MCB 244 EXAM II
MCB 244 EXAM II MCB 244
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This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jessica Logner on Sunday May 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MCB 244 at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign taught by Dr, Chester Brown in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Molecular, Cellular And Developmental Biology at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
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Date Created: 05/08/16
MCB 244 EXAM II Long Bones long and thin found in arms, legs, hands, feet, fingers, toes Flat Bones Thin with parallel surfaces Found in skull, sternum, ribs, and scapulae Sutural Bones Small, irregular bones Found between the flat bones of the skull Irregular Bones complex shapes Vertibrae, pelvic bones Seasmoid Bones Small and flat Develop inside tendons, near joints of knees, hands, and feet Process projection or bump Ramus extension of bone that forms an angle with the rest of the stucture Sinus Chamber in a bone normally filled with air Foramen Rounded passageways for blood vessels and nerves Fissure Deep Furrow cleft or slit Trochanter Large, rough projection Crest Prominent ridge Spine Pointed process Line Low ridge Tubricle Small rounded projection Facet Small, flat articular surface Condyle Smooth, rounded articular process Trochlea Smooth, grooved articular process shaped like a pulley Sulcus Narrow Groove Fossa Shallow depression How many cranial bones are there? 8 How many facial bones are there? 14 How many auditory ossicles are there? 6 What bones does the occipital bone articulate with? Sphenoid Parietal Temporal Atlas What bones do the Frontal Bone articulate with? Sphenoid Ethmoid Parietal Metopic Suture What bones do the Parietal Bones articulate with? Sphenoid Other Parietal Bone Temporal Occipital Frontal What bones does the Ethmoid Bone articulate with? Sphenoid Frontal Nasal Lacrimal Palatine Maxillary Inferior nasal conchae vomer What bones does the Sphenoid articulate with? ethmoid frontal occipital parietal temporal palatine zygomatic maxillae vomer Function of the occipital crest attach ligaments Function of Lacrimal Fossa tear ducts Function of the Supraorbital foramen blood vessels of eyebrows, eyelids, and frontal sinuses Functions of mastoid process Muscle attachment contains mastoid air cells connected to the middle ear Function of the styloid process Attach tendons and ligaments of hyoid, tongue, and pharynx Function of auditory ossicles Transfer sound from tympanic membrane (ear drum) to inner ear What are the names of the 3 auditory ossicles? Malleus Incus Stapca Function of carotid canal allows for passageway of internal carotid canal Function of ethmoid bone Forms anteromedial floor of the cranium Roof of nasal cavity part of nasal septum and medial orbital wall contains ethmoidial air cells (network of sinuses) Functions of Sphenoid cranial floorstrengthens unites cranial and facial bones strengthens sides of skull contains sphenoidal sinues Function of Pterygoid Process form pterygoid plate attach muscles of the lower jaw and soft palate What causes nasal congestion? when viral or bacterial infections (sinusitis) induce inflammation in sinuses, swelling of mucosal membranes coupled with reduce drainage and lead to excessive fluid and pressure buildup. How do allergens cause nasal congestion? causes overstimulation of immune system and mucosal swelling or allergic rhinitis What allows for the sensory nerve to reach the brain? infraorbital foramen Function of the incisive foramen supply nerves and blood vesseles to superior oral mucosa of hard palate what does the palatine bones articulate with? other palatine maxillae sphenoid ethmoid inferior nasal conchae vomer Function of nasal bones support bridge of nose connect to catilages of the distal part of the nose (external nares) What does the nasal bone articulate with? other nasal bones ethmoid frontal bones maxillae Function of the vomer Forms the inferior portion of the bony nasal septum What does the vomer articulate with? sphenoid ethmoid maxillae palatine bones cartilage of nasal septum Functions of nasal conchae turbulence increase surface area humidify What does the nasal conchae articulate with? ethmoid maxillae palatine bones lacrimal bones Function of lacrimal bones smallest facial bones form part of the medial wall of the orbit What does the Lacrimal Bones articulate with? frontal bone maxillae ethmoid What does the zygomatic bones articulate with? sphenoid frontal bone temporal bone maxillae Function of the condylar process articulates with temporal bone at the temporomandibular joint function of coronoid process insertion point for temporalis muscle (which closes the jaw) function of mental protuberance attaches facial muscles function of submandibular fossa depression for submandibular gland function of angle attachment site for masseter muscle fucntion of myohyloid line origin of myohyloid muscle function of mental foramen allows for passage of blood vessels to cheek and teeth Function of hyoid bone? support larynx attach muscles of larynx pharynx and tongue Name the marks and function of the hyoid bone Body: attaches muscles of larynx, tongue, and pharynx Greater horns (cornua) support larynx attaches muscles of the tongue Lesser Horns (cornua) attach stylohyoid ligaments support hyoid and larynx How many cervical vertibrae are there? 7 How many thoracic vertibrae are there? 12 How many lumbar vertibrae are there? 5 Which two vertibrae articulate with each other? Sacrum and coccyx fuse together after puberty? Function of the pedicles walls of the verterbral arch Function of the laminae roof of the vertibral arch Function of the spinous process projection where vertebral laminae fuse function of transverse process projection where laminae join pedicles function of intervertebral foramina nerve connections to spinal chord What forms the vertebral canal? vertebral foramina and it encloses the spinal chord What are intervertebral Discs? pads of fibrous cartilage that separate the verterbral bodies and absorb shock What does the atlas articulate with? occipital condyles of skull What is the atlas and some special features? the first vertibrae has no body or spinous process has a large round foramen with andterior and posterior arches What is the axis and its functions C2 supports the atlas has a heavy spinous process to attach muscles to the head What is it called when the atlas and the axis fuse together? the dens Characteristics of Thoracic vertebra (t1T12) heeart shaped body larger than C1C7 smaller vertebral foramen long slender spinous process costal facets that articulate with ribs Lumbar Vertebrae largest vertebrae oval shaped body no costal/ transverse costal facets triangulat vertebral foramen superior articular processes are face up and in inferior articular processes are face down and out Functions of osteocytes maintain the bone matrix, help repair damaged bone Functions of osteoblasts produce new bone matrix, when surrounded in bone they become osteocytes Functions of osteoclasts absorb and remove bone matrix, release stored minerals, derived from cells that produce macrophages Functions of osteoprogenitor cells assist in fracture repair, mesenchymal stem cells that divide to produce osteoblasts in endosteum Functions of periosteum provides entry way for CV and NS, participates in growth and repair of bone Functions of endosteum lines medullary cavity and central canals, covers trabecluae, active in bone growth and repair Functions of perforating canals perpendicular to the central canal and carry blood vessels into bone marrow, blood exchange between osteons and CV Functions of canaliculi connect lacunae together with blood vessels Functions of calcitriol made in kidneys, help absorb calcium What is remodeling Recycling and renew the organic and mineral components of the matrix Functions of external occipital crest attach ligaments that stabilize the vertebrae of neck Functions of hypoglossal canal passage of hypoglossal cranial nerve that controls tongue muscles functions of frons attach muscles of face functions of superior and inferior temporal line attach temporalis muscles that closes the mouth functions of mastoid process muscle attachment to rotate and extend head functions of styloid process attach tendons and ligaments of hyoid, pharynx and tongue articulations of ethmoid bone (9) frontal, sphenoid, lacrimal, nasal, vomer, interior nasal conchae, maxillary, palatine bone two parts of the nasal septum perpendicular plate of the ethmoid and vomer functions of the sphenoid bone unites cranium and facial bones, strengthens side of skull has sphenoidal sinuses functions of pterygoid process attach muscles that move lower jaw and soft palate functions of foramen rotundum blood vessels and nerves to face functions of foramen ovale and foramen spinosum supply blood vessel and nerves to the face head and jaw function of the anterior nasal spine attaches cartilaginous nasal septum location and functions of inferior orbital fissure between maxilla and sphenoid for cranial nerves and blood vessels functions of infraorbital foramen sensory nerve to the brain via the foramen rotundum articulations of the inferior nasal conchae ethmoid, maxillae, palatine, lacrimal articulations of the lacrimal bones (3) frontal, maxillae, ethmoid articulations of the zygomatic sphenoid, frontal, temporal and maxillae functions of the coronoid process of the mandible insertion point for the temporalis muscle that closes the jaw functions of submandibular fossa depression for submandibular gland functions for the angle of the mandible attachment site for the masseter muscle functions of mylohyoid line origin for mylohyoid muscle articulations for the hyoid lesser horns connect with the styloid process of temporal bone when does our sacral vertebrae fuse? between puberty and 2530 years old why are ribs 810 false ribs? They fuse together and merge with the cartilage before it reaches the sternum Why are 1112 floating ribs? (also false ribs) They do not articulate with the sternum at all, just the vertebrae and back muscles what articulates with the acromion of the scapula? clavicle functions of the medial and lateral epicondyles of the humerus site for muscle attachment What does the condyle of the humerus do? Which parts articulate with what? articulate with radius and ulna, trochlea articulates with the olecranon fossa and coronoid process of ulna, and the capitulum articulates with the radial fossa on the radius functions of the styloid process of the radius stabilize wrist joint functions of the radial tuberosity attaches the biceps brachii What happens when the elbow is extended? olecranon enters the olecranon fossa what happens when the elbow is flexed? coronoid process enters the coronoid fossa where does the femoral head articulate with? The acetabulum and fovea capitis what does the linea apera do? ridge on shaft, attaches to hip muscles and joins epicondyles what two parts attach to the patellar ligament? the apex of the patellar and the tibial tuberosity where does the pectoral girdle connect to the axial skeleton? only by the manubrium of the sternum what is the radial notch on the ulna? it is where the proximal side articulates with the radius where does the radial tuberosity articulate with the biceps brachii where do the tibia and fibula articulate together? proximal vs. distal the superior tibiofibular joint on the ulna proximal the inferior articular surface on the radius distal where do the ulna and radius articulate together? proximal vs distal proximal radial notch on ulna distal ulnar notch on radius where is the subcscapular fossa located the anterior surface of the scapula what does the acromion process articulate with? clavicle where is the deltoid tuberosity located? the shaft of the humerus function of the obturator foramen formed by the pubis and ischial rami and it attaches muscles of the hip what are the seven tarsal bones talus, calcaneous, navicular, medial, intermediate, lateral cuneiform, cuboid why would the myoblasts during development retain all of their nuclei? In order to have enough mRNA for protein synthesis in the large fiber function of t tubules transmit changes in transmembrane potential, facilitates the contraction of the muscle fiber by depolarizing deep into the cell sarcoplasmic reticulum surrounds each myofibril, functions to store calcium and help transmit the AP, they form the terminal cisternae that have the Ca2+ pumps that release the calcium into the sarcomeres what happens in the latent period of a twitch? it is the delay before calcium release as action potential moves through sarcolemma what happens in the contraction period of a twitch calcium ions bind to troponin and tension begins to peak what happens in the relaxation period of a twitch Sarcoplasmic calcium levels fall and active sites are covered, tension falls tension in a single muscle fiber depends on: number of pivoting cross bridges (amount of overlap between thick and thin fibers), fibers resting length at time of stimulation, frequency of stimulation what energy is used in the muscle at rest? fatty acids are catabolized, the ATP produced is used to build energy reserves of ATP, CP and glycogen what energy is used in peak activity? most ATP is produced through glycolysis, with lactate as a byproduct what energy is used in moderate activity? glucose and fatty acids are catabolized and that ATP produced is used to power contraction How specifically does muscle hypertrophy? increase diameter of fiber, increase number of myofibrils, increase mitochondria number, myoglobin content, capillary density and glycogen reserves DOES NOT increase number of muscle fibers How does endurance training improve muscles? training fast fibers to be more like intermediate fibers, cardiovascular system improves
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