Final exam study guide
Final exam study guide Soc 100-001
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by AlliSlaten on Sunday May 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Soc 100-001 at Colorado State University taught by John R Brouillette in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 108 views. For similar materials see General Sociology in Sociology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 05/08/16
SOC 100 Final Study Guide Chapters 9-11 & 14 th There will be 60 multiple-choice questions on the final exam. As I said in class, you should view the exam as a 4 midterm, not as a comprehensive final. All of the articles posted on Canvas are excellent and you may find them very useful and interesting. However, you will be held responsible for just the three listed in the study guide below. Good luck to you. Ch. 10 Gender (Sex?) Stratification • Difference between sex and gender • Sex- biology • Gender- Socially learned expectations and behaviors associated with members if each sex • How do the sexes differ? Biological, psychological and cross-cultural evidence? • Biological- anatomical, genetic, hormonal • Men have and X and a Y chromosome, Women have two Xs • Women tend to live longer and are healthier • Psychological- uncertain how much of our identity is due to biology versus psychology • Cross cultural evidence-Arapesh, Mundugumor, Tchambuli • Define sexism. Possible areas of sexism? Evidence? • Sexism- subordination of one sex, usually female, based on the assumed superiority of the other sex • Who does the housework? • 90% of the class says that they would share it equally but females tend to do more housework than men • Approaches—functionalist, conflict, feminist • Functionalist- based on tradition, sex role differences were useful in the past and are still useful today • Current relationships will continue to help • Conflict- Power is the defining factor, sex roles reflect a conflict of interest between men and women and will change if and when women gain more economic power • Men have more power and want to keep it • Feminist- conflict oriented, demand for equality • I’m Glad I’m a Boy, I’m Glad I’m a Girl • Children’s book that shows very stereotypical gender roles Ch. 9 Global Stratification • Relative vs. absolute poverty • Relative- the deprivation of some people in relation to those with more • Absolute- a deprivation of resources that is life threatening or inability to afford minimum standards of food, clothing, shelter, and health • Which are the rich countries? Poor ones? What’s happened to the gap between the rich and poor countries over the past 100 years? • Industrial/ post- industrial countries are the richest • Worldwide- 77% of global income earned by richest 20% and 93.6% of wealth • Since 1990, the gap between the richest and the poorest has increased dramatically • Starvation • Every 2 seconds someone dies from starvation • Correlates of 3 world poverty? (i.e., explanations of global poverty (p. 292) • Inadequate technology, population growth, traditional cultural patterns, social stratification, gender inequality, global power relationship • Theories—modernization vs. dependency. What is the role of the rich nations according to each theory? • Modernization- poor countries are poor because of themselves. Specifically because of inadequate technology, population growth, and traditional cultural patterns • Dependency- rich countries are responsible because there are global power relationships and rich countries are responsible for failing states. • Who are the new colonists (i.e., neo-colonialism)? • Neo- Colonialism- new form of global relationships that involves economic exploitation by multinational corporations Ch. 11 Race and Ethnicity (Majorities/Minorities) • Definition/characteristics of minorities/majorities? • Minority- a category of people distinguished by physical or cultural traits and are socially disadvantaged • Majority- opposite of minority • Difference between prejudice and discrimination. Should we discriminate? • Prejudice- a negative attitude based on faulty generalizations about minorities (pre judging) • Discrimination- any action that involves treating various categories of people unequally • Forms of majority/minority relationships (i.e.,A+B+C=) • Pluralism-A+B+C=A+B+C • Assimilation-A+B+C=A • Melting Pot-A+B+C=D • Segregation-A+B+C=A/B/C • Genocide/ Deportation- A+B+C=A(B and C gone) • Institutional discrimination • Unintended discrimination; it’s build into the normal operation of society • Majorities are often bind to this discrimination because it doesn’t disadvantage them • Article on Canvas, “White Privilege” • What are microaggressions? • Way in which certain groups of people can be disadvantaged. Unintended discriminating comments or gestures • In what important way are the elderly NOT a minority? • They are least likely to be in poverty • Theories of aging. Which is best for society? Which one do the aged prefer? • Disengagement (functionalist)- idea that society enhances its orderly operation by disengaging people from positions of responsibility as they reach old age. Elderly do not agree • Activity theory (symbolic interactionist)- idea that higher level of activity enhances personal satisfaction in old age. Elderly support this theory • Conflict- as people grow older their power tends to diminish unless they are able to maintain wealth • Myths of aging. • NOT TRUE • Elderly are dangerous drivers • Elderly are inefficient employees • They are not politically active ( ages 18-22 are least active) • Elderly are always sick • Always live in nursing homes Ch. 14 Education and Medicine • Define institution. Why are institutions important? • Institutions- everything it takes to meet the major needs of society • They are important because they provide basic social needs • Two differing views: functionalists and conflict approaches (we will spell out in detail the case made for the conflict theorist—cultural capital, tracking, hidden curriculum, . . .) • Functionalist- focus is the sick role, the physician’s role, teach the culture • Conflict- focus is how social inequality affects health and medicine, capitalistic societies, criticism, teach the culture and plus teach critical thinking • UCLAfreshman study • No information • What will education be like in the future? • No information • What is the purpose of the institution of health/medicine? Its relation to culture and society. • It’s purpose is to diagnose and cure illness and promote health • What is health according to the traditional medical model? According to the more recent definitions of health? • Traditional- absence of disease; not sick • Modern- state of physical, mental, and social well being. More holistic approach. • How have the causes of death changed in typical industrial societies in the past 100 years? • shifted from communicable diseases to diseases that are caused by lifestyle choices like eating habits, exercising, and day to day choices • Holistic medicine? • Involves education for lifestyle changes and self care, complementary alternatives, and conventional drugs and • surgery Tenets of holistic surgery o You are responsible for the state of your own health o Health is a state of physical, mental, and social well being, not simply the absence of disease o Mind and body are an interdependent unit; disease results when stress disrupts the balance of this unit o Most disease is at least partly a result of your own behavior, and therefore within your control o Illness provides an opportunity to learn more about yourself o Aphysician is only a guide • Who pays for medical care in capitalistic countries? Socialistic societies? • Almost all other post industrial countries have universal health care, except the United States • United Kingdom has the highest paid for my the government (84%) • United States has 53% paid for • The sick role • Functionalist perspective • People in this role are- Not responsible for their condition o o Are temporarily exempt from their normal roles/obligations o Must want to get well o Must seek competent help from the medical professionals to hasten their recovery • Inequality in the distribution of health care in the U.S. • Conflict perspective • Most uninsured people are poor but have jobs • Health/medicine in the U.S. compared to other post-industrial countries. • United States is only postindustrial country without universal health care • The medicalization of health care • Symbolic interactionist perspective • Process whereby non- medical problems become more defined and treated as illnesses and disorders • Two articles from Canvas: “Mirror, Mirror on the Wall, 2014 Update” and “Principles of Holistic Medicine” Big Ideas (from the last lecture of the semester) - Question- Modernization theory is linked to…. • Answer- Functional approach - Question- Dependency theory is linked to… • Answer- conflict approach - Question- ____ are most likely to live in poverty • Answer- NativeAmericans - Question- Having all right handed tab arm chairs in a classroom is an example of ___ discrimination • Answer- Institutional - Question- The poverty rate for people over the age of 65 in the U.S. is… Answer- Lower than the national average • - Question- What effect does industrialization in a capitalistic society have on the social standing of the elderly? • Social standing goes down unless you’re wealthy - Question- What age group is least likely to vote? • Answer- 18-21 years old - Question- Holistic Medicine embrases…. • Answer- All of the above: Education for lifestyle changes & self care, complementary alternatives, conventional drugs & surgery Vignettes Chapter 9 This vignette talks about sweatshops in a small town in Narsingdi.Afire broke out during the work day and due to the workers being fenced in, they were unable to escape the fire. 52 workers were killed that day and fires like this happen all the time. There are unsafe working conditions for these workers and they are working for less than 2 dollars an hour and $443 a month. When the owner was questioned about the incident he was more concerned with all the damage done to his work environment and how much that would cost to fix than his employees and their families. Chapter 10 Seneca Falls is a town in New York where wagons full of people arrived in 1848. Elizabeth Cady Staton led 300 women at Wesleyan Chapel in a protest for women’s rights. This included the right to vote which many people though was completely absurd. Her husband ran out of the town to show his anger and in protest of his wife’s actions. Though there are many changes since the protest the chapter explains how gender roles are still existent. Chapter 11 Agroup discussion on race and ethnicity led to a student describing himself as latino because he comes from a mixed racial heritage. Race is not clear cut black or white. Chapter 14 LisaAddison is a middle aged women who just took the step to go back to college. She said that she is ready to get an education and then go back into the food industry that she knows so well. College will help her be a manager which has a lot higher pay than her job in the industry right now.
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