Chem 110, Midterm Study Guide
Chem 110, Midterm Study Guide CHEM 110
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by BritneyMoore on Sunday May 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM 110 at California State Polytechnic University taught by Dr. Hoda Mirafzal in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Chemical Principles I in Chemistry at California State Polytechnic University.
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Date Created: 05/08/16
CHEM 110 Midterm Study Guide ▯ Mnemonic for Metric Prefixes Terrier (tera) Gigantic (giga) ▯ K ▯ . Meg’s (mega) ilo 001 Killed (kilo) ▯ H ▯ . Hector (hector) ecto 01 ▯ D ▯ . Decadent (deca) Base Value eca 1 Decidedly (deci) ▯ B ▯ 1 Certain (centi) ase ▯ D ▯ 1 Millipede (milli) eci 0 Mice (micro) Need (nano) ▯ C ▯ 1 Pie enti 00 (pico) ▯ ▯ M ▯ 1 English and Metric Conversions illi 000 1 mi 1.6 kilometers 1 in 2.5 cm 1 yd .94 m 1 mL 1 cm^3 1 L 1 dm^3 1 gallon 3.8 L .95 L 1 qt 1 ounce 28 g 1 kg 2.2 lbs ▯ Groups of Elements Vertical columns Similar physical and chemical properties Same number of Valence Electrons Group 1: Alkali Metals Group 2: Alkaline Earth Metals Group 3-12: Transition metals Group 17: Halogens Group 18: Noble Gases ▯ Periods of Elements Horizontal rows Do NOT have similar properties ▯ Metals Left of the stair step Shiny and ductile Good conductors of heat and energy ▯ Nonmetals located to the rights of the stair step Dull and brittle Poor conductors of heat and energy ▯ Atomic Symbols Fe Iron Ni Nikel Sn Tin Pb Lead Zn Zinc Cu Copper Br Bromine I Iodide Hg Mercury Ag Silver Au Gold ▯ Subatomic Particles Particle Symbol Charge Relative Mass Electron e- -1 0 Proton p+ +1 1 Neutron N 0 1 ▯ Atomic Number Number of Electrons (= # of Protons) ▯ Mass Number Number of Protons (atomic # + # of Neutrons) ▯ Isotopes Atoms with the same # of Protons, but different # of Neutrons Same atomic # with different mass # ▯ Atomic Weight Average atomic mass of all isotopes ▯ Electronic Transitions Atom absorbs energy Electron jumps up to a higher energy level Atom emits light Electron jumps down to a lower energy level The color of light = the difference in energy between levels Violet Highest Energy Level Indigo Blue Green Yellow Orang e Red Lowest Energy Level ▯ Quantum Mechanics The quantum number “n” describes the energy of an Electron and its distance from the nucleus Shell 1 n=1 2(1^2)= 2e- Shell 2 n=2 2(2^2)= 8e- Shell 3 n=3 2(3^2)= 18e- Shell 4 n=4 2(4^2)= 32e- Order of Filling Shells Shell 1 2 3 4 3 4 Electron 2e- 8e- 8e- 2e- 10e- 6e- s ▯ Octet Rule Octet= 8 Valence Electrons Electrons are lost, gained or shared to form an octet ▯ Cation Positively charge ion Atoms lose Electrons Group 1: ion+ (1 Valence Electron) Group 2: ion2+ (2 Valence Electrons) Group 3A: ion3+ (3 Valence Electrons) ▯ Anion Negatively charged ion Atoms gain Electrons Group 7A: ion- (7 Valence Electrons) Group 6A: ion2- (6 Valence Electrons) Group 5A: ion3- (5 Valence Electrons) ▯ Ionic Compound A cation and anion bonded together Must have a simplest balanced charge ▯ Writing Ionic Formulas (Ba2+ & Cl-) Balance the charges o 1 Ba2+ o 2 Cl- Write the cation, then the anion o Ba Cl Write the number of ions needed as subscripts o BaCl 2 ▯ Binary Ionic Compounds A cation and an anion Groups 1, 2, 3A, Ag, Zn, Cd st Name the metal 1 , then the nonmetal as “-ide” ▯ Variable Cations Metals EXCEPT Groups 1, 2, 3A, Ag, Zn, Cd form ions Write the name of the metal Write the charge of the cation in (Roman Numerals) Name the nonmetal as “-ide” ▯ Polyatomic Ions Memorize: o H 2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, 2, P4, S8 ▯ Ternary Compounds Contains at least 3 elements If the subscripts are 2 or more, write the polyatomic ion in parenthesis in the formula Name the cation and then the anion Use the names of the polyatomic ion where appropriate ▯ Ionic Bond 1 cation and 1 anion 1 atom loses electrons and the other one gains electrons 1 atom’s electronegativity is much higher than the others Really large electronegativity difference (>2) ▯ Covalent Bond 2 atoms share electrons Similar electronegativity ▯ Polar Covalent Bond 2 atoms unevenly share electrons 1 atom gets more electron density than the other Small electronegativity difference (<2) ▯ Binary Covalent Compounds Name each element End the last element in “-ide” Add prefixes to show the number of atoms o Except the 1 element doesn’t get the mono prefix Prefeixes: Mono 1 Di 2 Tri 3 Tetra 4 Penta 5 Hexa 6 ▯ Law of Conservation of Mass Matter is not created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction ▯ Combination A+B AB ▯ Decomposition AB A+B ▯ Single Replacement A+BC AB+C ▯ Double Replacement AB+CD AD+CB ▯ Combustion AC+O CO+A ▯ Avogadro’s Number 1 mol=6.02 X 10^23 ▯ Molar Mass # of grams in 1 mol of a substance= numerical value of the atomic mass o EX: 1 mol of C=12 g The mass of 1 mol of the compound= the masses of all the atoms in the compound ▯ Molar Ratios The coefficients of 2 substances in the equation ▯ Mole Tunnel 1. Convert g to mol 2. Relate mols to mols using a ratio 3. Convert mol to g NEVER use grams directly in molar ratios ▯ Limiting Reagent One reactant determines the amount of a product ▯ Lewis Structures Single Covalent Bond Sharing 2e- Double Covalent Bond Sharing 4e- Triple Covalent Bond Sharing 6e- ▯ Rules: 1. Determine the arrangement of atoms o the least electronegative atom in the center o all other atoms are bonded to the central atom 2. Count the number of Valence Electrons 3. Use the Valence Electrons to form each single bond between the atoms 4. Place the remaining Valence Electrons in pairs around each non central atom 1 and then the central atom to complete the octets o ONLY H forms a bond and no octet 5. If there isn’t enough VE to complete the octet on the central atom, move electron pairs to form double bonds ▯ VSEPR Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Linear Trigonal Planar Bent Tetrahedral Trigonal Pyramidal ▯ ▯
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