MCB 150 EXAM III
MCB 150 EXAM III MCB 150
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jessica Logner on Sunday May 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MCB 150 at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign taught by Bradley G Mehrtens in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Molecular and Cellular Biology in Molecular, Cellular And Developmental Biology at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
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Date Created: 05/08/16
MCB 150 EXAM III Nuclear Lamina network of proteins that provide attachment for heterochromatin and give the nucleus shape Perinuclear space space between the inner and outer membrane of the nuclear envelope; continuous with the lumen of the ER FISH Flourescene In Situ hybridyzation;uses flourescent probes to visualize certain sections of chromosomes Chromosome painting extension of FISH; fluoresces an entire chromosome; requires multiple proves Chromosomal territory each chromosome occupies its own area or chromosomal territory Interchromosomal domain space in between the chromosomal territories/domains; where the transcription and processing machinery is located foci of replication contain about 200300 ori; will fluoresce if fluorescent dNTP's are used Sphase the synthesis phase; mostimportant phase in Interphase Gene density refers to the number of coding genes on a specific chromosomme; euchromatin has a high gene density Speckles collection of transcription and processing machinery nucleolus site for rRNA synthesis and processing, assembly of subunits Nucleolar Organizing Regions NOR; arrays of 5.8S, 18S, and 28S rRNA genes snoRNP's responsible for processing 45S prerRNA; cuts, DOES NOT SPLICE Mutations heritable changes in DNA Somatic mutations passed only to daughter cells in the area Germ line mutations passed down to new organisms gene+ wild type gene, unmutated gene mutated gene Mismatch repair a combination of MutS, MutH, MutL, find errors that are missed by the spell checker Hemimethylated DNA only the parent strand is methylated, occurs shortly after replication MutS scans the DNA for the inccorect base MutH looks for the GATC sequence and determines the nonmethylated strand, then it makes a cut in it MutL links MutS and MutH, causes the loop to form Point mutations base substitutions and frameshift Frameshift mutation insertion or deletion of 1 or 2 bases; changes the reading frame; usually results in the truncation of a protein Base substitutions mutation Missense, nonsense, or same sense mutations that result from the change of one base transition changing a purine to a purine or a pyrimidine to a pyrimidine tranversion changing a purine to a pyrimidine or a pyrimidine to a purine Missense mutation codon for one AA is changed to the codon for a different AA; can result in an inactive protein or fully functional protein Samesense mutation the same AA is coded for after the codon change; no effect is had on the protein Nonsense mutation a codon for an AA is changed to a stop codon; results in truncation of the protein and normally inactive Redundancy feature of the genetic code that allows different codons to specify the same AA Chromosomal level mutations affects more than one spot, usually involves large pieces of genetic material Deletions loss of large pieces of a DNA sequence usually resulting in an inactive protein insertions addition of large pieces of DNA into gene usually resulting in an inactive protein; often caused by transposons transposons jumping genes Nuclear Localization Signal NLS; necessary and sufficient protein signal that allows transport into the nucleus; characteristically basic Importin shutlle protein that recognizes and binds to NLS's; recycled back into the cytoplasm Nuclear Export Signal NES; leucinerich, necessary and sufficient to allow proteins to leave the nucleus Exportin shuttle protein that recognizes and binds to the NES; recycled back into the nucleus RNA export factor binds to RNA and acts as a shuttle protein; has its own NLS TOM translocon of the outer mitochondrial membrane TIM translocon of the inner mitochondrial membrane Mitochondrial presequence basic sequence at the nterminus; acts similar to an NLS MPP mitochondiral protein peptidase; removes the presequence Chaperonin complex protein folding machine in mitochondria; requires ATP to remove protein Hsp70 Mitochondrial chaperone PulseChase expirement study the pathway of secreted proteins by pulse them with radioactive AA Secretory Pathway Er to Golgi to Vesicles to Outside Cell roles of RER protein secretion, synthesis of membrane proteins, protein processing roles of SER lipid bilayer synthesis, detoxification Signal hypothesis hypothesis that there is a specific AA sequence that targets proteins to the ER stop transfer sequence protein sequence that signals the translocon to not eject it into the lumen Nlinkage glycosylation addition of oligosaccharide to Asn residues; happens to almost every protein that comes through the ER GPI anchor glycolipid anchor for lipidlinked transmembrane proteins ERGIC intermediate complex between ER and Golgi; allows retrieval of missent molecules cisGolgi the receiving side transGolgi side away from the ER, side they leave from Mannose6P signal for targeting to lysosome constitutive secretion continuous secretion regulated secretion only secreted when the organism requires the molecules secreted lysosomes "bags of enzymes", responsible for degradation of organelles and other molecules no longer needed by the cell early endosome has some ATP proton pumps but no hyrdolases; pH ~6.5 Cytoskeletal fibers actin filaments/mircrofilaments, microtubuled, intermediate filaments actin pointed end minus end actin barbed end plus end Nucleus of Actin a trimer of actin or more contractile ring ring of actin and myosin that contracts to split two new cells in cytokinesis stages of cell movement extension (polymerization of actin filaments on an edge); adhesion; translocation of the body (contraction of myosin and actin); deadhesion Hzone zone in the middle of the sarcomere where there is only ; disappears when it contracts Iband space where there is only actin; disappears when it contracts; spans two sarcomeres sarcomere muscle tissue from z disc to z disc M line site of attachment for myosin; in the middle of the sarcomere Chromosomal Domains/Territories organization of nuclei into discrete functional domains that play an important role in regulating gene expression and replication Interchomosomal Territory where DNA isnt Replicon unit of DNA synthesized from one ori SPhase replication of DNA Mphase condenses and separates DNA G1phase grows cell and synthesizes mRNA and proteins G2phase grows cell and synthesizes proteins Early Replication high gene density Late Replication low gene density Euchromatin less wound up chromatin that is more accessible. Early replication Heterochromatin more wound up chromatin that is less accessible. Late replication high gene density more likely to have all the genes needed, will be unwound sooner Proofreading 5' to 3' base adding, last base added is checked and if incorrect, removed 3' to 5' Hemimethylated one methylated strand and one nonmethylated strand. mismatch repair enzymes fix mitake in unmethylated strand MutS scans DNA looking for mismatched bases. Finds mismatch and latches on. If its not in the GATC sequence, it cannot tell parent from daughter MutH looks for hemimethylated DNA by looking for GATC sequence MutL links mutH and mutS together to communicate and loops out the region with mistake DNA polymerase III adds bases ligase fills in DNA poly III gap SOS repair faulty and leads to changes in DNA Point mutation point in genome where a change has been made. Includes base substitutions and framshift Base substitution Mutations the substitution of one base pair for another Transition type substitution Changes purine to purine or pyrimadine to pyrimadine Transversion base substitution purine to pyrimadine or pyrimadine to purine missense new codon sequence codes for different amino acid nonsense new codon sequence codes for stop same sense new codon sequence codes for same amino acid Insertion the insertion of hundreds of base pairs Deletion the deletion of hundreds of base pairs Framshift deletion of 1 or 2 base pairs that change the codon frame mutagen any agent that increases the number of mutations above background levels Specific repair systems target a single kind of lesion in DNA and repair only that damage Nonspecific repair system use a single mechanism to repair multiple kinds of lesions in DNA excision repair nonspecific repair where a damaged region is removed and replaced by DNA synthesis UvrABC complex binds to the damaged DNA then cleaves a single strand on either side of the damage, removing it point mutation a mutation that alters a single base triplet repeat expansion mutations a triplet sequence of DNA that is repeated and expanded in the dises allel chromosomal mutations changes in DNA that alter a chromosomes structure inversions a segment of chromosome is broken in 2, reversed and put back together translocation a piece of one chromosome is broken off and joined to another photorepair repairs thymine dimer caused by UV liht thymine dimer two adjacent and covalently linked thymines truncation to get a premature stop codon
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