***Make sure to study quizzes 4 and 5 along with the below information***
Define Analogous Social Injury (Harm cause by acts or conditions that are legal but produce consequences similar to those produced by illegal act. – lawmaking is a political process where money and power matter, civil cases are just monetary, corporations are the offenders.)
What is the current sentencing disparity for crack v. powder cocaine? (The Fair Sentencing Act of 2010 did not eliminate the disparity but reduced the 100:1 disparity to 18:1)
What are the 3 approaches to gender equality according to feminism? (1. The sameness perspective: equal treatment/gender neutral-vocational education in prisons 2. the difference perspective: different treatment of women and men- understand differences between sexes-women can bear children 3. the dominance perspective: acknowledge that the power is not the same of women and men-justice. Ex: sexual assault- knowing the person and it being a stranger.)
Define Marxist feminism (concerned with the way the criminal justice system under capitalism serves the interests of the ruling class at the expense of the lower classes. They also view the oppression of women as an extension of the oppression of the working class)
Define Socialist feminism (Women who have been oppressed of economic status and class)
Define Radical feminism (Female victims of sexual assault and domestic violence – abortion and reproduction technologies fall in this category; they should be in charge of their decisions with their body)
Define Postmodern feminism (questions both the essentialism of other feminists and the absolutism of truth; context in dominant construct – skeptical and affirmative)
What is truth in sentencing? (federal laws broken by offender have to serve 85% of their sentence)
Do large fines deter corporations from future wrong doing? What does this mean? (No. The fine they usually pay is way smaller compared to the money lost. These punishments are actually petty)
If you want to learn more check out What are the factors influencing the Consumer Decision Process?
What may be the difference in punishment between a rich victim and a poor victim? (The case isn’t seriously prosecuted, they also do not sought to avenge death. This tells the poor that they are expendable but their lives are not worth killing for)
How much more likely are blacks to serve prison time in their life compares to whites? (5 times more likely to serve a sentence)
What is the ration of black males that are disenfranchised from voting? (1 in 8 African American males are affected in loss of voting)
What does the text say about the focus on racial pattern of wrongful convictions? (There is more focus on innocence projects than on racial pattern of wrongful convictions. Even though the focus should be the other way around)
What are examples of negative prison experiences for women? (They are separated from their families and especially their children, also they have scarcity of resources: lack of work programs, vocational curriculum, and health services, they also experience sexual harassment and abuse from staff, and fewer distinctions or classifications of custody and security levels) If you want to learn more check out Why was Shostakovich important?
What did the New York prison study find? (68% reported prior victimization before the age 12)
Define the 5 rationales for punishment (1. Retribution: revenge-emotional, paying somebody back, just deserts-punishment, death penalty-even thought it does not deter homicide, people just want revenge, “eye for an eye” 2. Deterrence: understanding that individual has something to lose from committing crime, a. specific: affects individual b. general: affects of happening to somebody else and society 3. Rehabilitation: education, treatments-substance abuse, anger management issues 4. Incapacitation: locking people up, doesn’t exactly eliminate crime, makes the free society safer a. collective: incarcerate regardless of prior criminal activity b. selective: incarcerate based on prior criminal history 5. Retribution: victim compensation programming, reintegration, restorative justice-native americans)
What did Brown v. Palta do according to the text? (released 37,000 inmates in order to bring the system down to 137.5% of capacity and remedy conditions that the court found are causing “needless suffering and death”)
What are the 4 underlying factors for minority overrepresentation? (1. Juvenile Justice System: dmc: disproportionate minority contact; law enforcement focus on low income neighborhoods 2. Socio Economic Conditions: low income jobs, when industrials jobs closed down people have to find other kind of jobs 3. Educational System: lack of resources - funding, teachers 4. Family “social environment”: most important, decision making *these 4 factors become circular)
What are some examples for invisible punishments? (denied public housing, student loans, lose right to vote, can’t get licenses for work, etc.)Don't forget about the age old question of What are the psychographic variables?
What did the CIA do in 1990, according to the text? (Sent one ton (907,000) grams of cocaine into the US, which was sold on the streets)
What was the purpose of the Chinese Exclusionary Act of 1882? (did not let Chinese people use opium in contrast to white people) Don't forget about the age old question of What does finance do?
What are Safe Haven Laws? (for individuals who have kids but do not want the child and they give them to certain places (fire department) so they don’t have to go through the adoption process-it will not be a crime of neglect)
What are habitual offender laws? (enhancing prison terms for repeat felony offenders/someone who keeps committing crime, they do not apply to corporate entities. If you want to learn more check out What are the 3 most common urban layouts and shapes?
What is the most common punishment for white collar crime? (5 to 10 year sentences or those who plead, received fewer than 5)
Define initial appearance (process where person has been read their rights and their charges)
Define Probable cause hearing (if convicted of a felony, this is where it is determined if there is enough evidence for case and also a bail amount) If you want to learn more check out Post decision Dissonance refers to what?
What is a plea bargain? (an agreement in a criminal case between the prosecutor and the defendant. It usually involves the defendant’s to plead guilty so they can get a lesser or reduced sentence)
What were the results of the New Jersey Turnpike Study? (demonstrated racial profiling: study of vehicles showed that African American motorists with out of state plates accounted for fewer than 5% of the vehicles but 80% of the stops. In Illinois Hispanics made up less than 8% of the populations and took fewer than 3% of the personal vehicle trips, but they made up approximately 30% of the motorists stopped for discretionary traffic violations. Lastly in Maryland, 93.3% were violating traffic laws: 17.5 were black, 74.7% were white, but 72.9% of the vehicles stopped were black.)
What happened in Yick Wo v. Hopkins (dealt with the equal protection challenge that the first case did not deal with- saying that the stops made by the police were validated)
What are some examples as to why minorities are distrusting of police? (History of excessive force, racial profiling, historical court –people rushed through system –innocence project)