed and changed over time • Significance: This helps us to study evolution from an incredibly long time ago with a variety of aging processes.
• Term: the scientific study of the human language (linguistic anthropology: one of the four fields of anthropology; explores how language shapes society through communication, social identity and cultural beliefs)
• Significance: Linguistics allows us to see how and why language exists, when it began, and the different languages around the world, both verbal and body language.
6. Applied anthropology
• Term: The use of anthropological data, perspective, theory and methods to identify, assess, and solve contemporary problems; holistic perspective; 5th sub discipline If you want to learn more check out Who was the female activist for african american voting rights?
• Significance: This type of anthropology combines many aspects of the 4 field approach and allows us to use historical and modern information to solve contemporary problems.
7. Development anthropology
• Term: Branch that focuses on social issues in, and the cultural dimensions of, economic development; concerned with increased equity – reducing poverty and distributing wealth; local needs > large corporations
• Significance: This demonstrates a more modern form of anthropology regarding social issues and the protection of local environments in comparison to large corporations.
8. Cultural Resource Management
• Term: managing places of archaeological, architectural and historical interest; compliance with environmental/historic preservation laws; management of culturally important resources and disturbed by land development
• Significance: This is extremely important, especially in today’s society, to protect historical, cultural, and anthropological sites from destruction in today’s industrial society with a growing population.
9. Forensic anthropology
• Term: incredibly popular due to media; identification of deceased individuals – age, sex, stature, ancestry, trauma, disease, cause of death; worth with state and international legal teams
• Significance: This type of anthropology is extremely important at excavation sites to determine age, sex, etc. of individuals found as well as in modern times with crime.
10. World-Systems Theory
• Term: the idea that a discernable social system, based on wealth and power differentials, transcends individual countries; the entire globe’s countries are interdependent systems with the rest of the world; broken into core, semi periphery and periphery Don't forget about the age old question of What is total fertility rates in the USA?
• Significance: This demonstrates that the entire world is connected by a market type relationship, with core countries making periphery countries belittled. 11. Anthropocene
• Term: new geologic epoch; 1945 AD – present; industrial era, social erosion, forest clearance, spread of agricultural crop and livestock domestication; environmental migrants/climate refugees Don't forget about the age old question of What are the three components of criminal justice?
• Significance: This is the new epoch we have known all our life time. With a switch thanks to the industrial revolution, we can see how our actions are hurting both environmentally and culturally important places and societies. We also discuss several other topics like Why deep zone has stable density?
• Term: judging other cultures using one’s own cultural standards; the error of viewing one’s own culture as superior; grow up with view that your own culture is the norm
• Significance: Many view their own culture as the supreme whereas there is no superior culture. Rather, people should approach all studies and societies with cultural relativism.
13. Cultural relativism
• Term: the principle that all behavior should be evaluated in the context of the culture in which it occurs; must understand how the people of a culture see their world in context; immerse and understand from within; no one culture is superior
• Significance: This is the solution of ethnocentrism, so that no people or culture believe they are superior over any other.
14. Law of Superposition
• Term: relative dating method; aka stratigraphy; oldest layers on bottom, youngest on top
• Significance: This helps us to relatively age objects, people, environments, and societies as we dig and find objects on top of another object that is older. 15. Theoretical perspective
• Term: a set of assumptions about reality that underlies the questions we ask and the kinds of answers we arrive at as a result; helps to shape kinds of questions you might ask; answers you may feel are adaptable
• Significance: With pre-conceived ideas or assumptions, it is easier to arrive at the types of answers we are looking for with our own questions. If you want to learn more check out What is pitch?
• Term: perspective based on the idea that cultures evolve in unlineal evolution (one line or path through which culture evolved); cultures evolved in
uniform/progressive manner; Edward Tyler; savagery ???? barbarism ????
civilization; theory went out of fashion
• Significance: This demonstrates early idea of how we came to be. It also demonstrates a theory that is too simple to describe modern humans as many do not believe it is a unlineal approach.
17. Historical Particularism
• Term: Franz Boas and students; gathering data and analyzing it according to scientific method; rooted in the notion that each culture is unique and intelligible only in its own terms; rejects comparative method
• Significance: Suggested and studied by Franz Boas and his students, scientific method is important in studying unique and intelligible cultures according to their own terms. We should not compare cultures to each other. If you want to learn more check out what is the Theories of Emotion?
• Term: theory that says any social practice exists because it performs useful functions; all customs and institutions in a society are interrelated; each aspect is a function of another (Malinowski needs functionalism and Durkheim’s structural functionalism)
• Significance: This tells us why aspects of a society exist. They are a function of one another and exist for a particular and functional purpose.
• Term: the action of attacking or assertively rejecting beliefs and institutions or established values and practices (ex. In Egypt, destruction of images of Hatshepsut – female pharaoh – to erase her from history)
• Significance: This explains why many attack other cultures/religions that do not align with their own. These are defensive actions demonstrated in an offensive way.
• Term: the study of nonhuman primates, including their behavior and social life • Significance: Primates are the closest living organisms to humans; studying them essentially allows us to study ourselves.
21. Mississippian people
• Term: maize agriculture makes up 50% of diet; organized into chiefdoms with relative power and elites; characterized by mounds and plazas with a permanent village settlement not near coasts; systematic warfare with warriors
• Significance: These were the first people to fully rely on maize in their diet. They demonstrate a chiefdom with elites and represent a people who settled in a village rather than constantly wandering.
• Term: biological categories of female and male that are differentiated by genes, hormones, and reproductive organs (genetic – born this way)
• Significance: This is the definite category you belong to according to genetics, which is determined at conception.
• Term: social categories differentiated by psychological characteristics and role expectations (social construct dependent on cultural context)
• Significance: These are the social categories that people place one in according to what they see/ believe.
• Term: a variation in sex characteristics that do not allow an individual to be distinctly identified as male or female; chromosomal or hormonal; gender identity is complicated
• Significance: Intersex people have an incredibly hard time identifying with a particular gender, and this raises many disagreements throughout modern society. 25. Balanced reciprocity
• Term: explicit expectation of more/less immediate return (Christmas) • Significance: This explains exchange such as that in Christmas.
26. Generalized reciprocity
• Term: gifts with no expectation of immediate return – personal relationship (Birthday)
• Significance: This explains exchange such as that in Birthdays.
27. Negative reciprocity
• Term: trickery/coercion; hard bargaining; buy something/ offer less than what it’s worth/ sell something for more than it is worth/ buy something for less than it is worth; expense of others; can take place among strangers
• Significance: This explains dirty exchange such as that in selling a car for more than it is worth.
• Term: comparative study of ethnographic data
• Significance: This allows us to compare data we collect from different societies to group cultures together or apart.
29. “Mitochondrial Eve”
• Term: The single person we are all genetically related to as a common ancestor, believed by anthropologists such as Spencer Wells; basis of all mitochondrial diversity in the world today; existed 200,000 years ago
• Significance: Some believe this is the single individual we all relate to, demonstrating the branching out of people from 200,000 years ago.
• Term: the genetic (hereditary) makeup of an organism
• Significance: This is the non-questionable make up of an organism on the inside that is expressed by phenotype on the outside.
• Term: the physical makeup/ expression of the genotype of an organism • Significance: This is what we see on the outside that expresses the internal structure of a person/organism.
32. Natural selection
• Term: selection of favored forms through differential reproductive success (Charles Darwin)
• Significance: Many believe this term demonstrates why we exist as homo sapiens and why certain humans live longer over others: “survival of the fittest” (Herbert Spencer)
33. Section 106 of the NHPA
• Term: requires that all federal agencies provide the advisory Council on Historic Preservation an opportunity to comment on any undertaking which has an effect on a historic property listed on or eligible for listing on the national register of historic place
• Significance: This allows sites to remain safe from any possible structural/ building threats so that no historical/environmental/anthropological areas are disturbed
• Term: a natural sunscreen produced by skin cells responsible for pigmentation; relative to and organism’s geographic location
• Significance: This demonstrates why different regions of the earth have different skin colors: hotter places have darker skin with more melanin, and cooler/ less sunlight places have lighter skin with less melanin to absorb more vitamin D. 35. Proconsul
• Term: the last common ancestor of old world apes and monkey before they split • Significance: This demonstrates our last common ancestor with monkeys. 36. Ardipithecus ramidus
• Term: approximately 4.4 million years old; pelvis is transitional between arboreal and terrestrial, demonstrating shift to bipedal existence due to drying out of African climate
• Significance: Ardipithecus ramidus (ex. Ardi) tells us around when we were in the transition from arboreal organisms to bipedal, walking on earth on two feet. 37. Australopithecine
• Term: an extinct genus of small-brained, large-toothed bipedal hominids that lived in African between one and four million years ago
• Significance: Their small brains and large teeth demonstrate they have not yet taken advantage of stone tools to break up meat to decrease teeth size and increase brain size.
38. Homo erectus
• Term: 1.9 mya – 300,000 BP; East Africa, Asia, Europe; smaller jaws with a human-like body but a much larger brain
• Significance: Demonstrates the use of stone tools.
39. Homo habilis
• Term: 1.9 mya – 1.4 mya; East Africa; bipedal, brain somewhat bigger than australopithecine; found in the same place as stone tools
• Significance: Because they were found in the same place as stone tools, their brains are bigger due to meat consumption and we can determine intentionality and forethought.
40. Levalloisian technique
• Term: a method of stone tool manufacturing using a specially prepared core – shape it in a way that the core is a step to a finished product; the actual flake is the tool (spear points, sharp cutting tools, etc.)
• Significance: Demonstrates intentionality and forethought as they use the actual flake as the tool and can make many out of one rock/stone.
41. Eastern Agricultural Complex
• Term: one of eight places as an independent center of domestication; river valley and tributaries of Mississippi river – secondary streams, not main trunk; starchy and oily seeds; late archaic period
• Significance: This center of domestication demonstrates people in the late archaic period settling down to a single village to control both animal and agriculture domestication.
• Term: a statue, building, or other structure erected to commemorate a famous or notable person or event; size and permanence; commemoration or memorial; from the Latin world momentum meaning “something that reminds”
• Significance: These allow us to study a society and what/who they deemed important/ worth remembering.
43. Lascaux Cave
• Term: South west France; discovered in 1940 by 4 kids and a dog; opened to the public but the carbon dioxide emitted and the constant visitations hurt the cave – closed in 1963; replica cave opened in 1983; 18,000-15,000 BP; cave wall art
• Significance: This demonstrates what damage humans can do to historically important sites with the emission of carbon dioxide and how we must preserve these places. It also gives us a good example of cave art.
44. Neolithic Demographic Transition
• Term: The Neolithic revolution resulted in an increase in population – farmers have more children than hunter-gathers because (1) fertility increases as birth spacing decreases, (2) child labor is needed and valued and (3) there is an increase in juvenile skeletons in Neolithic cemetery populations
• Significance: Populations increase dramatically as fertility increases to aid in their own societies.
• Term: massive proto-urban center near St. Louis; closest thing to a pre-historic city with 30,000 people; cities and suburbs; huge; Monks Mount = largest man made construction in North America; Mound 72 = oldest mound with early chief buried inside in a bed of shell beads and arrows, falcon shaped, buried with be headed conquered enemies
• Significance: This is the earliest/ closest thing to a city-like community with a huge population. Here, we learn about their values and burial traditions. 46. Heritage
• Term: something that is or may be inherited from a predecessor; (heir) inheritance; valued objects and qualities such as cultural traditions and historic buildings that have been passed down from previous generations; something
possessed as a result of one’s natural situation (birthright); valued objects (buildings, artifacts); qualities (dance, language, morals)
• Significance: This is absolutely essential to studying societies as we learn about what is important, traditional, and necessary in a society.
• Term: refers to economic control by powerful countries of less powerful countries • Significance: This may hurt less powerful countries as a mother country may exploit its resources for its own benefits.
• Term: (as fact) the spread and connectedness of production, distribution, consumption, communication, and technologies; (as ideology) efforts by international financial powers to create a global free market for goods and services
• Significance: This demonstrates how the entire globe is connected through a variety of market-economics and trade.
• Term: offspring of an area who have spread to many lands
• Significance: This shows how the inhabitants of one area may migrate to take up a more wide-spread land in different areas.
• Term: emic account is a description of a behavior or belief that comes from a person within the culture (ME)
• Significance: This allows the person within a culture to give an account, which allows for us to study a culture without bias from within.
• Term: etic account is a description of a behavior or belief by an observer in terms that can be applied across the culture (THEM)
• Significance: This may provide us with a contrasting view of a culture from an outside perspective.
52. Cultural Imperialism
• Term: policy aimed at seizing and ruling foreign territory and peoples, thus changing and completely controlling their cultures and practices
• Significance: This drastically hurts the culture within a society as another “mother culture” completely takes over.
53. Participant observation
• Term: Bronislaw Malinowski was one of the earliest adaptors; put yourself into the society and fully participate
• Significance: This allows anthropologists to study a culture from within and to gain a better understanding of a society as you act through it.
54. Franz Boas
• Term: the father of anthropology; advocated the four field approach (cultural, biological, linguistic and archaeological anthropology); advocated using the scientific method to develop and test theories about human behavior; cultural relativist; historical particularism; two main questions include why are tribes different around the world and how have these differences evolved
• Significance: Father of anthropology shaped what we know today.
55. Edward Tylor
• Term: 19th century British armchair anthropologist; believed culture is learned; “Culture is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, arts, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society; blends our sense of “high culture” to general culture
• Significance: Demonstrates an armchair anthropologist
56. Focal Vocabulary
• Term: the sets of words that describe particular domains of experience that are especially important in a culture; Ex. Saami words for types of reindeer and types of snow
• Significance: This helps us to see what is important to a culture and the many ways a society can describe it.
Short Answer Questions:
1. What were the two main questions Franz Boas asked which that guided the development of anthropology as a discipline?
• Why are the tribes and nations of the world different?
• How have the present differences developed?
2. Describe how anthropology is a "comparative" and “holistic” discipline? • Comparative: anthropology is a cross-cultural comparison discipline
• Holistic: anthropology is a complete discipline, looking at the whole picture
3. Provide an example of how biological development influenced cultural change. • 45,000 years ago when humans went from Africa to Ice Age Europe, we needed to grow hair to keep warm biologically, but went too fast, so we culturally adapted by killing animals for their fur
4. Provide an example of how a cultural development led involved biological consequences for humans.
• 45,000 years ago when humans went from Africa to Ice Age Europe, we needed to grow hair to keep warm biologically
5. Provide three examples of the kinds of work that applied anthropologists might engage in outside of a university setting.
• Development anthropology: focuses on social issues in and the cultural dimenstions of economic development
• Anthropology in the business place: works for corporations to help improve morale and workflow
• Medical anthropology: how illness is socially constructed, diagnosed, managed, and treated
• Forensic anthropology: identification of deceased individuals studying age, sex, stature, ancestry, trauma and disease
• Cultural Resource Management: archeologists, architectural historians and historical architects managing places of archaeological/architectural/historical interest
6. How is the archaeological record transformed into, first, an archaeological resource and, ultimately, to the archaeological heritage?
• Archaeological record: the stuff we use to reconstruct what past people did; the body of physical evidence about the past ???? upon first identification
• Archaeological resource: the record acts as a resource for learning about the past in the present – scientific/ cultural knowledge to understand/study ???? as it is evaluated and we learn more about it
• Archaeological heritage: something that is or may be inherited from a predecessor ???? as it is interpreted and deemed fit for public consumption
7. Explain the difference between exploitation colonialism and settler colonialism • Settler: involved large-scale immigration, often motivated by religious, political, or economic reasons
• Exploitation: focuses on access to natural resources for export; trade may be only allowed with the mother country
8. How is the modern world-system a product of historical relations between core and peripheral nations?
• The idea that a discernable social system, based on wealth and power differentials, transcends individual countries
• Countries years ago that asserted themselves as core countries still dominate over semi-periphery and periphery nations
9. Describe three ways in which Mississippian society was different from societies in the earlier Woodland Period
• maize agriculture makes up 50% of diet
• organized into chiefdoms with relative power and elites
• characterized by mounds and plazas with aa permanent village settlement not near coasts
• systematic warfare with warriors
10. Describe the process of natural selection and provide an example of natural selection operating upon phenotypic change in a species according to this process. • Selection favored biological forms through differential reproductive success • The peppered moth changed over time to adapt to a changing environment in the UK: in the country, moths were white to blend in with the light trees, but in the city, moths were black to blend in with pollution
• Horses growing long necks and becoming giraffes to reach the high trees
11. Briefly explain the difference between the theoretical paradigms of Evolutionism, Historical Particularism, Neo-evolutionary perspectives, and Practice and Agency. • Evolutionism: perspective based on the idea that cultures evolve in unlineal evolution (one line or path through which culture evolved); cultures evolved in uniform/progressive manner; Edward Tyler; savagery ???? barbarism ????
civilization; theory went out of fashion
• Historical Particularism: Franz Boas and students; gathering data and analyzing it according to scientific method; rooted in the notion that each culture is unique and intelligible only in its own terms; rejects comparative method
• Neo-evolutionary perspectives: renewed interest in why cultures change or evolve; believe there is not enough attention to progress of cultural change; based on environmental, technological and economic determinism and how cultures evolve due to these factors
• Practice and Agency: the idea that the actions of individuals, alone and in groups, create and transform culture; cultures are generated and transformed by the practices of individuals and those practices are informed both by society and agency
12. Why are exogamous marriages both biologically and socially adaptive? • Biologically: decrease the chance of genetic mutations and disease
• Socially: links people into a wider social network
13. What are some of the problems with the concept of ‘race’ as it was conceived in the 18th and 19th century?
• Traditionally, race was determined by stable genetic skin color. Many people had, and still have, a hard time identifying themselves on the census
14. Discuss how an anthropological perspective is beneficial in understanding and contributing to global issues related to human interaction with the natural environment (e.g. climate change, ecology).
• An anthropological perspective provides a unique, conceptual and methodological toolkit valuable in a range of careers. An anthropological view keeps view holistic and comparative rather than with bias. Areas such as global implications part in climate change, how globalization promotes intercultural communication, and how contact influences cultures can be understood better with anthropological approaches such as comparison.
15. What is the difference between a hominid and a hominin? Provide two examples of hominins and two examples of non-hominin hominids.
• Hominin: the human line after our split from chimpanzees – homo sapiens, homo erectus
• Hominid: the taxonomic family that includes humans, African apes, and our immediate ancestors – chimpanzee, australopithecine robustus
16. What do early stone tools tell us about early culture and cognition?
• Shows evident of intentionality and forethought
• Increase in brain size correlated with consumption of meat in diet from use of stone tools
17. Explain the differences between these stone tool types and/or traditions: Oldowan, Acheulian, Levallois, Mousterian.
• Oldowan: rocks broken to create sharp cutting edges
• Acheulian: tool tradition from lower Paleolithic time period in which rocks were worked on on both sides to create symmetrical tools for specific tasks from carefully selected materials
• Levallois: a method of stone tool manufacture using a specially prepared core – the actual flakes of stone were the tools used as sharp cutting edges and spear points.
• Mousterian: elaborated on ^ to include a greater variety of tool types and more complexity of the tool kit for different purposes.
18. Discuss two different, specific examples of how cultural perceptions of difference can have negative effects on human populations.
• Modern racism: separates groups of people into non-standardized groups, placing predisposed notion on each group, forcing an illusion of difference and separation • Colonialism: introduced a superiority complex and a mass ethnocide among different societies, large and small scale
19. What is the relationship between hegemony and resistance?
• Hegemony: social order in which subordinates are socialized to accept hierarchy as “natural”
• Resistance: opposition to the dominant social order
20. What is non-verbal communication? What does it convey to others? • Included body language, facial expressions, stances, gestures, movements, etc. • It can convey power relations and how others should see us as well as how we should see ourselves
21. What are the three components of linguistic analysis?
• Phonology: the study of speech sounds
• Morphology: the formation and composition of words
• Syntax: the formation and composition of phrases and sentences from these words
22. What is economic anthropology and what are two topics addressed by economic anthropologists?
• Economic anthropology studied how human societies provide the goods and services that make life possible
• How are production, distribution, and consumption organized in different societies?
• What motivates people in different cultures to produce, distribute, exchange and consume?
23. What are two key differences between the political organization of segmentary societies and chiefdoms?
• Segmentary societies: kinship-based groups usually farming people with no formal political institutions
• Chiefdoms: larger stratified populations with class systems and political and religious beliefs
24. What is the difference between globalization as fact and globalization as a contested ideology and policy?
• Fact: the spread and connectedness of production, distribution, consumption, communication, and technologies
• Contested ideology and policy: efforts by international financial powers to create a global free market for goods and services
25. What do anthropologists mean when they say that risk has been globalized? Provide two examples of risks that are both global and local.
• The more connected we are, the more we share common threats that effect large amounts of people in different places
• Ebola: although it did spread to the US, only one person died compared to the almost 11,000 that died in Africa – social media blew this out of proportion • Climate Change from industrialization: specific locations are getting effected differently, but everyone has been effected
1. Identify and discuss what you believe to be the five (5) most important turning points in human cultural development. Make sure you identify when each development occurred, where (if applicable), and why you think it was/is a critical turning point for humanity.
• Neolithic Revolution: (10,000 BCE) shift from hunter-gatherer to agriculture base; establishment of social classes; domestication of plants and animals; separation of work by men and women; women’s status declined as men took lead in most areas; warfare increased; population increased in sedentary lifestyle
• Behavioral Modernity: (Upper Paleolithic) certain behaviors that distinguish Homo sapiens from anatomically modern humans, hominins, and other primates; evidence includes burials, fishing, cave paintings, blade technology, bone tools, etc.
• Fire: (.2-1.7 MYA)helped develop the muscular dominance of Homo erectus, as the protein of meat was cooked over fire (making the protein easier to digest); gave Homo erectus stamina, muscular superiority, etc.
• Globalization: the process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas, and other aspects of culture; Silk Road,
McDonald’s, Google, the Internet
• Colonialism: (15th century) the establishment of a colony in a territory by a political power from another territory; Americas, Africa, Australia, Philippines, Caribbean
• Industrial Revolution: in the 20th century, this brought us into a new geologic epoch: Anthropocene. This changed how the world worked, hurt our environment, but brought communities around the world together in a global market.
2. Draw a diagram that explains
the basic trajectory of hominin
biological evolution between
5,000,000 and 120,000 years
before the present. Be sure to
discuss specific species and
address key developments in
hominin biological evolution.
3. Compare and contrast the effects of the Neolithic Revolution and the Industrial Revolution on human societies. In what ways were they similar? In what ways were they different? How do these transformations demonstrate the links between biology and culture?
• Neolithic Revolution: (10,000 BCE) shift from hunter-gatherers to agriculture based settlers with the domestication of plants and animals; establishment of social classes and separation of work by men and women ???? women’s status declines as men took the lead in most areas; more warfare
• Industrial Revolution: (19th century – present) transition from a society dependent on hand tools produced by individual craftsmen to a machine-power tool based industry; drastic and long lasting results of revolution include the creation of inequality between and within nations
• Both: separate the work of men and women; shift of production; new tools • Biology and Culture link: NR began the establishment of social classes because there was a biologic need for mass-produced steady food produced cultural change; IR introduced dependency on power tools (cultural) due to biologic need for safety and high level of food production with growing population.
4. You are a cultural anthropologist preparing to conduct fieldwork. Pick a field site and define an anthropological question that you are interested in exploring. Define a hypothesis. Describe the methods that you plan to use and why you would choose those methods to answer your question.