MCB 150 EXAM II
MCB 150 EXAM II MCB 150
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jessica Logner on Sunday May 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MCB 150 at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign taught by Bradley G Mehrtens in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 109 views. For similar materials see Molecular and Cellular Biology in Molecular, Cellular And Developmental Biology at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
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Date Created: 05/08/16
MCB 150 EXAM II phase of glycolysis which is endergonic Investment Phase (requires ATP) glycolysis net results 2 ATP, 2 NADH, 2 pyruvate Cellular respiration in presence of oxygen aerobic respiration (Kreb's cycle, Electron Transport Chain) cellular respiration without oxygen anaerobic respiration (all energy from glycolysis) krebs cycle net results 6 CO2, 8 NADH, 2 FADH2, 2 GTP where does the electron transport chain take place? prokaryotes cytoplasmic membrane eukaryotes inner mitochondrial membrane FADH2 in the Electron transport chain bypasses complex 1 which means not as many protons are pumped across membrane meaning a lower electrochemical gradient porin allows protons to move freely between intermembrane space and cytoplasm, not present in intermitochondrial membrane Steps of Aerobic Respiration glycolysis > Kreb's cycle > Electron Transport chain ATP Synthase pumps protons back into mitochondrial matrix producing ATP why do protons go through the ATP synthhase? electrochemical gradient cellular coordination prevents cell from spending more energy than necessary, coordinated by amount of enzyme present and the activity of allosteric enzymes allosteric regulators bind somewhere other than active site to increase or decrease activity of an enzyme feedback inhibition allosteric regulator is a product of a later reation in the pathway The central dogma the flow of genetic information from DNA to RNA to protein transcription information from genes of DNA is copied into RNA translation information in RNA is used to build proteins chromatin complex of DNA and protein which makes up chromosomes Chargaff's Rules showed 1:1 relationship between pyrimidines and purines in DNA Franklin and Wilkins xray diffraction showed DNA shape of helix of uniform width of 2nm with stacked bases with sugarphosphate groups on outside Watson and Crick put together Chargaff, Franklin and Wilkin's data, showed DNA must be a double helix what holds chains of nucleotides together? hydrogen bonding between purine on one strand and pyrimidine on the other adenine pairs with thymine (2 H bonds) cytosine pairs with guanine (3 H bonds) antiparallel 5' end of one strand of DNA is opposite 3' end of the other DNA denaturation separation of double helix into single strands by disrupting stabilizing base stacking and Hbonds through addition of heat, acid, base, urea or formamide aka complex I NADH dehydrogenase aka complex II bc1 complex aka complex III cytochrome oxidase complex proton carriers ubiquinome, cytochrome c terminal electron acceptor oxygen (to make water) Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase experimented with viruses that affect bacteria and determined that DNA not protein made up genetic information what is the difference between a pyrimidine and a purine? purine has two ring structure while pyrimidine has one ring structure three possible models of replication conservative, semiconservative and dispersive semiconservative replication two seperate but intact parent strands used to each build one daughter strand MeselsonStahl experiment determined the semiconservative method was used in DNA replication where does replication start? origin (aka ori) how many oris are in a prokaryote? one DNA polymerases in E. coli DNA polymerase I (removes primers from the lagging strand and replaces with DNA) DNA polymerase II (involved in the DNA repair process) DNA polymerase III (responsible for the bulk of DNA synthesis) endonucleases break phosphodiester bonds between nucleotides internally exonucleases break phosphodiester bonds starting from end of nucleotide strand helicases enzymes that use energy from ATP to unwind DNA supercoiling caused by torsional strain on a DNA molecule class of enzymes that relieve torsional strain topoisomerases continuously replicating strand leading strand discontinuously replicating strand lagging strand Okazaki fragments small fragments of DNA used to synthesize the lagging strand in what direction does DNA synthesis occur? 5' to 3' x dependant, y synthesizing uses x as a template to make y primase syntesizes RNA primers necessary to provide DNA polymerase with a free 3' hydroxyl group lagging strand synthesis process primase synthesizes RNA primers for okazaki fragments to attach to. primers are then removed and relpaced with DNA by DNA polymerase I. Ligase joins fragments together with phosphodiester linkages single stranded DNA binding proteins bind to single stranded DNA to prevent it from forming complementary base pairs and recoiling how many oris are in a eukaryote? many (much more to replicate) transcription conversion of DNA to RNA translation conversion of RNA to protein template strand strand of DNA that is copied into RNA coding strand strand of DNA not used as a template for RNA; has the same sequence as the transcripted strand three types of RNA messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) how is bacterial DNA compacted? supercoiling Kornberg discovered chromatin (beads on a string) histone proteins small, positive proteins that combine in groups of 8+1 with DNA to form nucleosome how much DNA is in one nucleosome 146 or 147 how big are chromatin coils 10nm how big are chromatin fibers 30nm euchromatin loosely condensed chromatin, transcriptionally active heterochromatin highly condensed chromatin, transcriptionally inactive telomeric region bound by proteins that allow for replication and protection of linear molecules replicon amount of DNA synthesized from a single ori semidiscontinuous refers to how DNA must use okazaki fragments to synthesize lagging strand codons 3 nucleotide blocks of genetic information reading frame establishes how codons are read stop codons UAA, UGA and UAG (signal the termination of translation for a protein, dont add an amino acid) RNA polymerase synthesizes RNA using a DNA template what marks the beginning of a gene? promotor regions 4 steps of transcription promotor recognition, initiation, elongation, termination start codon AUG (methionine) degenerate some amino acids are specified by more than one codon (have more than one choice for an amino acid) not ambiguous each codon only specifies one specific amino acid holoenzyme RNA polymerase with the sigma factor core enzyme RNA polymerase without the sigma factor transcription unit region from promotor to terminator where are promotor sites located? 10 and 35 (10 and 35 units upstream from where transcription starts) what does it mean to be conserved? stuff is located at the same place every time what does it mean to have consensus? same sequence will be there more often than not strong vs weak consensus how closely you match the consensus sequence (closer=stronger) stronger consensus makes for... more transcription which equals more protein sigma subunit function scans DNA for promotor region closed promotor complex specific binding of sigma factor to 35 and 10 promotor regions open promotor complex unwind DNA to initiate transcription rho accessory protein which helps terminate transcription mRNA messenger RNA which carries instructions for making proteins rRNA ribosomal RNA which combine with proteins to form ribosomes for protein synthesis tRNA transfer RNA which carry amino acids and act as a bridge to attach to mRNA and build proteins 35 consensus TTGACA 10 consensus TATAAT how many RNA polymerases do eukaryotes have? 3 (one each for each type of RNA) aspects of mature mRNA 5' cap, 3' polyA tail, intron removal (sometimes alternative splicing) transcription factors used by eukaryotes to begin formation of the transcription initiation complex which allows RNA polymerase to bind to promotor region introns intervening sequence of DNA (removed because doesnt encode for protein) exons expressed sequences of genes (remain in mature mRNA) why have introns? introns allow for alternative splicing (control which exons are expressed) which allow mRNAs from the same template to vary slightly spliceosome responsible for splicing or removal of introns aka snRNPs small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles For each molecule of glucose processed during glycolysis, the net yield is ____. two molecules of NADH, two of ATP, and two of pyruvate Glycolysis begins by using molecules of ATP, but the net yield is positive. During pyruvate processing, two carbons from pyruvate combine with ____. coenzyme A One carbon of the threecarbon pyruvate becomes oxidized to CO2 and the remaining two carbons (acetate) combine with coenzyme A to form acetyl coenzyme A. Which of these enters the citric acid cycle? acetyl CoA NADH + H+ glucose pyruvate G3P acetyl CoA In the citric acid cycle, ATP molecules are produced by _____. substratelevel phosphorylation A phosphate group is transferred from GTP to ADP. Which of these is NOT a product of the citric acid cycle? acetyl CoA CO2 ATP NADH + H+ FADH2 acetyl CoA acetyl CoA is a reactant in the citric acid cycle. What process occurs in Box A? (Glucose > pyruvate) glycolysis Glycolysis occurs in the cytosol. What process occurs within Box B? (Electrons > NADH and FADH2) The citric acid cycle. The citric acid cycle transfers electrons to NADH and FADH2. What molecule is indicated by the letter D? (An input of oxidative phosphorylation) Oxygen Oxygen is the final electron acceptor of cellular respiration. What is glycolysis? The process in which the sixcarbon sugar glucose is converted to two molecules of pyruvate (three carbons each), with the net production of 2 ATP and 2 NADH per glucose molecule. There is no O2 uptake or CO2 release. ~ Glycolysis: From the following compounds involved in cellular respiration, choose those that are the net inputs and net outputs of glycolysis. NADH, ADP, glucose, NAD+, ATP, pyruvate, acetyl CoA, CO2, coenzyme A, O2 Net Input: NAD+, ADP, glucose Net Output: NADH, ATP, pyruvate Neither: acetyl CoA, CO2, coenzyme A, O2 What is Acetyl CoA formation? The process in which pyruvate is oxidized to produce acetyl CoA, with the reduction of NAD+ to NADH and the release of one molecule of CO2. ~ Acetyl CoA Formation: From the following compounds involved in cellular respiration, choose those that are the net inputs and net outputs of acetyl CoA formation. NADH, ADP, glucose, NAD+, ATP, pyruvate, acetyl CoA, CO2, coenzyme A, O2 Net Input: NAD+, pyruvate, coenzyme A Net Output: NADH, acetyl CoA, CO2 Neither: O2, ADP, ATP, glucose What is the Citric acid cycle/Krebs cycle? The process in which the two carbons from the acetyl group of acetyl CoA are oxidized to two molecules of CO2, while several molecules of NAD+ are reduced to NADH and one molecule of FAD is reduced to FADH2. In addition, one molecule of ATP is produced. Acetyl CoA is completely oxidized. ~ Citric Acid Cycle From the following compounds involved in cellular respiration, choose those that are the net inputs and net outputs of the citric acid cycle. NADH, ADP, glucose, NAD+, ATP, pyruvate, acetyl CoA, CO2, coenzyme A, O2 Net Input: ADP, NAD+, acetyl CoA Net Output: ATP, NADH, coenzyme A, CO2 Neither: glucose, pyruvate, O2 Redox (oxidationreduction) reactions in glycolysis: When a compound donates (loses) electrons, that compound becomes ____. Such a compound is often referred to as an electron donor. Oxidized Redox reactions in glycolysis: When a compound accepts (gains) electrons, that compound becomes ____. Such a compound is often referred to as an electron acceptor. Reduced Redox reactions in glycolysis: In glycolysis, the carboncontaining compound that functions as an electron donor is ____. Glucose Redox reactions in glycolysis: Once the electron donor gives up its electrons, it is oxidized to a the compound is called ____. Pyruvate Redox reactions in glycolysis: ____ is the compound that functions as the electron acceptor in glycolysis. NAD+ Redox reactions in glycolysis: The reduced form of the electron acceptor in glycolysis is ____. NADH Among the products of glycolysis, which compounds contain energy that can be used by other biological reactions? Pyruvate, ATP, and NADH ATP is the main product of cellular respiration that contains energy that can be used by other cellular processes. Some ATP is made in glycolysis. In addition, the NADH and pyruvate produced in glycolysis are used in subsequent steps of cellular respiration to make even more ATP. ~ ATP synthesis in glycolysis: substratelevel phosphorylation Sort the statements into the appropriate bin depending on whether or not they correctly describe some aspect of substratelevel phosphorylation in glycolysis. The enzymes involved in ATP synthesis must be attached to a membrane to produce ATP. The phosphate group added to ADP to make ATP comes from free inorganic phosphate ions. An enzyme is required in order for the reaction to occur. A bond must be broken between an organic molecule and phosphate before ATP can form. One of the substrates is a molecule derived from the breakdown of glucose. Correct: An enzyme is required in order for the reaction to occur. A bond must be broken between an organic molecule and phosphate before ATP can form. One of the substrates is a molecule derived from the breakdown of glucose. Incorrect: The enzymes involved in ATP synthesis must be attached to a membrane to produce ATP. The phosphate group added to ADP to make ATP comes from free inorganic phosphate ions. In substratelevel phosphorylation, an enzyme transfers a phosphate group from one molecule (an intermediate in the breakdown of glucose to pyruvate) to ADP to form ATP. This is very different from the mechanism of ATP synthesis that takes place in oxidative phosphorylation. ~ Carbon atoms in acetyl CoA formation & the citric acid cycle: During acetyl CoA formation and the citric acid cycle, all of the carbon atoms that enter cellular respiration in the glucose molecule are released in the form of CO2. Use this diagram to track the carboncontaining compounds that play a role in these two stages. Pyruvate (from glycolysis) > CO2 & 2C (Acetyl CoA) > 6C (citrate) > 6C (isocitrate) > CO2 & 5C (alphaketoglutarate) > CO2 & 4C (succinyl CoA) > 4C (succinate) > 4C (fumarate) > 4C (malate) >
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