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by: Lian Joseph
Lian Joseph
Virginia Tech

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These notes will go over the final exam.
Comparative Government and Politics
Charles Taylor
Study Guide
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lian Joseph on Sunday May 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSCI 1024 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Charles Taylor in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Comparative Government and Politics in Political Science at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

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Date Created: 05/08/16
Authoritarianism  Authority ­ reliable, right to decide   Authoritarianism ­ unquestioned obedience required   Authoritarian personality ­ rectitude obedience to those above, domination of those below o How authoritarian are certain countries? What is making a difference to one  country to another?   Basis of legitimacy is different  A Dark Past  1652 Europeans arrive in South Africa  o Multiple Ethnicity  Many original tribes   Early Dutch settlers (Afrikaans)  Later British settlers   Even later Indian settlers  Subsequent mixed people  Boer (Dutch word for “farmers”) War, 1899­1902  Dutch settlers in Transvaal and Orange Free State  English settlers in Natal and Cape Colony   British annexation at end of war   1910 ­­ Union of South Africa as Dominion of the British Empire   Union of South Africa   Dominated by the English speakers for decades   Afrikaner National Party dominant from 1948   African National Congress banned in 1960   Apartheid Afrikaner policy   Strict separation of the races   Discriminatory legislation   Forced migration to native homelands  Enormous inequality Rising opposition  Identity politics o Notion that people have a set of values; political values closely related to  identity ;  Nelson Mandela   Potential civil war   Negotiation   1990­1993  F.W. de Klerk  A new Constitution New Regime  Multiple racial election   African National Congress majority   Several political parties, but the ANC remains dominant  3/31/16 Building State and Nation (South Africa): The New Regime  Full civil and political rights for all   The rule of law o What is going to be allowed? What is not going to be allowed?   Mending the inequities   Importance of economic growth   Protection of minorities  Legitimacy?  New regime o Black middle class support o Less support from other groups National Assembly  Assembly representing the people throughout South Africa (aka: the Lower House);  similar to the American Senate  Represents the people   National Council of Provinces: represents the districts Provinces  Limited powers  Not a federal system  Proportional representation   The whole country as a single district for lower house  Nine districts for representation from the nine provinces   Five year terms for each house  Nelson Mandela’s Presidency  Initial power sharing, guarantees o Argues for a sharing/guarantee  Find ways to keeping/maintaining justice between people but not being  overwhelmed in retribution   Rights to private property  o Socialism was not for the African government  Restraints upon radical books o Largest issue was radicals amongst blacks o How do you create a new sense of nationhood amongst people who have had  uncooperative relations with one another?  Mandela is a major influence in helping the Africans Truth and Justice Commision   Established by Nelson Mandela; Archbishop Desmond Tutu o Means of forgiveness for those people who showed repentance o To document the crimes committed by all sides of apartheid   To use the truth for healing the wounds of a dark era  Partial reconciliation The Presidency  Head of State  Chief of Government   Can be dismissed by a vote of non­confidence by the National Assembly   President Thabo Mbeki was declared unfit to serve and was removed  Cry, the Beloved Country  Jacob Zuma ­­ corrupt and incompetent  Since his election in 2009, public debt has increased from 26% to 50%  Debt almost to junk bond status   Zuma dimly aware of the situation  ANC adopted goals of open market and fiscal discipline, but Zuma has junked this  ANC social programs endangered The Constitutional Court   All eleven justices ruled that Jacob Zuma failed to uphold the Constitution and failed as  watchdog on corruption   Used 23 million dollars of public funds to build his own palace   Demanded partial repayment within 45 days Current Debate  Democratic Alliance is insisting that Zuma be removed  The ANC is divided, concerned about best option for the upcoming election  o What can the party do? 4/5/16 Democratic Goals and Authoritarian Culture: Mexico Pre­Columbian Civilizations  Temple pyramids  o Similar to Egyptian pyramids  Mathematics and astronomy o Astronomy associated with religion   Fine arts  Agriculture and engineering  Early Settlers   Small groups of hunter gatherers in the north  Larger tribes of farmers in the central area and south  Developed civilizations with urban centers for religion, politics, and commerce Major Civilizations  Olmec 2300 BCE  Teotihuacan 300 BCE ­ 150  Mayan 250­800  Toltec 700­1100  Aztec  The Spanish Arrive  Aztecs: militaristic and bureaucratic   Tribute and service demanded from conquered tribes   1519: Hernando Cortez with 200 men and a few horses  1521 returned and overthrew Aztecs Semi­autonomous colony  Religious institutions   Royal land titles for Spaniards  Haciendas with Indian labor  1810 Independence from Spain  Authoritarian Political Control:  Catholic Church is Central to Mexican identity   Foreign investment and economic modernization  Land grants o 95% of rural farm owners became landless   Liberals oppose dictatorship  Nueva Espana  Absolutist victory  Symbiosis of church and state   Hierarchy and sharp class distinctions   State direction of economy  The Northern Neighbor 1. War 1854­1848 2. Lost hall of territory 3. Defeat of French intervention Mexican Revolution  Constitution of 1917  Social and cultural movement  Socialist, nationalist, an anarchist   End of feudalism   Continuation of violence (a million deaths)  Strong, Central Military Government  Six year monarch (1992­1997 o Ex: Governors of the state Political Culture   State dominant over civil years  Little respect for inefficient government   Charismatic leaders and camarillas  Low personal and political trust  Authoritarianism and intolerance  Major conflicts  Church and state  Indians and Mestizos  Richer and poorer regions  Center and periphery  Constitution of 1917  Nationalism  o More explicit than the American Constitution   Social justice   Statism  o People having their validity in the states  Political liberalism   Military under the control of civil power  o Under the role of military  Statism   Interest groups working with the executive   State and the President as omnipotent 4/7/16 Presidential Politics in Mexico Government structure:  Executive ­ Mexico’s political structure is that of a federal presidential representative  democratic republic (The United States of Mexico).  o President of Mexico is (elected by simple majority, 6 year terms, unchecked  power, no vice president, no re­election, and appoint/dismiss cabinet officials and  almost all employees of the executive branch:   Head of State  Chief of Government   Commander in Chief   Often able to designate successor  o What if president falls vacant?  During the first two years of a sexenio  Congress designates an interim president   Must call a special presidential election to complete the term   Last four years of a sexenio   Congress designates a provisional president for the remainder of  the term   Legislative o The legislative branch consists of a bicameral congress divided into an upper  chamber, Senate, and a lower chamber (Chamber of Deputies) o Congress   Limit of one term   Committee system   Inefficient staff   Strong discipline  o Sentate   64 Senators   4 members from each state and district   1 seat to second party   6 year term   Foreign policy   Approves international agreements   Confirms presidential appointments o Chamber of Deputies   500 members   200 elected by proportional representation from large multi­ member districts  3 year term  Budget and public expenditures  o Impeachment  House of Deputies prosecutes   Senate acts as jury   Deputies elect provisional president  Executive  Mexico’s  Presidency  Elected by simple majority   6 year terms  Unchecked power  No vice president   No reelection   Appoint and dismiss cabinet officials and almost all employees of the executive branch  Legislative  The legislative branch of the Mexican government consists of a bicameral congress  divided into an upper chamber, Senate, and a lower chamber,  Legislative Branch in Mexico  Congress  The power of the congress include the right to pass laws, impose taxes, declare war,  approve the national budget, approve or reject treaties and conventions made with foreign countries, and ratify diplomatic appointments  Permanent Committee, consisting of 37 members (18 senators and 19 deputies), assumes  legislative responsibilities during congressional recesses. The president may call for  extraordinary sessions of congress to deal with important legislation.  Senate  The Senate addresses all matters concerning foreign policy, approves international  agreements, and confirms presidential appointments  64 Senators  o 4 members from each state and district  o 6 year term  Chamber of Deputies  The Chamber of Deputies, much like the United States House of Representatives,  addresses all matters pertaining to the government’s budget and public expenditures. As  in the United States, in cases of impeachment, the Chamber of Deputies has the power to  prosecute, and the Senate acts as the jury  o 500 members   200 elected by proportional representation from large multi­member  districts   300 from small single member districts   3 year term  Judicial Branch  The judicial branch of the Mexican government is divided into federal and state systems.  Mexico’s highest court is the Supreme Court of Justice, located in Mexico City  The Mexican legal system is based on Spanish civil law with some influence of the  common law tradition.  Spanish civil law is based upon strict adherence to legal codes and minimal jurisprudence o Jurisprudence: Power that each person has in the judicial branch and what kind of  decisions are they going to make depending upon different cases    Independent from president  Supreme Court of Justice   Mexico’s highest court is the Supreme Court of Justice, located in Mexico City   Power of judicial review   No use of it until recently and under the influence of political party Federal Republic (3 levels of government)  Mexico is a federation integrated by o 31 States and a Federal district   The president may dismiss a governor   But increasing federalism in practice  State Government (3 levels of government)  Mexico is divided into thirty­one states   Led by Governors, elected by majority for six year term and one term limit  Each state has its own constitution, modeled on the national charter, with the right to  legislate and levy taxes other than interstate customs duties  State legislatures are unicameral, consisting of a single Chamber of Deputies   State governments depend on Mexico City for much of their revenue, which they, in turn, funnel to municipal governments in a client­list fashion Municipalities (3 levels of government)  Municipal governments, headed by a mayor or municipal president (3 year term) and a  municipal council, are popularly elected for three year terms   Public services include: water and sewerage, street lighting, cleaning and maintenance,  public safety and traffic, supervision of slaughterhouses, and the maintenance of parks,  gardens, and cemeteries  Major Political Parties   National Action Party  o Partido Accion Nacional   Institutional Revolutionary Party  o Partido Revolucionario Partido   Party of the Democratic Revolution  o Partido de la Revolucion Democratica  Overview of Political Parties   The PRI, Mexico’s “official” party, was the country’s preeminent political organization.  The PRI ruled Mexico for 71 consecutive years but lost to PAN in 2000.  Largest political party by membership, The PRI was the party of the revolution and is  centrist  This PAN is a liberal party that favors private enterprise as a means for economic  development and democratic politics   The third party is the Party of Democratic Revolution (PRD), which favors a populist,  state­led economy that in its view would provide more justice for poorer Mexicans.  Statism   Statism means the dominance of the state  In Mexico, business leaders are closely identified with the state. State administrators and  politicians work closely with businesses to provide contracts and permits in return for  financial contributions and public support. Not surprisingly this provides opportunity for  corruption  Statism may also be a tool for reformers as well. The PRD would like to use the state to  impose the changes it desires. Political culture turns out to be more significant in  determining political behavior than formal political structures. Current President  Used by Governor State of Mexico  o After ruling for most of the past century in Mexico, the return of the Institutional  Revolutionary Party (PRI) has brought hope to those who gave the PRI another  chance and fear to those who worry about the old PRI tactics of making deals  with the cartels in exchange for relative peace


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