Final Exam Study Guide
Final Exam Study Guide
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tatyana Mims on Sunday May 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to at Southern Illinois University Carbondale taught by Hasin in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Personal Nutrition in Health Sciences at Southern Illinois University Carbondale.
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Date Created: 05/08/16
Food safety Food-borne illness: 30,000 hospitalizations Most are similar to “flu” symptoms o Diarrhea o Vomiting o Abdominal pain o Chills (?) o Fever (?) Which room harbors more bacteria o Kitchen Contamination on food o Animal feces Butchering in unsanitary conditions o Human feces Lack of hand washing o Human body secretions Open wounds, scratching open sores, sneeze, or cough o Cross-contamination of safe foods: Drips from food stored above Cutting boards Reusing plates o What can you do? SEPARATE! Don’t cross-contaminate o Different knife/cutting boards o Use: Hot, soapy water or bleach Clean plate for cooked food 95%of men and women say they wash their hands after using the restroom. How many actually do wash their hands? o 67% 1 out of 3 don’t wash their hands after going to the bathroom foodborne illness is caused by consuming foods contaminated with o Bacteria Most common o Viruses Most common o Parasites o Toxins o Heavy metals o Other contaminants Leftovers can be kept at room temperature for o 2 hours You found some leftovers in the fridge that has been there for over a week o If in doubt, throw it out It is the bacteria that doesn’t change taste or smell that makes you sick o Dairy products and fruit juices should be… Pasteurized o The best way to tell if poultry is thoroughly cooked is Check the internal temperature with meat thermometer Food safety: 180 F o Hamburger and meat loaf are safe to eat when They’ve reached an internal temperature of 160 F Who is most at risk? o People who compromised immune systems o People with certain chronic disease Diabetes and cancer o Pregnant women o Young children o Elderly people How is salmonella transmitted? o Raw poultry/eggs o Raw beef/pork o Cross contamination o Handling of reptiles like snakes, turtles, and lizards How is E.coli transmitted o Contaminated water o Undercooked or raw hamburgers o Genoa salami o Alfalfa sprouts o Unpasteurized Milk Apple juice Apple cider Parasites o Parasitic worms o Killed by freezing and cooking o Attach to lining or intestines Feed on blood Causing anemia o Hundreds of Japanese experience this foodborne illness every year Does eating a healthy diet make for a healthy environment? Your food travels more than you do… Average mouthful of food travels 1200 miles from farm to factory to warehouse to supermarket to our plates Many out of season foods… o Grown outside U.S. by people whose own health is threatened by malnutrition o Grown in a water system you wouldn’t feel safe drinking o Salmonella contaminated raspberries or E. coli-tainted strawberries… o Any consequences of moving food around the nation? Around the world? Exotic & deadly organisms Which of the following is an example of genetically modified food? o Tomato Genetically modified food is produced in an effort to o Create higher yielding plants & animals o Creates products that are disease resistant o Produce plants that are drought resistant Have demand in Production of Particular foods o Populations increasing o Organization Are you ready? o To have everything you eat pre-cooked? o Sterilized by radiation? Organic Foods o Free of: Chemical fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides, hormones and antibiotics (free-living animals) Environmentally sustainable Locally grown o 100% Organic Best thing o USDA organic (95%) Other ingredients will not contain any GMO o Made with organic ingredients (70%) 30% could be anything Addition of antibiotics in animal feed is used to o All of the above Prevent & treat disease Improve health Promote growth Intense use of grains, water, energy (Produce & Transport Livestock) What can I do? o Decrease meat consumption Ease health care cost burden Improve public health Take pressure of rangelands & farmlands o Consumers have the power to make the difference in today’s global environment o Relatively little research done to help farmers reduce use of synthetic fertilizers Nutrition for Life Pregnancy & Lactation Pregnancy Tremendous physiological changes Demand healthful dietary & lifestyle choices Need for almost every nutrient increases o Successful Pregnancy Healthy, full term infant > 5.5 lbs o Low birth weight infants < 5.5 LBS (~ 2500 g) Small for date Full-term inadequate growth Premature Born < 37 weeks o Preconception Nutrition Weight Maternal obesity o Complicate pregnancy & delivery o Compromise baby’s health Low pre-pregnancy weight increase the risk of: o Low-birth-weight infant o Preterm delivery Inadequate nutrition stores Compromise development of placenta o Unable to deliver nutrients to fetus-low birth weight infant Vitamins Increased demands often need supplementation Folic acid o High demand during pregnancy Father’s role Vitamin E deficiency o Immotility of sperm infertility o Folate/Folic Acid Required for protein tissue construction Prevents neural tube defects Spina bifida th Neural tube development occurs before the 6 week of fetal life All women of childbearing age –not just pregnant women- should consume adequate amounts of folate Maternal Physiology (Changes & Nutrition) Changes in Maternal Physiology: Growth of maternal issues o Uterus o Breast tissues Increase in size to store energy as fat for Last trimester & Lactation o Blood volume increases ~ 50% During Pregnancy o First trimester Additional calories not necessary Size of baby: large grape o Nausea & vomiting “morning sickness” Not fully understood (may be reaction to intensified sense of smell due to hormonal changes) o Food cravings Occur after fetus has developed Vary among individuals Related to hormonal changes or emotional needs Not nutritional necessity Craving for & eating nonfood items- Pics Starch, ice, clay, laundry detergent Immediately report to physician o Second &third trimester Additional 300 calories per day Fetal tissue synthesis require extra-protein & zinc Increased energy metabolism Extra vitamin B1, B2, B3, B6, magnesium & iodine Increased synthesis of red blood cells Folate, B12 & iron Fetal bones mineralize & extra minerals in mother’s skeleton to support lactation Extra calcium & phosphorus Breast-Feeding (Best bet for babies and moms!) Human milk for human babies o Primary benefit Nutritional o Complete source of nutrition for first 4-6 months of life Benefits for infants o Immune factors o Psychological & emotional benefits o Always ready to eat o Perfect temperature o Sterile o Easy to digest o Less allergy Benefits for mother o Helps uterus contract o Convenience o Less expensive o No waste o Help mother lose body fat o May reduce risk Ovarian cancer Breast cancer Osteoporosis Dietary Cautions for breastfeeding women o Almost anything consumed ends up in breast milk Coffee (caffeine) Alcohol o Environmental contaminants Many are fat soluble -> stored in fat tissues o Drugs & medications Infants grow fast! o Growth rate higher in infancy than any other time in life Double wt. in 4 months Triple wt. in 12 months Infant feeding recommendations o Breastfeeding 4-6 months (exclusively) o Specially prepared solid foods > 4 months o Introduce solids one at a time for a few days Iron fortified cereal as first solid food Toddlers (1-5 Years) How much, how often? o Transition from liquid/ semi-solid to solid diet o Establish healthy dietary pattern Encourage normal growth Discourage unhealthful eating behaviors o Parents as good examples o Maintain regular meal patterns o Be flexible with meals o Drink water rather than juice or soft drinks Excessive juice intake Excessive weight Diarrhea (certain juices) o Apple, pear o Nutritious snacks Fruits Vegetables Low fat yogurt or cheese sticks Low fat whole grain crackers o ‘tablespoons’ to ‘quarts’ Serving sizes ¼ to 1/3 of adult portions Offer less than what they might eat Let them ask for more Respect hunger cues Avoid membership in “clean plate” club Encourages overeating o Possible weight problems Of food aversions o Possible nutritional problems Parents should decide what foods to offer children. Children should decide how much to eat. Childhood (5-12 Years) Mealtime Tactics o Children learn by watching o Be there during mealtime o Kids should sit while they eat o Use kid-size dishes & utensils o Reward with attention & affection-not food o Avoid idea of “forbidden foods” o Plenty of time… o Plain foods they can recognize o Get kids involved o New foods at beginning of meals o Serve same food in different forms Mealtime tactics (cont.) o Plain foods they can recognize o Get kids involved o Serve same food in different forms o New foods at beginning of meals Nourishing more than the body o Child’s liver Store glucose for brain function Half the size of adults o Eat every 4 hours Maintain adequate blood glucose levels Decreased blood glucose decreases attention span & learning ability Contributes to behavior problems o Quality of diet become poor as children move towards teenage o Consumption of sodium, sugar, saturated and cholesterol increase o Consumption of milk, fruits & veggies decrease Teens (13-19 Years) Gender-related Differences o Wide differences Height & weight o Appetite increases o Girls Usually taller & heavier than boys o Boys Growth spurts begin Muscle growth Feeding the teen machine o Dieting can prevent growing to full height o Bones take in the most calcium during teens &early 20s o Pizza can be healthful food choices (whole grain crust, low fat cheese, lean meat and veggies) You never outgrow your need for a good diet o Anemia o Dental caries o Under nutrition o low calcium level o Eating disorder Nutrition for Elderly Incidence of many diseases increase with age o Causes of the diseases often unrelated to aging Aging is not a disease o Diets high in saturated fat & salt &low fiber o Smoking o Physical inactivity o Excessive stress o Or other “bad” habits Living in the bonus round (diet & life Expectancy) People who Live longer than others o Consume breakfast o Eat fruits and vegetables more often o Regular physical activity o Take time to socialize & celebrate with friends o Diet less often Experience fewer fluctuations in body weight Breaking the chains of chronic disease development o Reducing saturated fat may slow/halt progression of heart disease o Adequate calcium intake o Regular physical activity May prevent postpone, or lessen severity of osteoporosis o Consuming enough dietary fiber (20-30 grams/day) Reduced risk of colon cancer o Fruits & vegetables (at least 5 servings/day) Delay or prevent formation of cataracts Nutrient needs of adults & the elderly o Biological processes & lifestyle changes affect caloric & nutrient needs o Physical activity, muscle mass & BMR decrease Need for calories generally declines with age o Need for certain nutrients may increase Protein Vitamin C Calcium Vitamin D Eating right during adult & elderly years o 1 or more meatless meals per week o Lean meat o One meat dish replaced with fish o < or equal to 30% total calories from fat Unsaturated fats from vegetable sources o About 55% calories from carbohydrates Mainly complex carbohydrates Balanced & adequate Diet o Judiciously select foods from the basic food groups Not all foods within respective groups are equally desirable Low fat Low cholesterol Low sodium High fiber
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