Sociology final exam study guide
Sociology final exam study guide 01:920:101
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rachel on Sunday May 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 01:920:101 at Rutgers University taught by Kristen Springer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at Rutgers University.
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Date Created: 05/08/16
SPECIFIC CONCEPTS/TOPICS: Violence Prevention * Prevalence of women being raped in their lifetime o Nearly 1 in 5 Women (19.3%) have been raped o Nearly 1 in 59 Men (1.7%) have been raped o 1.9 million were raped during the year preceding the survey * definition of abuse A pattern of controlling or coercive behavior by one individual to maintain power and control over another in an intimate relationship o Includes physical, emotional, sexual, and verbal abuse. o Includes the use of intimidation, threats and isolating behaviors * power and control wheel * cycle of violence - 3 phases 1. Tension building: Stress builds from the pressures of daily life, like conflict over children, marital issues, misunderstandings, or other family conflicts. It also builds as the result of illness, legal or financial problems, unemployment, or catastrophic events, like floods, rape or war. During this period, the abuser feels ignored, threatened, annoyed or wronged. 2. Abusive incident: Characterized by outbursts of violent, abusive incidents which may be preceded by verbal abuse and include psychological abuse. During this stage the abuser attempts to dominate his/her partner (survivor) with the use of domestic violence. 3. Honeymoon(usually happens first) /Recapture: The perpetrator may begin to feel remorse, guilty feelings, or fear that their partner will leave or call the police. The victim feels pain, fear, humiliation, disrespect, confusion, and may mistakenly feel responsible. Characterized by affection, apology, or, alternatively, ignoring the incident, this phase marks an apparent end of violence, with assurances that it will never happen again, or that the abuser will do his or her best to change. * when violence becomes greatest - Violence becomes greatest when the victim is in process of leaving the relationship (separation violence) Families * Sociological definitions of family A group of people related by ancestry, marriage, or adoption, who form a cooperative economic unit and care for the young and each other. Members consider their identity to be closely attached the group, and are committed to maintaining the group over time. A social institution. Reflects persistent subgroup inequalities. Influenced by other social institutions, including economy, law, and education. Changing family patterns and forms “emerge in response to social conditions…and in turn, shape the future direction of society.” o Structural and cultural influences * Kinship Connections among individuals established either through marriage, through the lines of descent that connect blood relatives, (mothers, fathers, offspring, grandparents, etc.) or through adoption. * Extended vs. nuclear family Nuclear family: A family group consisting of one or two spouses, and dependent children Extended family: A family group consisting of more than two generations of relatives living either within the same household or very close to one another * Families of orientation versus families of procreation Families of origin or orientation: Families into which we are born or adopted. - Families of procreation: Families formed in adulthood in which we reproduce. * family wage system a wage that is sufficient to raise a family (Google) men = breadwinners; women = take care of home and children creates a gendered division of labor today both men and women work for pay but women work a second shift a division of labor in which the husband earns enough money to support his family and the wife remains home to do housework and childcare. Today men and women both work for pay but women work a second shift * Cohabitation: patterns and characteristics People who cohabitate have liberal attitudes and are more accepting of divorce Cohabitating affects individuals so they are more likely to divorce Cohabitating Trends: 1950s- Started with lower educated groups (economic constraints for marriage) Now considered a step before marriage or breakup Number of Americans Cohabiting, 1960-2010 * Current trends in family and household structure Dramatic increase of dual earner or single parent Dramatic decrease of breadwinner/homemaker Living Arrangement of Children Under 18, 1970-2014 shows decrease in living with two married parents and rise in living with mother only Additionally: o Median age at first marriage 1956: Men: 22.5 Women: 201. 2010: Men: 28.7 Women: 26.5 o Divorce rates Decreasing since 1980-2008 Spike in rate in 1945 Increase from 1960-1980 o Two parent farm Decreasing since 1790 o Breadwinner/ homemaker Basically increased from 1790-1960 Decreased since 1960 o Dual earner or single parent Remained constant 1790-1940 Increased since 1940 o No parent Remained relatively constant throughout o Changing family structure Living with two married parents has decreased since 1958 Living with the mother only has increased since 1958 Living with the father only has increased very slightly since 1958, still relatively constant Living with no parent has remained relatively constant However, it is still most common to live with two married parents, then mother only, then father only, then no parent * Changes in gay marriage rights Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) influenced number of states that banned gay marriage o 25 states banned same-sex marriage following the Sept 21, 1996 DOMA Before the legalization of gay marriage o 33 states where same-sex marriage was banned o 17 states where same-sex marriage was legal Legalization of Gay Marriage in June 2015 changed legal and social norms for families in the U.S. * Employment discrimination by family structure It is legal to discriminate against mothers It is legal to ask specifically about kids and deny employment based on that in PA and other states NJ laws protect against employment discrimination in many other areas o Race, creed, color, national origin, nationality, ancestry, age, sex (including pregnancy and sexual harassment, marital status, domestic partnership status, affectional or sexual orientation, atypical hereditary cellular or blood trait, genetic information liability for military service, mental or physical disability, including AIDS and HIV related illnesses From an evolutionary perspective, this shouldn’t occur: mothers are helping make sure we don’t go extinct! * Wage gap (in general and dependent on children and marital status) As percents of men’s salary: o Single Women: 90% o Married Mothers: 73% o Single Mothers: 60% o Single/Unmarried/Married Men: More than 100% Video clips “Motherhood Manifesto” about maternity leave o https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j-bKJx35el4 o https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=17x235VynTY * Parental leave in U.S. and other countries The US provides the least (0 weeks) for maternity leave Compare with the 50 weeks Canada provides, or even the 12 weeks of Mexico Sociology of the Body, Health, and Illness * Medical sociology Focuses on health care as a social institution o e.g., how health care is delivered and paid for * Social emiology epid Also known as: Social Determinants of Health Focuses on the effects of social, cultural, temporal, and regional factors on health and illness o Social/Cultural Determinants Healthcare availabilities Regional diets: local availabilities, low income communities have food deserts of low nutritional value SES Transportation: mobility Jobs: stress level, heath care coverage offered, occupational hazards o Other Determinants Air quality: work/home/play Race/gender: including stress Social support: eg family stability Science that studies the distribution and incidence of disease and illness within the population * Stress Stress of lower social status leads to changes in biological processes * Long-term impact of stress Persistent and high levels stress and low control produce lots of cortisol which is associated with o Increased risk of infection (e.g., colds) o Changes in brain structure could lead to health problems later on o Increased rate of aging o Increased wear and tear on body Being in positions lower in the hierarchy are associated with increased buildup of plaque in arteries o Increased risk of heart problems, heart attack, and death * Social determinants of health (definition and examples) * Social gradient (social ladder) * Racism and Health (specifically infant mortality by race/education) Infant mortality among white American women with a college degree or higher is about 4 deaths per thousand births. But among African American women with the same level of education, infant mortality is about 10 per thousand births, almost 3 times higher than white American women. In fact, African American mothers with a college degree have worse birth outcomes than white mothers without high school education. The reason behind the higher infant mortality rate among African American women is due to racism they face over a lifetime, and not just during the nine months of pregnancy, it increases the risk of preterm delivery. To improve birth outcomes, we must address the conditions that impact women's health not just when they become pregnant but from childhood, adolescence and into adulthood. Video: How Racism Impacts Pregnancy Outcomes How U.S. compares with other countries in terms of quality of health The United States spends more on healthcare than any other nation in the world, yet it ranks in the bottom half of industrialized countries in life expectancy. Overall, Americans’ health is worse than that of people in Japan, Sweden and France, as well as less affluent countries like Spain, Italy and Cyprus. While the richest and best-educated Americans are as healthy as their counterparts in other rich nations, poor and less-educated Americans have a life expectancy comparable to adults in many Third World countries. Global Inequality * Life expectancy in different income-level countries Low-income countries = 59 yrs. old Lower Middle Income Countries = 66 yrs. Old Upper Middle Income Countries = 73 yrs. Old High Income Countries = 80 yrs. old * globalization The increased economic, political, and social interconnectedness of the world * global inequality The systematic differences in wealth and power between countries * where the richest 1% live Most of the richest 1% of the world live in the U.S. * key aspects of world-systems theory Immanuel Wallerstein Countries are connected by the expansion of a capitalist world economy made up of core, semiperiphery, and periphery countries World market for goods and labor Division of population into economic classes International system of formal and informal political relations Division of world into three unequal economic zones o Core Made up of the most advanced industrial countries that share most of the profits of the world economic system o Periphery Made up of countries that have a marginal role in the world economy and are thus dependent on the core producing societies for their trading relationships o Semiperiphery Made up of countries that supply sources of labor and raw materials to the core industrial countries and the world economy but are not themselves fully industrialized societies Dependency theories (just in case this is asked about) Marxist theories that argue that the poverty of low-income countries stems directly from their exploitation by wealthy countries and the multinational corporations that are based in wealthy countries Colonialism Dependent development o Poor countries can still develop economically but only in ways shaped by their reliance on the wealthier countries Crime/Deviance * Norms (definition and types) Rules of conduct that specify appropriate behavior in a given range of social situations. o The dos and don’ts of society o Most aren’t written down o “Unwritten rules” Types of Norms o Folkways: conventions, customs -- standards of behavior that are socially approved but not morally significant Example: burping very loudly when you’re in another person’s home in America o Mores: norms of morality -- breaking such will offend most people of a culture Example: attending church naked o Taboos: something that a culture absolutely forbids Example: Incest o Laws: society’s guide to norms o Many of these types of norms, except taboos, are not illegal; they are just offensive * Deviance Modes of action that do not conform to the norms or values held by most members of a group or society. o Most people sometimes transgress generally accepted rules of behavior. o Examples: being on the phone in class, chewing with your mouth open, “Doing Nothing” outside on a college campus and “Driscoll Middle School Trick Play” in a football game * Sanction A mode of reward or punishment that reinforces socially expected forms of behavior o Any reaction from others that is meant to ensure that a person or group complies with a given norm o May be positive (offering of rewards for conformity) or negative (punishment for behavior that does not conform) o May be formal or informal Formal: applied by a specific group or agency to ensure that a particular set of norms is followed Informal: less organized and more spontaneous reactions to nonconformity, such as when a student’s friends teasingly accuse him of working too hard or being a nerd if he spends an evening studying rather than going to a party. * Laws Defined by governments as principles their citizens must follow; sanctions are used against people who do not conform to these principles Where there are laws there are also crimes, because crime constitutes any type of behavior that breaks a law. Guides to society’s norms * Crimes Any actions that contravene the laws established by a political authority o Examples: speeding, underage drinking * Intersection of Deviance and Crime Deviant acts- considered illegal or warranting legal grounds for intervention o Eg “nudity” and “bizarre clothing” Deviant crimes- robbery, assault, battery, rape, murder, burglary, and embezzlement o Eg “exceeding the speed limit” and “underage drinking” Intersection of both- o Eg “murder” and “sexual assault” * Anomie Lack of the usual social or ethical standards in an individual or group. in societies or individuals, a condition of instability resulting from a breakdown of standards and values or from a lack of purpose or ideals - a term introduced by Durkheim in his study on suicide (Britannica) Lack of the usual social or ethical standards in an individual or group (this is from my exam 1 study guide) * Labeling theory (definition and examples) Most widely used theory of crime and deviance Labeling theory suggests that people become “deviant” because certain labels are attached to their behavior by political authorities and other Deviants are people who have successfully been labeled as deviants by others Whether or not this act is labeled as deviant depends on the characteristics of the actor, observer, and context in which the behavior occurs. weakness: neglects the processes that lead to acts being defined as deviant; it is also unclear if labeling increases delinquent behavior * Primary deviance Actions that cause others to label one as a deviant * Secondary deviance Occurs when an individual accepts the label of deviant and acts accordingly Recitation Terms * Racial profiling (definition and explanations) Relates to article “Explaining and Eliminating Racial Profiling” by Tomaskovic-Devey and Warren about how the way society is organized as the primary cause for discrimination. The use of race or ethnicity as grounds for suspecting someone of having committed an offense. Stopping or searching cars and drivers based primarily on race, rather than any suspicion or observed violation of the law. It’s a form of discrimination enacted and organized by federal and local governments Racial profiling decreases police efficiency. * second shift Relates to article “The Second Shift: Working Parents and the Revolution at Home” by Hochschild which brings to light the struggle of parents managing full-time jobs and raising young children. In particular, she addresses how women are taking on a so-called ‘double day,’ meaning they are going to work and then coming home to do household tasks and childrearing. Not only are women typically working more hours than men, they also have less control over which tasks they do and when they do them, resulting in feeling more drained. Women had a second shift (household responsibilities that a wife and mother takes care of) at home after their normal shift at work but the second shift was not counted for in money or in recognition Family structure has changed o More single family households o More people who have been remarried o More dual earning households -- both the mother and father work o Households with arrangements other than one mother and one father Same sex couples o Women work more than they did in the past Household tasks that one parent did more than the other: (+ class data) o Mother Cook Clean Take care of the children when they’re sick/ take them to the doctor/ appointments Grocery/ clothes shopping o Father Fix something that is broken in the house Take the car to get repairs Pay bills Yard work Implications o Encourages socialization Teaches the children the apparent masculine and feminine tasks o The mother is usually seen as less favorable since she can be seen as the “nagging” one She typically has tasks that occur everyday, so she may be more naggy with the children o The father doesn’t get to spend as much time with the children Since apparent masculine tasks don’t involve interaction between the two groups o The mother doing more work may negatively impact the marriage Mother being tired, grouchy at husband Resentment develops o The second shift Mothers work a “second shift” at home o Also link it to wage gap o Link to doing gender Things that are supposed to be male/female tasks -- emphasizes this * reasons for health inequality Relates to article “Health Divide” by Berkman which emphasized the inverse relationship between low socioeconomic status and a healthy well-being. This health gap between the rich and poor impacts life expectancy, infant mortality, risk of disease, and more. Possible causes include material deprivation, exposure to toxins, social deprivation, and stress, which are all common to less affluent groups Culture: ie religious practices, regional access, how health is defined, social support available, stability of job, lifestyle habits, etc. o Types of food you eat, based on geographical location & what people of your culture typically eat o Work stress based on the expectations present in your culture Culture of the different departments at Rutgers, or your college in general Expectations of what you do in your free time Levels of stress, etc... o Family structure How much support is available to you o Ways that you deal with sickness Natural remedies Going to the doctor, etc... Race: ie stress from lack of control, discrimination, historical implications, environmental racism, etc. o Different diseases that are more common in particular races May stem from where they grew up So because of their race, they may have grown up in a certain environment that could have caused the disease Different levels of toxins Meshing of race & class o Infant mortality rates African Americans v White Women Intersectionality Being in a lower class is going to make you more likely to be exposed to toxins/ environmental pollution But also a racial element involved in this Exposure to certain toxins can contribute to issues with the fetus o Some races are more impoverished o Different levels of education o Treatment by doctors based on the patient’s race Doctors are less chatty with certain races Less comforting; more of an aloof authority figure This makes some more or less likely to trust going to the doctors Or thinking that it is even worth going o Gender: ie stress from lack of control, depression for stay-at-home moms, dieting from gender stereotypes, likelihood to go to the doctor, social support, prenatal care, etc. o Women are expected to live longer than men o Men work more, are out of the house more o Women’s emotions are more socially accepted than men More support Class: ie healthcare access, lack of fresh fruit and vegetables, stress, overworking, poor living conditions, mental illness, isolation, education, “food deserts” (both in urban low-income areas and rural areas), transportation, etc. o Life expectancy based on income o How good your health care is, which is dependent on your job o Type of food you can afford/ have access to Dollar menu Or something more healthy o Race and gender can both impact your class o Having time to prepare food If you’re not able to afford equipment to cook your food Or if you don’t have time to spend 30 minutes cooking, since you have to work or take care of your kids, it may not be a luxury that you have Stuck at whatever is most convenient o Food Deserts -- basically what you get when there aren’t really sources of fresh, wholesome food in the immediate vicinity of where you are living You may not have access to these better sources of food No car, etc... Most commonly found in: Inner cities: food options are mainly fast food places, small corner grocery stores where everything is more expensive Rural areas: where there is a low population density, so stores are spread out a lot Not as big of a deal if you have a car, but many people may not o Stress level Jobs that are lower down on the class hierarchy are often higher stress Especially in that you experience less control Wage based -- if you take off, then you have no money coming in Resources and time are stretched Lawyers & Doctors can call in sick, take off when they need it o Different exposure to environmental pollutants Flint Michigan -- depending on your income, you can get out of an area that has environmental problems that can causes health problems Can just move out and buy another home, stay in a hotel -- if you’re financially able Asthma rates Difference in air quality in different locations * free trade Relates to article “Job on the Line” by Adler about the result of globalization on the economy Open up borders for resources and companies Thought to be beneficial to both parties, but this is questionable in practice “international trade left to its natural course without tariffs, quotas, or other restrictions” (Google) * maquiladoras Relates to article “Job on the Line” by Adler about the result of globalization on the economy The foreign-owned assembly plants that combined First World engineering with Third World working conditions “manufacturing plant that imports and assembles duty-free components for export. The arrangement allows plant owners to take advantage of low-cost labour and to pay duty only on the “value added”—that is, on the value of the finished product minus the total cost of the components that had been imported to make it” (Britannica) NAFTA -- supposed to lead to better jobs, etc Facilitates systems like we saw in the video (Maquiladoras) o Jobs are better than the ones they had before, but they're still problematic o Allows corporations to move around to different countries for “better conditions” Less strict environmental requirements and lower required payment Marx and exploiting workers Better than the alternative, but it is still pretty clearly exploitative It would be nice if some values about how we are morally supposed to treat people to be factored into corporate decisions o Correct corrupt corporations
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