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by: Lian Joseph
Lian Joseph
Virginia Tech

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These notes will go over the final exam.
Comparative Government and Politics
Charles Taylor
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lian Joseph on Sunday May 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSCI 1024 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Charles Taylor in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Comparative Government and Politics in Political Science at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

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Date Created: 05/08/16
Unit III 4/14/16 Of Monarchs and Parliaments   England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland (make up the United Kingdom) Political culture, maintaining of legitimacy will differ, how are these countries different (Japan,  Germany, and Great Britain) The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland   1707: Scotland united with England   1800: United Kingdom annexes Ireland   1922: Irish Republic established   Political unification between Scotland and England  English Beginnings  THe Saxons laid the foundations of English government   Divided England into shires (counties)  Each shire was divided into areas called hundreds   Each shire was ruled by a noble named an elder man  Middle Ages  The King ruled by divine right   Warriors who fought successful wars were rewarded by the monarchy with nobility.  For legitimacy and resources, the King relied upon the rich and the church   When King John ignored feudal law to extort money, sell offices, and increase taxes, the  nobles rebelled.  In June 1215, King John was forced to sign the magna Carta in order to stop the abuses  Magna Carta  Kings could not rule arbitrarily. They had to obey English laws and customs  o King does not have final authority  Traditional rights and privileges of the church and the aristocracy to be protected   Free men could be arrested, imprisoned or dispossessed without the lawful judgement by  his peers in due process of law   The masses were ignored o Assumed that the masses were following their local aristocrats and gentry  Gradual Growth of Democratic Power  From the thirteenth century parliament o To raise money for his wars, the King called a parliament of the nobles along with two knights from each shire and two burgesses from each borough. o Many towns were given charters that granted the townspeople certain rights.  17th Century  Parliament versus the Monarch  King James I (1603­1649) was even more insistent upon control   In a Civil War, Charles was captured, found guilty of treason and beheaded o Parliament and Monarchy were at war Glorious Revolution   King James II insisted upon remaining Catholic and Britain insisted upon being  Protestant   Parliament declared the throne vacant and appointed William and Mary as joint  monarchs.   The Bill of Rights (1689) stated:  o No monarch could be Catholic or marry a Catholic could not suspend laws or levy loans or taxes without parliament’s consent   Parliament now was the ultimate authority  Supremacy of Parliament  Parliament makes the laws and determines their constitutionality  Final authority; constitutionally the case for whatever parliament says Unitary Government   A state with supreme central government   Sub­units exercise only powers granted from the center   In UK, some powers are devolved o Scottish Parliament, Assemblies in Wales and Northern Ireland Fusion of Government   The Monarch, the Prime Minister, The Cabinet, House of Commons, House of Lords (no  branches!) The Prime Minister   Most senior minister in the Cabinet; responsible for Cabinet meetings, selecting Cabinet  ministers, making governmental policies   Performs other executive functions   Leader of majority party in Commons   Increasingly like an American president  Government vs. Parliament   The Government runs the country. It has responsibility for developing and implementing  policy and for drafting laws   Parliament is the legislative authority in the UK. It has responsibility for checking the  work of government.  The political party that wins an overall majority in the House of Commons at a general  election forms the new Government and its leader becomes Prime Minister   If no party wins a majority of the seats then the largest party may form a minority  Government or there may be a coalition Government of two or more parties   The Prime Minister appoints ministers who work in the government departments, the  most senior of these sit in Cabinet.  o Members of the government are expected to perform multiple duties (judicial,  legislative, and executive)  Prime Minister, Cabinet Ministers, Junior Ministers, Majority Party, and  Opposition Party   Governmental responsibility, vote of confidence, power of dissolution  Policy Making  Initiatives from the civil service   Ministers in the Cabinet  o Loyalty among ministers and Prime Minister   Increasing role of committees Party Discipline  Whips ensure votes in Parliament for their party  o One line (be nice to vote, get along) o Two lines (Important, get there) o Three lines (If you die, vote first) Supremacy of Parliament (1688)  No judicial review   Parliament interprets constitution   Now European law; Supreme Court advises Parliament Supreme Court  More limited than highest courts in most countries   Historically House of Lords was highest court   From October 1, 2009: the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom  4/19/16 British Political Parties  Electoral System  First past the post in single member constituencies   Some proportional representation in Northern Ireland   Proportional representation for members of the European Parliament  Political Parties   Dominated by Conservative Party and Labour Party  Third largest­­The Scottish Nationalists   The Liberal Democrats come and go   Plaid Cymru o Political party in Wales; small  Northern Ireland Parties  o Democratic Unionist Party  o Social Democratic and Labour  o Ulster Unionist Party   Primarily Protestant  UK Independence Party   Green Party   And some smaller ones  Conservatism   Values old institutions   Emphasizes community  Insists on authority and hierarchy generosity toward toward disadvantaged Old Tories   For Church and Crown   For aristocracy for Gentry   For a society of ranks, orders and degrees Source of Party Ideology  From liberalism, a preference for limited government, lower taxes, limited government,  lower taxes, and private enterprise  For conservatism, an affection for old values in including authority and community. David Cameron   Civil partnerships  o Marriage legal in 2014  National Health Service  o Safe for generations to come Labour Party  Karl Marx: revolutionary overthrow   Fabian Society: gradual reform  o Changes of the system over time so you would end up with a much more  equalized society  Cooperative movement: economic cooperation  o Willingness to get together to get things done Socialism  British pragmatism too strong to allow ideology alone to determine policy  Finding solutions that benefit people o Socialism in Practice (1945­1951)  Nationalism of industry   Creation of the health service   Efforts at centrally planning  New Labour   Tony Blair  o Deletion of Clause Four  Purpose of the Labour Party was to create governor ownership of labor  Deleted from the manifesto from the Labour Party  o Alternative means to improve life   Labour in Reverse  o Jeremy Corbyn   An old style socialist   Chosen in preferential vote system   Disaster in General Election of 2015 Liberal Democratic Party  Personal liberty, protection of environment, social justice, decentralization, electoral  reform, more positive approach to European Union Scottish Nationalism   1707­­Union: Scotland and England  1999­­Scottish Parliament  Scottish National Party   Referendum for independence   Future of Nationalism? United Kingdom Independence Party   Fervently opposed to British membership in the EU  Populist­­increase social care and lower taxes   Controlling borders, reduce immigration   Patriotism first! Legitimacy   Strong support for constitution   Less support for current government   Concern about terror  4/21/16 The Parliamentary Model with Restraints: Germany  Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) o Grundgesetz (Basic Law) o Parliamentary system  o Federal system The German Past  Disunity and unification  Authoritarianism  Occupation after WWII  American zone in the south   British zone in the north  French zone along the western border   Russian zone in the east  1949: Federal Republic of Germany; German Democratic Republic   Socialist Unity Party   Soviet troops   Big Brother society   The wall  Most industrialized country in the easy   Most polluted country anywhere   Still a sense of community  1961  A wall overnight. Surrounding the western part of Berlin. Fence along the east­west  border  Right/left wing extremism   Rumor o It is said that the Stasi files, if stretched from end to end would run the length of  the Berlin Wall o So much went into collecting data that it was impossible to absorb and use all of it Life in the East:  Helping neighbors, human warmth, friendship still counts, moving at a slower pace, now  what you achieve but who you are, “Man does not live by money alone”.  o The West has money, but the East has culture o Positive: low rents, guaranteed employment, the slower work pace, the protective  state, and a sense of equality   The problem of identity: cultural, patriotic, democratic, european, place in the world,  postmodern 4/26/16 Federal Republic of Germany (since 1949)  Grundgesetz (Basic Law) o Constitution that was written in 1949; has become the basic constitution for all of  Germany  Parliamentary system with restraints   Federal system o 16 Lander (states)  The Executive   President ­ head of state elected by an electoral college  Chancellor ­ chief of government chosen by the majority coalition in the Bundestag o **know the difference between the presidential/parliamentary system for exam Cabinet (similar to that of the United States)  Chancellor Democracy   Ministers responsible to Chancellor   Composed of members from coalition parties  Responsible Government  Chancellor and cabinet accountable to the Bundestag  Constructive vote of confidence­Bundestag must choose successor when dismissing  Chancellor  o You can dismiss a government ONLY if there is another person to take place of  that position  Modified parliamentary system   Constructive vote of confidence   Bundesrat (upper house of legislature) has real power  o In charge of making decisions that have to do with federalism   Judicial review Parliament   Bundesrat (upper house) representing the Lander o Managing to get the units of federalism into the system as units o Members depend on the size of the state; not proportional (unlike the United  States)  o Representing the state meaning there are no split votes within a single state  Due to the fact that representatives there are representing the states and not the individuals o More powerful than House of Lords but weaker than the Senate   Bundestag (lower house) representing the people o Somewhat complicated voting arrangement  Federalism   Lander represented in Bundesrat   Hierarchical structure for courts and bureaucracy  Bundesrat members selected  Represent governments of the Lander  Number according to size of Lander   Vote as single unit Bundestag members elected  One half: single member constituencies   One half: party lists in Lander   5% threshold   Proportional representation and overhanging seats  o Advantages: minorities get represented more and their voices are heard o Disadvantages: difficult to make a steady government; possibility of overthrowing the government Election of the Bundestag  Half the members in single member districts   Half by proportional representation   Overhanging members Constitutional Court   Operates completely separate from the rest of the government  Judicial review  Constitutional Court: two Senates o Two can operate at the same time; more efficient   Concrete review  o If someone has a complaint about something that can legally be fixed  Abstract review o Don’t have a particular question; what if we wanted to do this; hypothetical  questions  o Court decides whether it is constitutional or not  Christian Democratic Union   Christian and humanitarian principles  o Not a church party; supported by those who believe in Christian values  Conservatively oriented  o Centrist party (towards the right)   Anti­communist  Social market o Not an anti­capitalist argument; need for balance in the social market   Always in coalition with the Christian Social Union (more conservative than the CDU) Social Democratic Party  Historically socialist   Bad Godesberg Program  o Abandoned classical socialism  Social goals without state ownership Free Democrats   The liberal tradition   Private enterprise, social programs   Opening to the East (before the Berlin wall came down)  Coalition partner to the larger parties   Failed to reach 5% threshold for representation in Bundestag in 2013 The Greens   Environmental, anti nuclear, anti military, pro women’s rights  More democratization   From radical to moderate The Party of the Left (Linke)  Successor to the Socialist Unity Party   Merger with left wing SPD supporters   Opposed to the direction of social and economic policy in the unified state   Stronger in the East than in the West  The Pirates  Civil rights, direct democracy, free sharing of information, data privacy, transparency,  free education, universal healthcare  o There’s not a lot of substance in terms of policy  o All in favor of good things, however, you have to go a little bit further   How are you going to achieve all of this? Alternativen  Opposed to membership in the European Union  Strongly opposed to immigration   Increasingly far right wing political party  4­28­16 Importing Parliamentary Government: Japan  Tokugawa Period (1603 AD­1867 AD) o Shogun (great general)  Became the rulers of the country o Emperor (without real power)  Faded into the background; very little power; more of a symbol than  anything else  o Samurai (feudal lords and warriors)  Helpers for running the country o (Peasants, artisans, merchants (Confucian classes)  Represents the rest of the people in society Meiji Restoration 1868  Reinvigoration of the society   Industrialization  Allied occupation  Stability   Democratization   New role for the emperor  New Constitution   Guaranteed civil liberties   Emperor no longer a god  People became sovereign   Women received the right to vote But old values remain: harmony, deference (pay attention to your superiors; traditional attitude;  allegiance), loyalty (how do you manage of being very loyal to your community), and lastly  community (how do we all get along with one another Tile to tradition   Emperor as a symbol Bureaucracy  For control  For building industry   For managing the economy  Absence of laissez­faire Economic individualism never caught on in Japan  Government intervention in the economy ­ a long tradition   Business and government cooperate to assure economic growtn Yet:  Democratic institutions   Competitive elections   Free press Legitimacy of Democratic Institutions  In spite of public criticism toward politicians and parties   Valued placed on democracy and the Constitution The Institutions   National Diet­­”supreme organ of state power”   Prime Minister and Cabinet­­the executive   Court with judicial review­­not often used  o Germany’s supreme court has a lot of decisions and influence on  society/constitutionality compared to Japan’s Diet (bicameral system; not a federal system)  House of Representatives  o Basic house in the parliament; place where government can be overthrown   House of Councilors  A Parliamentary System  Cabinet must retain confidence of the Diet  Election can be called at any time, but at least within four years   High party discipline  Policy Making  Primarily within the Cabinet and the bureaucracy  o Most of the initiative of foreign policy come from the bureaucracy o Implementation of those ideas come from the bureaucracy  Diet is an arena for debate between the Government and the Opposition    Competitive Politics   Factions within LDP o Factions are built around particular leaders  o LDP: not a party of ideology more about party of power  Rotation of leadership Supreme Court  Judicial Review  o With significant restraint 5/3/16 Review Session: 104A Surge from 4­5 pm ⅕ from the first, ⅕ from the second, ⅕ on third section, and ⅖ on the last section The Evolution of Japan’s Political System  The Liberal Democratic Party (LDP)  Dominant party until 1993  Strong LDP­Bureaucracy tie   Strong government­business ties  Liberal­Democratic Party Values   Support for Japanese­American military alliance   From the far right who wanted to rearm Japan totally   To moderate liberals, less sure of rearmament and more interested in social welfare  o Not a party that was highly unified with ideas instead it was a party that was  always unified by winning elections   More interested in welfare and developing life in Japan’s society  LDP Pragmatism   A “Catch­All” party with mix of views   After 1960, Focus on Economic Growth and moderate social welfare   Supported by farmers, and big and small business interests Several Opposition Parties   Unable to find common ground   Supported the democratic Constitution, especially the pacifist provision  But diverse positions on alliance with the United States, preventing them from  cooperating­­intense conflict in 1960s   Support from labor, urban, and suburban areas In the early 1990s   Internal conflict with the LDP over reform in the electoral system  o Younger members were rebelling  A general election followed o 1993: first time for a vote of non confidence  In 1993:  LDP lost majority for the first time  New electoral system in 1994 o Combination of single member districts and proportional representation  o Replaced multi­member districts   For the constituents, not for proportional representation  Post­1993 Party System   Many coalition governments   New Frontier Party with six other parties   By 1994, parties in coalition with LDP   Frequent party reorganization and realignment   2009­2012 Democratic Party of Japan  o Like LDP, a catch all party   Return to the LDP leadership in 2012 o From dominant party system to two party system?  The LDP vs other political parties  Since 2012  Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, grandson of a former Prime Minister  Liberal Democratic Party with strong majority in House of Representatives   Nevertheless, Coalition with the Komeito party   Focus on economic recovery Trends  Debate on revision of the Constitution   Bureaucracy is weaker  Economic deregulation under former Prime Minister   Some decentralization of government   Increased role for civil society and local governments  Japanese political culture has been changing over the last 20 years  Defense  Growing perception of threat from North Korea and China   Steady expansion in Japan’s international security role   Growth of defense capabilities 


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