Exam 2 study guide
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Exam 2 Study Guide Psych 2101 Lecture 8 Ch 6 o Qualitative research focuses on people behaving in natural settings and describing their world in their own words researchers emphasize collecting indepth information on a relatively few individuals or within a very limited setting conclusions of qualitative research are based on interpretations drawn by the investigator 0 Quantitative research tends to focus on speci c behaviors that can be easily quanti ed ie counted usually include larger samples conclusions are based upon statistical analysis of data 0 What is it Descriptive method in which observations are made in a natural social setting Also called eld observation 0 How do researchers collect data when conduction naturalistic observa tion researchers keep detailed eld noteswritten or dictated on a regular basis at least once each day everything that s happened 0 Is this mainly a qualitative or quantitative approach data in naturalistic observation studies are primarily qualitative in nature such qualitative descriptions are often richer and closer to the phenomenon being studied than are statistical representations Participant observation allows the researcher to observe the setting from the inside he or she may be able to experience vents in the same way as a natural participants a potential problem with participant observation is that the observer ay lose the objectivity necessary to conduct scienti c observation nonparticipant observation an outsider who does not become an active part of the setting concealed observation may be preferable because the presence of the observer may in uence and alter the behavior of those being observed Less reactive than nonconcealed observation because people are not aware that their behaviors are being observed and recorded nonconcealed observation reactive participants are aware of the presence of the observer 0 What is it refers to the careful observation of one or more speci c behaviors in a particular setting 0 Is this mainly a qualitative or quantitative approach quantitative 0 Coding system asset of rules used to categorize observations O O O 0 case study is a descriptive account of the behavior past history and other relevant factors concerning a speci c individual case studies do not necessarily involve naturalistic observation instead the case study may be a description of a patient by a clinical psychologist or a historical account of an event such as a model school that failed typically a case study is doen when an individual possesses a particularly rare unusual or noteworthy condition case studies are valuable in informing us of conditions that are rare or unusual and thus providing unique data about some psychological phenonmnon limits O O O Archival research involves using previously compiled information to answer research questions major sources of archaival data are statistical records survey archives amp written records researcher does not actually collect the original data instead her or she analyzes existing data such as statistics that re part of public records ie number of divorce petitions filed Lectures 9 amp 10 Ch 7 O 0 survey research employs questionnaires and interviews to ask people to provide information about themselves their attitudes and beliefs demographics and other facts and past or intended future behaviors surveys have become extremely important as society demands data about issues rather than only intuition and anecdotes it is a common and important method for studying behaviors a tendency to respond to all questions from a particular perspective rather than to provide answers that are directly related to the questions Response sets can affect the usefulness of data obtained from sefreports an example of a response set is the social desirability where the response set leads the individual to answer in the most socially acceptable waythe way that quotmost peoplequot are perceived to respond or the way that would re ect most favorably on the person 0 questions about attitudes and beliefs facts and demographics and behaviors 0 when writing survey questions one should avoid using doublebarreled questions loaded questions and negative wording 0 example of bad survey questions quotshould senior citizens be given more money for recreation centers and food assistance programsquot double barreled question asks two things at once quotdo you favor eliminating the wasteful excesses in the public school budgetquot loaded question written to lead people to respond in one way quotdo you feel the city should not approve the proposed women s shelterquot negative wording o Closeended questions limited number of response alternatives are given 0 Openended questions respondents are free to answer anyway they like 0 a type of rating scale that requires a mark along a continuous 100 millimeter line that is anchored with descriptions at each end 0 ex How would you rate the move you just saw Not very enjoyable very enjoyable a rule is then placed on the line to obtain the score on a scale that ranges from 0100 o a type of rating scale that is a measure of the meaning of concepts that as developed by Osgood and assc respondents are asked to rate any conceptpersons objects behaviors ideas on a series of bipolar adjectives using 7point scales as follows 0 ex smoking cigarettes Good Bad Strong Weak Active Passive 0 scale usually used for children using drawings instead of words to rate something 0 ex using drawings of faces to aid in the assessment of the level of pain a child is experiences similar face scales can be sued to ask children to make ratings of other things such as a toy 0 Mail questionnaires very inexpensive way of contacting the people who were selected for the sample drawback is that there is potentially low response rates questionnaires can easily be placed aside and forgotten people can become bored and throw the form away 0 Internet questionnaire easy to design a questionnaire for online administration using one of several online survey software services can include both open and closeended questions potential problems 0 how to sample peoplehow does researcher provide people with al ink to the online survey 0 response rates are low 0 inherent ambiguity about the characteristics of the individuals providing information for the study o facetoface can be expensive and time consuming potential interviewer bias higher response rates people more likely to answer a live person clari cation of questions if needed 0 phone less expensive than facetoface interviews and allow data to be collected relatively quickly because many interviewers can work on the same survey at once 0 study people at one point in time 0 Conducting a panel study in which the same people are surveyed t two or more points in time o a portionsubset of the population being measured 0 the de ned group of individuals from which a sample is drawn 0 a type of error that occurs as a result of using only a small portion of the intended population as opposed to a broader range of individuals 0 your best estimate of the population value is the sample value because you have only a sample and not the entire population your result may be in error 0 an interval of values within which there is a given level of con dence where the population value lies 0 the con dence interval gives you information about the likely amount of the error sampling error since you re only using a sample of population 0 Probability sampling a type of sampling where each member of the population has a speci able probability of being chosen simple random sampling every member of rhe population hasanequal probability of being selected for the sample if the population has 1000 members each one has chance out of a thousand of being selected strati ed random sampling the population is divided into subgroups also known as quotstrataquot and random sampling techniques are then used to select sample members from each stratum cluster sampling rather than randomly sampling from a list of individuals the researcher can identify quotclustersquot of individuals and then sample from these clusters after the clusters are chosen all individuals in each cluster are included in the sample o the probability of any particular member of the population being chosen is unknown Haphazard sampling convenience sampling can be seen as a quottake0them0where0you ndthemquot method of obtaining participants Advantages sample includes only types of individuals you are interested in disadvantages likely to introduce bias into the sample results may not generalize to intended population ex asking students around you at lunch or in class to participate purposive sampling the purpose is to obtain a sample of people who meet certain predetermined criteria 0 Ex in an otherwise haphazard sample select individuals who are all between certain age range quota sampling researcher choses a sample that re ects the numerical composition of various subgroups in the population Random sampling does not occur in this form of sampling Ex collect speci c proportions of data representatives of percentages ofo groups within population ten use haphazard techniques o the actual population of individuals or clusters from which a random sample will be drawn rarely will this perfectly coincide with the population of interest 0 in a survey is simply the percentage of people in the sample who actually completed the survey 0 yes because while it is inexpensive efficient and convenient it is likely to introduce bias into the sample results may not generalize to intended population Lecture 10 Ch 11 0 Developmental psychologists often study the ways that individuals change as a function of age Regardless of the particular issue they are studying the major variable is AGE 0 two general methods for studying individuals of different ages the cross sectional method and the longitudinal method o a group of people born at about the same time and exposed to the same societal events cohort effects are confounded with age in a cross sectional study o crosssectional research design in this method persons of different ages are studied at only ONE point in time ex suppose your are interested in examining how the ability to learn a computer applications changes as people grow older Using the crosssectional method you might study people who are currently 2030 40 and 0 years of age the participants in your study would be given the same computer learning task and you would compare the groups on their performance ADVANTAGE this method is much more common than the longitudinal method primarily because it is less expensive and immediately yields results DISADVANTAGE the researcher must infer that differences among age groups are due to the developmental variable of age the developmental change is not observed directly among the same group of people but rater is based on comparisons among different cohorts of individuals In a crossOsecitonal study a difference among groups of different ages may re ect developmental age changes however the differences may result from cohort effects O O longitudinal research design in this method the same group ofpeope is observed at different points in time as they grow older DSADVANTAGE this method is more expensive dif cult and time consuming it would take 30 years to study the same group of individuals from age 2050 but ith a crosssectional design comparisons of different age groups can be obtained relatively quickly MAJOR PROBLEM over the course of a longitudinal study people may move die or lose interest in the study ADVANTAGE Best way to study how scores on a variable at one age are related to another variable at a later age seduentia research design a compromise between the longitudinal and crosssectional methods is to use the sequential method this method takes fewer years and less effort to complete than a longitudinal study and the researcher reaps immediate reards because data on the rst different age groups are available in the rst year of the study the participants are not followed over the entire time span as they would be in a full longitudinal investigation Lecture 11 Ch 8 O A confounding variable is third variable that can be responsible for the independent variable s effect on the dependent variable anything that may disprove that connection alternative explanation for correlation independent variable is the one being manipulated in experiment that results in dependent variable people selected to be in the conditions cannot differ in any systematic way hence avoiding any selection differences ex you cannot select highincome individuals t participate in one condition and lowincome individuals for the other 0 this can be avoided by executing a random sampling method 0 an experiment in which different subjects are assigned to aeach groups also called betweensubjects design 0 Betweensubjects design an experiment in which different subjects are assigned to each group Also called independent groups design 0 Posttestonly design a true experimental design in which the dep3ndentvariable posttest is measured only once after manipulation of the independent variable 0 Pretestposttest design a true experimental design in which the dependent variable is measured both before pretestand after posttest manipulation of the independent variable What are advantages and disadvantages of this design advantages it allows the researcher to ensure that the participants are equal to start with and focus on the change from pretest to posttest Disadvantage can be time consuming and awkward to administer What is the Solomon fourgroup design and What is its purpose 0 when you assess the impact of the pretest directly with a combination of both the posttestonly and the pretestposttest design in this design half the participants receive only the posttest and the other half receive the retest and the posttest o Matched pairs design a method of assigning subjects to groups in which pairs of subjects are rst matched on some characteristic and then individually assigned randomly to groups Repeated measures An experiment in which the same subjects are assigned to each group also called repeated measures design 0 Practice effect when greater recall in the high meaningful condition could be attributed to the fact that the highmeaningful task came second in the order of presentation of rhe conditions Performance on the second task might improve merely because of the practice gained on the second task Fatigue effect this is also possible when a deterioration in performance fromt eh rst to the second condition occurs as the research participant becomes tired bored or distracted I Carryover effect when the effect of the rst treatment9 carries over to in uence the response to the second treatment example suppose the independent variable is severity of a crime After reading about the less severe crime the more severe one might seem much worse to participants than it normally would in adiditon reading about the severe crime might subsequently cause participants to view the less severe crime as much milder than they normally would in both cases the experience with one condition carried over to affect the resonse to the second condition I 0 this is when all possible orders of presentation are included in the experiment example in the example of a study on learning high and lowmeaningful material half of the participants would be randomly assigned to the lowhigh order and the other half would be assigned to the highlow order by counter balancing the order of conditions it is possible to determine the extent to which order is in uencing the results 0 there are two approaches a researcher can take to deal with order effects 0 1 to employ counter balancing techniques in this method all possible orders of presentation are included in the experiment 0 2 Devise a procedure in which the interval between conditions is long enough to minimize the in uence of the rst condition on the second Lecture 12 Ch 9 o Straightforward manipulation researchers are usually able to manipulate an independent variable with relative simplicicty by presenting written verbal or visualmaterial to thepaticipants such manipulations manipulate variable swith instructions and stimulus presentations stimuli may be presented verbally in written form via videotape or with a computer example resercers were interested in the in uence of signs that hotels leave in their bathrooms encouraging guests to reuse their towels in the research they printed signs that wre hooded on towel M shelves in the rooms of single guests staying at least two nights help save the environment you can show your respect of nature and helap save the environment by reusing towelsduring your stay in this case 35 of guests resued their towels on second day 0 another condition invoked a socialnorm that other people are resuingtoels join your fellow guests in helping se ther environment almost 75 of guests who were asked to participate in our new resources savings program do help by using their towels more than once Most manipulations of independent variables in all areas of research are straightforward Researchers vary the difficulty of material to be learned motivation levels the ways questions are asked characteristics of people to be judged and a variety of other factors in a straightforward manner 0 Staged Manipulation sometimes it is necessary to stage events during the experiment in order to manipulate the independent variable successfully When this occurs the manipulation is called a staged manipulation or event manipulation most frequently used for two reasons 1 the researcher may be trying to create some psychological state in the participants such as frustration anger or a temporary lowering of selfesteem 2 a staged manipulation may be necessary to stimulate some situation that occurs in the real world staged manipulations frequently employ a confederate sometimes termed an quotaccomplicequot usually the confederate appears to be another participant in an experiment but is actually part of the manipulation Confederate may be useful to create a particular social situation o manipulation should be as strong as possible a strong manipulation maximizes the differences between the two groups and increases the chances that the independent variable will have a statistically signi cant effect on the dependent variable 0 a strong manipulation is particularly important in the early stages of research when the researcher is most interested in demonstrating that a relationship in fact exist 0 a second thing to consider is ethics a manipulation should be as strong 5 possible within the bound 0 ethics a strong manipulation of fear or anxiety for example might not be possible because of the potential physical and psychological harm to participants 0 1 selfreport measures can be sued to measure attitudes liking for someone judgments about someone s personality characteristics intended behaviors emotional states attributions about why someone performed will or poorly on a task con dence in one s judgments and many other aspects of human thought and behavior Rating scales with descriptive anchors endpoints are most commonly used in these measures 0 2 behavioral measures direct observations of behaviors as with self reports measurements of an almost endless number of behaviors are possible Sometimes the researcher may record whether a given behavior occurs Often the researcher must decide whether to record the number of times a behavior occurs in a given time period the rate of a behavior how quickly a response occurs after a stimulus a reaction time or how long a behavior lasts a measure of duration sometimes the behavioral measure is not an actual behavior but a behavioral intention or choise 0 3 physiological measures recordings of responses of the body many such measurements are available examples include the galvanic skin response GSR electromyogram EMG and electroencephalogram EEG MRIprovides an image of an individual s brain structure and allows scientists to compare to the brain structure of individuals with a particular condition 0 the issue of sensitivity is particularly important when measuring human performance such tasks vary in their difficulty Ceilinq effect when a task is so easy that everyone does well regardless of the conditions that are manipulated by the independent variable when the independent variable appears to have no effect on the dependent measure only because participants quickly reach the maximum performance level Floor effect when a task is so difficult that hardlfy anyone can perform well 0 experimenters generally do not wish to inform participants about the speci c hypotheses beign studied or the exact purpose of the research the reason or this lies int e problem of demand characteristics which is any feature of an experiment that t might inform participants of the purpose of the study the consier is that when participants from expectations about the hypothesis of the study they will thend o whatever is necessary to con rm the hypothesis 0 example if fyou were studying the relationship between policitla orientation and homophobia particiants might gure out the yhypothesis and behave according to what they think you waont erather than according to their true slves ways to minimizecontrol demand characteristics 0 one way to control for demand characteristics is to use deceptionto make participants think that the experiment is studying one thing when actually studying something else 0 experimenter may devise elaborate cover stories to explain the purpose of the study and to disguise what is really being studied 0 researcher may also attempt to disguise the dependent variable by using an unobtrusive measure or by placing the measure among a set of unrelated filler items on a questionnaire 0 another approach is simply to asses whether demand characteristics are a problem by asking participants about their perceptions of the purpose of the research 0 a special kind of participant expectation arises in research on the effects of drugs 0 ex just administering a pill or an injection may be sufficient to cause an observed improvement in behavior to control for his possibility a placebo group can be added participant in the placebo group receive a pill or injection containing an inert harmless substance they do not receive the drug given to member s of the experimental if the improvement results from the active properties of the drug the participants in the experimental group should show greater improvement than those int eh placebo group if the placebo group improves as much as the experimental group all improvement could be caused by a placebo effect 0 any intentional ur unintentional in uence that the experimenter exerts on subjects to con rm the hypothesis under investigation 0 Experimenters are usually aware of eh purpose of the study and thus may develop expectations about how participants 5 should respond These expectations and in turn bias the results 0 may occur whenever the experimenter knows which condition the participants are in 0 two potential sources of experimenter bias first source the experimenter might unintentionally treat participants differently int eh various conditions of the study ex certain words might be emphasized when reading instructions to ne group but not the other or the experimenter might smile more when interacting with people in one of the conditions second source when experimenters record the behaviors of he participants there may be subtle differences in the way the experimenter interprets and records the behaviors 0 two solutions to experimental expectancy problem singleblind experiments the participant is unaware of whether a placebo or the actual drug is being administered Doubleblind experiments neither the participant nor the experimenter knos whether the placebo or actual treatment is being given 0 A pilot study the researcher does atrial run with a small number of participants the pilot study will reveal whether participants understand the instructions whether the total experimental setting seems plausible whether any confusing questions are being asked and so on 0 pilot studies provide the researcher with an opportunity 0 make any necessary in the procedure before doing the entire study also a pilot study allows the experimenters who are collecting the data to become comfortable with their roles and to standardize their procedures 0 an attempt to directly measure whether the independent variable manipulation has the intended effect on the participants 0 provide evidence for the construct validity of the manipulation example if you are manipulating anxiety a manipulation check will tell you whether participants in the highanxiety group really were more anxious than those in the lowanxiety The manipulation check might involve a seIfOreport of anxiety a behavioral measure such as number of arm and hand movements or a psychological measure all manipulation checks then ask whether the independent variable manipulation was in fact a successful operationalization of the conceptual variable being studied
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