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Exam notes

by: Lian Joseph
Lian Joseph
Virginia Tech

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About this Document

These notes will go over the final exam.
Comparative Government and Politics
Charles Taylor
Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lian Joseph on Sunday May 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSCI 1024 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Charles Taylor in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Comparative Government and Politics in Political Science at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.


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Date Created: 05/08/16
Who Gets What, When, and How?  Interest articulation o Expressing needs and demands to the government  Protest demonstrations: o More likely the choice of the educated and the wealthy o Less likely the route of the less educated and the poor  Interest groups o Institutional  Military: has a certain of way of affecting political powers, Church: way  of stating things that will make a difference (the pope)  o Sectorial   Organization that are in existence, but not solely for the purpose of  politics; not for making public policy rather public education  o Promotional  o Anomic  Not very clear as to what it wants; how to achieve what they want   Ex: 1780 in London; Catholic relief program   Success in Competition o Resources o Skills o Access o Difficulty or interest to articulate  o Diverse membership o Mobilization of members o Coalition among groups  Efficacy o The belief that one has the power to get things done o Confidence that one can make difference in politic  Social Movement  o Informally organized, but with purpose on some issue and framing the perspective  Violence as politics o Spontaneous violence: riots o Tactical violence: coup d’etat  Dilemma for pluralist democracies o People must have freedom to further their interests  o People may injure others when they succeed   Consultation  o Pluralist o Corporatist  2/23/16 Locke’s three functions of government   A known and settled law o Somebody in charge to get the law into effect and to maintain the law   A power to execute the law  A process to adjudicate the law Presidential Model  Separation of powers (branches)  Checks to balance the powers  Independence of branches  Parliamentary Model  Fusion of power  The vote of confidence  o Not impeachment; political decision (we don’t like the policies)  o Legislature that determines whether or not the executive remains in power or not  Two choices: resign or decline the offer to resign (executive dislikes the  government)  The power of dissolution  Impeachment   Can take place in either system (parliamentary and presidential)  Is a trial for criminal offenses  o Legal matter not a political matter  Is not what is meant by responsible government Legislative control in a parliamentary system   Vote of confidence ­ when legislature no longer wishes to support the policies of the  cabinet   If successful the cabinet must resign   A new election follows unless parliament agrees on the new cabinet  Executive control in a parliamentary system   Dissolution ­ The executive can dissolve (dismiss) the legislature  A new election is called  Responsible Government  Refers to the power of the legislature to remove the executive for political reasons House of Commons  Head of State: Majesty Queen Elizabeth  Head of Government: Prime Minister Trudeau   Responsible Government   Strict “Party Discipline”  Control in a presidential system  Checks and balances   Designed to keep government from moving too rapidly   Occasionally creates deadlock Role of Legislature   Presidential: no person can serve in more than one branch at a time   Parliamentary: person are expected to serve in multiple capacities  Coalitions?   Majority party ­ no problem  Minority party ­ no united opposition ­ no problem  Minority party ­ needs a partner or partners in a coalition  2/25/16 Role of the Legislature  Presidential: the president is not responsible (accountable to the legislature)  Parliamentary: the Prime Minister and the Cabinet are responsible (accountable to the  legislature) Why is it necessary to have Head of State?  Moral, gathering people amongst other cultures   Be the symbol of unity for the country (most important aspect of Head of State) o Ex: Queen Elizabeth, German President  Presidential system: president is both the head of state and head of government Organization of the Powers  Presidential: no person can serve in more than one branch at a time  Parliamentary: persons are expected to serve in multiple capacities Coalitions?   Majority party  o no problem  Minority party o no united opposition  o no problem   Minority party o needs a partner or partners in a coalitiation  Mixed Systems  France:  o A president with real power  More concerned with national defense o A premier with real power  Establishes the cabinet  Concerned with economy, local government, education  Responsible to the president and national assembly  The President:  o Ceremonial role o Policy Role  The Premier: o Appointed by the president o Takes instructions from the president o Must have confidence of the national assembly Working together  Not a problem when the President and the National Assembly are in agreement.  When not, the Assembly can throw out the Premier, but the President gets to choose the  replacement  Cohabitation Unit II Russia  French pattern; without need for compromise  Something totally different: Switzerland   Collegial executive of seven members  o Equal power amongst the seven members  Elected by the legislature  o Upper house based upon constituents  o Lower house based upon population  But cannot be removed by the legislature  o No vote of confidence  Executive cannot dismiss the legislature Council government  Each member of the executive heads a department of government  Together they form the collective executive   The chair rotates among them each year and acts as ceremonial head of state  3/1/16 The Courts   Common Law o Used in most English speaking countries  o Grew out of judicial decisions in early England Stare decisis  To let the previous decision stand o Example: NFIB v. Sebelius   “The Affordable Care Act’s requirement that certain individuals pay a  financial penalty for not obtaining health insurance may reasonably be  characterized as tax…”  Equity  Legal decision based upon what is just and fair  o Ex: injunctions Systems of law  Common law: developed in England Code law: survived on the European continent o Organized and coded law o Created by statutes (legislature)  Ex: Code of Virginia; system of common law Civil law  Governs interactions among individuals and groups  Defines legal rights in civil relationship  Defines legal rights in civil relation this  Criminal law  Governs relationships between individuals between individuals and the state  Defines crime against the public order  “You cannot murder” Adversarial  Prosecution vs. defendant (criminal trial) o State of Florida v George Zimmerman  Plaintiff vs defendant (civil trial) o Brown v. Board of Education  Each side represented by counsel  Innocent until proven guilty  Judge as umpire  Guilt or innocence decided by jury o Ex: British criminal trials  Inquisitorial   Judges as representative of the state seek to determine the truth  Implicit assumption of guilt  Significant evidence presented by prosecutor   The accused must testify  Verdict by panel of judges


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