GEOL 1330 Exam 4 Study Guide (Dr. Hauptvogel Spring '16)
GEOL 1330 Exam 4 Study Guide (Dr. Hauptvogel Spring '16) GEOL 1330
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julian Quesada on Sunday May 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOL 1330 at University of Houston taught by Dr. Daniel Hauptvogel in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see Physical Geology in Geoscience at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 05/08/16
GEOL 1330 EXAM 4 – STUDY GUIDE Rivers - what factors will favor infiltration of water and runoff of water? -Infiltration: Soil is porous and sandy; Rain is gentle -Runoff: Surface has steep slope; Ground is nearly saturated, Surface lacks vegetation Flooding, what is a hundred year flood? A flood that has a 1% chance of happening everyday (or happens once every hundred years) Meandering rivers, curves, water flows faster on outside of curve and slower inside of curve What affects the discharge/velocity of a river (changing gradient or shape of a channel) Rivers -River flow is driven by gravity -Water always moves from higher elevation to lower elevation -Constantly in motion -Rivers are lazy -Rivers will take the path of least resistance -Factors that affect river flow velocity include: -Gradient - Slope of the Stream -Channel Shape and Size -Discharge - amount of water flowing (volume/unit time) -Two basic types of rivers -Braided - Steep gradient and/or high sediment load -Meandering - Shallow gradient -Meandering rivers have large bends (meanders) -Erosion occurs on the outside of the bend, deposition on the inside -Mississippi River wants to abandon the lowermost 300 miles of its channel and divert to the Atchafalaya -The Atchafalaya is an off shoot of the Mississippi River and is an a shorter and quicker route to the Gulf -The Army Corps of Engineers constructed a massive dam to prevent this from happening -Confining the Mississippi River has led to vanishing wetlands across southern Louisiana because sediment is not being replaced during flooding -River flooding, natural levees, and sediment deposition -Urbanization prevents infiltration, which causes an increase in runoff -Discharge - amount and rate of water flowing in a river -ft^3/s -A 100 year flood means that a flood of that size has a 1% chance of occurring each year or happens once every 100 years Drainage basin (where drainage meets) and drainage divides ( where drainage forms) Where does most erosion in a river happen ( the headwaters) Hydrologic Cycle -Most precipitation that falls on land enters the soil (infiltration) or remains at the surface and moves downslope as runoff -Different areas of runoff that meet will form streams/rivers -Areas that provide the runoff are called drainage basins -Mississippi River drainage basin -Biggest drainage basin the US -Fed by man smaller rivers (tributaries) -Erosion of the hill slopes is the main source of fine sediment in rivers (headwaters) -Equal amounts of sediment are eroded and deposited in the zone of transportation -Sediment is deposited at the end of the river (mouth) Coastlines, know wavelength, what happens to the shoreline, or what happens when a wave enters shallow water Longshoredrift, how we know what happens to sediment What causes waves (wind driven on average, wind has to blow in one direction for a long time over one part of the ocean to form a wave) Waves -Top Hat Question -What is the net movement of water as a wave moves through the ocean? -Answer: No net movement -Ocean waves are caused by energy traveling at the ocean- atmosphere interface -Usually wind-driven -The water itself doesn’t travel forward but the wave form does -inside -Wavelength - the horizontal distance between two crests -Below a depth of 1/2 wavelength, water movement is no longer felt -Wavelength of 50ft, need to be 25ft deep to not feel the wave -If you are scuba diving in the ocean, you will not feel the effects of a storm passing on the surface -When a wave approaches the shore and the water depth is less than 1/2 the wavelength, wave behavior changes -Waves slowdown and increase in wavelength, causing waves to increase in height -Waves break when they reach a critical height -Why do we care about waves? -Waves are responsible for erosion along coastlines -The energy of waves crashing on the shore causes large quantities of sand to move along the beach or erosion of cliffs -Waves will bend (refract) if they encounter obstacles or structures -Waves become concentrated along the sides of the headland and cause erosion -Waves are weakened in the bays, allowing deposition -Longshore Drift - The net movement of waves to the coastline (angled) -Able to tell direction through deposition and erosion of beaches Know the tides What happens to the tides with configurations of the moon Physics of Tides -Tides are caused by the gravitation force of the moon and sun and the motion of the Earth -A planet orbits the sun in balance between gravity and inertia -(A) If the planet is not moving, gravity will pull it into the sun. -(B) If the planet is moving, the inertia of the planet will keep it moving in a straight line. -(C) In a stable orbit, gravity and inertia together cause the planet to travel in a fixed path -Centripetal (gravity) and centrifugal forced between Earth- Moon-Sun responsible for tides -Spring tide - higher high tide, lower low tide (when earth, sun and moon align) -Neap tides - low high tides, higher low tides (when earth and moon form a right angle with the sun) Highs and Lows -Tides are influenced by many factors, including shape of the coastline, configuration, -Semidiurnal tide - occurs twice in a lunar day (two high tides and two low tides each day, 4 total tides) -Diurnal tides - occur once each day (one high tide and one low tide each day , 2 total tides) -Mixed tides - describe a tidal pattern of significantly different heights through the cycle Barrier islands, sand spits etc (What are they) Coasts -Erosional Coasts are typically rugged and irregular -Steep slopes, cliffs, arches -Depositional coasts have spits, bars, barrier islands -Barrier Islands - islands that protect the mainland from wave action and storms -Can start as spits or large sand deposits during storms -Found along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts -Why aren't barrier islands found along the west coast? -The west coast has a subduction zone and the San Andreas Fault, it is too tectonically active -A spit or sandspit is a deposition bar or beach landform found off coasts. It develops in places where re-entrance occurs, such as at a cove's headlands, by the process of longshore drift and longshore currents. The drift occurs due to waves meeting the beach at an oblique angle, moving sediment down the beach in a zigzag pattern. Beach Intervention -Beach stabilization through jetties, groins, walls, and nourishment -Jetties: Main made structures that jet out into the ocean protect inlets from closing -Side of jetty facing longshore drift gets a large deposition of sand. On the opposite side, down current, the waves erode the beach and the sand is not replenished -Groin: Smaller versions of jetties -Sea Walls: Lose the beach during high tide, cause erosion in parts of beach not protected by wall. Protects land well against waves and hurricanes but not beaches. -Beach Nourishment: Take sand from elsewhere and deposit it where it is needed Greenhouse gasses Atmosphere -Earth's energy balance should be in equilibrium -Energy in = energy out -Greenhouse gasses - (Carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, others) in the atmosphere absorb outdoing radiation emitted by earth's surface and re-radiate it back down -Greenhouse effect -Without the greenhouse effect, average temperatures on Earth would be -18*C (0*F) instead of a comfortable 15*C (58*F) -Greenhouse gasses make up a small percent of the atmosphere -What happens if the amount of GHGs in the atmosphere increase? -More energy becomes trapped by the Earth's atmosphere, effectively warming the planet Know natural causes of climate change Climate Change -Natural Causes of Climate Change: -Plate Tectonics -uplift of mountain ranges take CO2 out of the atmosphere -Volcanoes -ash clouds can block out the sun and lower the temp, the CO2 released can create more greenhouse gasses -Solar variability -Earth's Orbital patterns -Others Earth's orbital patterns 3 diff ways earth's patterns can change Earth's Orbital Patterns -Eccentricity - shape of orbit, 100000yr cycle, changes from nearly circular to more elliptical and then back again. -Obliquity - Tilt of Earth's axis, Earth's axis of rotation is currently titled 23.5 degrees to the plan of Earth's orbit. -Precession - wobble about the axis, Earth's axis wobbles like a spinning top. What is el nino (Warm water accumulates on the eastern side of the pacific) -an irregularly occurring and complex series of climatic changes affecting the equatorial Pacific region and beyond every few years, characterized by the appearance of unusually warm, nutrient-poor water off northern Peru and Ecuador, typically in late December.
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