Exam notes PSCI 1024
Popular in Comparative Government and Politics
Popular in Political Science
This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lian Joseph on Sunday May 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSCI 1024 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Charles Taylor in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Comparative Government and Politics in Political Science at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
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Date Created: 05/08/16
From the Soviet Union to Russia Soviet Union empire Russia made up the largest portion of the territory and union Models of Authoritarianism Oppressive structures o Ex: slavery being legal Nonaccountability of elites o Controlled through votes Subversion of democratic forms o Manipulation of votes Directed participation o People are told what to do and how to do it Karl Marx Labor theory of value o Only way to produce value is by labor; no such thing as stored labor; making of services is the only value o Basic foundation between the worker Owners exploit workers MarxismLeninism Dictatorship of the proletariat o Purpose was to lead a revolution against the middle class The part as vanguard of the proletariat o Communist party is the vanguard for the proletariat Democratic centralism Discipline in the Communist Party Discussion until decision Obedience afterward Parallel Authorities A party structure for every government structure Multiple parties confuse the situation (the ideology provides the truth) Totalitarianism Independent political life eliminated Bureaucracies directed everything Results Political oppression Economic stagnation Reforms Perestroika restructuring the economy; liberalizing the economy Glasnost openness to a democracy Transition from the Communist State National identity Privatization of the economy o What are you going to do? How are you going to do it? Creation of political structures o Adopted French structures Economic Transition Two options: o Shock therapy Detrimental to the poor o Gradualism Russians Deeply alienated from politics Intensely concerned about what was going to happen Wanted democracy Wished strong leadership The Fall of the USSR The rise of Yeltsin “Negotiating” with Parliament Adaptation of the Elite? The nomenklatura continues, often as the new capitalists With some turnover Political Culture Trust and distrust Social capital Recruitment of the elite From statism to pluralism Interest groups 3/17/16 Whither Russia? 1990: o Superpower o Relative peace o Desire for democracy o Desire for capitalism o Friendly with West 2016 o Weak country o Plagued with violence o Undemocratic o Failing economy o Antagonistic to West Two kinds of Russian Conservatives Old style communists o Described as conservatives; wanted to preserve the past Traditionalists, nationalists o Committed to the notion of “Mother Russia” Both were antiprivatization; antiWestern; antidemocratic o Hierarchy; those people in charge are supposed to make decisions People then follow and fit into that plan The other side The classical liberals For market economy, not state ownership For democratization, not authoritarianism Parties of Power Designed to support a particular candidate: United Russia More interested in power than in ideology Executive President Prime Minister and government Security and defense councils Legislature the Federal Assembly Council of the Federation State Duma Judiciary The courts The procuracy o Organization of the government which examines cases; decides what the truth is and presents it to the courts; what is really going on; what is guilt/not guilt o Decision making is made here; before the decisions come to the court The constitutional court o Interpret the constitution for the Russian government Federal structure Various kinds of units o Ethnic national territories o Russian territories Represented in the national legislature Transition to Democracy? From statism to pluralism, for a while o Country’s interest = statism The rise and fall of a party system The enduring security police The bureaucratic state o How do you make a decision; how do you manage to get things done in a bureaucratic manner? The control of the media Efforts to create legitimacy Putin’s physical exhibition Development of the economy Showing power in Syria Reliance upon the Orthodox Church and historical Russia Opposition: A Dying Species? Mikhail Gorbachev Boris Yeltsin Vladimir Putin, then Putin Dmitrii Medvedev Then Putin again Manipulation of the democratic structures Dismissal of the governors From prime minister to president and back again Working the courts the trials of Mikhail Khodorkovsky Foreign Policy Intervention in Syria Support of authority Removal of bombing mission 3/22/16 Test question: What is authoritarian government and how do you get it in different forms? Beyond Capitalism Originally called Persia Persia o Arabic o A sense of community/nationality; great deal of pride for its culture o Very long history Language: Farsi Shi’ism Islam The political order and the religious order are one Politics is judged by religious principles o Not by secular principles that may have come from the enlightenment of Western Europe The Shari’a is complete Basic law of Islam Rulers do not need to make new laws Nor do they need to repeal old laws Theology of the understanding what has been given from Allah Four Main Sources of Shari’a The Qur’an the main source of law Sunnah of the Prophet (the Hadith) sayings of Mohammed Consensus of the Scholars Oiyas interpretation not clearly covered by the Qur’an or the Sunnah The latter two differ from school to school Two Branches of Islam Sunni Understanding of the caliphate that grew from Mohammed than a different Religion under the domain of the state Ulama’s work under aegis of state Shi’ite Religion skeptical state Ulama not traditionally identified with political power Iran Center of Shi’i Islam Unlikely ground for religious effort to reform the political system Shi’ite religious leaders historically outside politics Developed distinct corporate identity Became independent political force Took over state in 1979 o United States embassy was attacked by a religiously revolutionary event Brought an end to the monarchy in Iran The Ulama Clerical establishment Primarily Shi’i Not always united politically Nevertheless supportive of the current regime Political Culture Authoritarian Conspiratorial view of politics Islamic desire for egalitarianism o Easy for fundamentalists to gain legitimacy among the uma Strong sense of egalitarianism Revolt Rejection of the liberal nationalism of Mossedeq Rejection of the authoritarian development plans of the Shah Insistence on rule of the Shari’a o Ex: fundamentalism: ISIL Faqid (one specific Ayatollah): o Interpreter of Islam and the religion Organization of the state: o Six separate parts of the state Ayatollah: title; holds a position in the scholarly community Ayatollah Khomeini Divine mission to create an Islamic state A government of eternal and absolute laws A faqih, knowledgeable about Islamic laws, to rule No secular monarch needed Velayate Faqih Absolute authority derived from Allah Veto power over all political and economic decisions Morality and spirituality, not commerce and liberty Alms giving as a doctrine Theocracy State governed by divine guidance Rejection of modern civil and penal laws Reversion to the direct rule of the Shari’a The Shah’s wealth for the disinherited Political decisions Made by the ulama, ultimately by the Faqih A state within the state for religious control Armed committee as police Revolutionary guards as army Revolutionary courts to maintain Islamic order 3/34/16 Iran ∙ A complex political system o Iran’s political system combines elements of democracy and religion. Institutions controlled by the Supreme Leader are balanced by an elected president Majles o Iran’s legislation; unicameral o 290 members with four year terms, elected by the people o Must vote confidence in ministers Judiciary ∙ Supreme Court ∙ Chief Public Prosecutor ∙ Revolutionary Courts ∙ Clerical Courts ∙ Public Courts Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini ∙ Developed concept o Velayate Faqih § Faqih has absolute authority derived from Allah § Has power over all decisions § Head of armed forces § Sole power to declare war ∙ 19 Lectures ∙ First Supreme Leader of Iran ∙ Oversee all aspects of the government Assembly of Experts ∙ 86 religious scholars ∙ Elects (and dismisses) the Faqih Guardian Council ∙ 12 jurists, six are appointed by the Faqih; six elected by the Majles ∙ Must approve all legislation coming from the Majles ∙ Must agree to all candidates for the legislature Presidency ∙ Elected by universal suffrage for 4 year term with one reelection ∙ The highest state authority after the Supreme Leader ∙ Holds executive power ∙ Determines government policy ∙ Selects and dismisses ministers ∙ All presidents since the Iranian Revolution have been supporters of the regime President Khatami (19972005) ∙ Reformist President ∙ Advocate of freedom of expression, civil society, and economic liberalism ∙ Successful economic reconstruction ∙ Advocate of dialogue of civilizations ∙ Faced vivid resistance from clerics and conservatives President Ahmadinejad (20062013) ∙ Controversial figure ∙ Not a member of the Ulama ∙ Emphasizes needs of the poor ∙ Economy in a mess, highest budget deficit ∙ Supporter of the Nuclear Program ∙ Faced Iranian Green Revolution o Young people began to protest President Hassan Rouhani (2014 ) ∙ In 2013 Hassan Rouhani, leader of the Moderation and Development Party, won by a landslide ∙ Like most other Presidents he’s considered a member of the ulama ∙ Campaigned with moderate stand on domestic affairs Hardliners ∙ Want to redistribute incomes more fairly (social justice) ∙ Are obsessed with religious and social dogma and antiWesternism Conservative ∙ Favor an economic opening to the West, if it supports local business interests. Pragmatists/Reformists ∙ Want to concentrate on economic growth (called capitalism) ∙ Favor some reduction of social and economic resolutions Iran is not unidimensional ∙ Distinction between Government Politics and People’s opinion ∙ Literacy Rate ∙ Higher Education ∙ Clothing Research 3/29/16 1. What do we mean by “authoritarianism”? 1. Describes the way of governing that is typically controlled by a dictator; one’s whose personal freedoms are normally ignored 2. State of the government’s control over people’s responsibilities 3. Regardless of the constitution has a great deal of civic and political culture of a country 1. Russia: offers a lot of freedoms that aren’t necessarily supported by the government b. Politics in these three countries (Russia, Iran, and South Africa) differs enormously, but what do they have in common? i. These countries all have some type of authoritarianism of some sort; all the countries are ruled by a rather strong, influential leader that dictates the governing of its people ii. All countries are new regimes; revolutionary change iii. Not totally free country; the government limits individual’s freedoms 1. Ex: Russiacontrols media; Iranhandles foreign policy regardless of people’s wishes; South Africaapartheid, minorities b. Are there degrees of authoritarianism? i. Yes, there are different levels of authoritarianism while some degrees are more severe/influential than others ii. Countries in which the government wants to stay in power; sacrifice some control to make other countries 1. Ex: totalitarian, militant, religious rule of authoritarianism b. Can an authoritarian system be legitimate? Illustrate with examples from the three countries? i. Yes they are legitimate, though they’re not typical in the Western sense they still effectively help to function a society of a particular country ii. RussiaIf people are happy with the way the country is running then it can be legitimate
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