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Final Study Guide for 5/10/16

by: Lauren

Final Study Guide for 5/10/16 PSY 100-005

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Study guide for final exam
General Psychology
Hillary Wehe
Study Guide
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauren on Sunday May 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 100-005 at Colorado State University taught by Hillary Wehe in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 81 views.


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Date Created: 05/08/16
Final Exam Study Guide: Thinking and Language: How does our mind quickly solve problems?  Through heuristics= Representative heuristics  Heuristics are “prototypes” that our mind creates  These prototypes represent the best example of a category/situation that we have in our mind  Ex: Which one is a random coin flip? HHTTHTHTHHT or HHHHHHHHH  BOTH are random, but we assume that the first is random because it’s the prototype we create in our mind  Through categorizing people or through categorizing situations  Our mind likes to sort things through categories  Example of this is stereotyping  Availability heuristic = estimating the likelihood based on ease of recall  Ex: If you were asked to recall words that begin with a “K” vs. words that have “K” as the third letter, it would be easier to remember words that start with a “K”= ease of recall  Mental Fixation limits our thinking  Tunnel Visioning  It is important to overcome functional fixedness and think outside the box What is Language?  Spoken, written, and signed symbols that are combined in a way that communicates meaning  Purpose= to transfer info from one mind to another How do we learn language?  Noam Chomsky  Said that language is innate  Ex: Children can say things that they have never heard before— such as “I hitted the ball” or “We goed home”these sentences were not taught to them  Idea of a universal grammar structure, readily learned  B.F Skinner = behaviorist approach  We learn language through operant conditioning: associationimitationreinforcement Language in the Brain  Lateralization  Language is activated in the left hemisphere  Right hemisphere picks up emotional tune and humor  Broca’s Area= manages motor movement to produce speech  Wernicke’s area= for speech comprehension  Aphasia= difficulty communicating due to damage in speech areas of the brain  Broca’s aphasia= patients can comprehend what they are saying, but have trouble physically speaking  Wernicke’s aphasia=patients can speak but cannot comprehend what they are saying—“Word salad” Personality: Psychodynamic perspective  Freud’s conscious mind vs. subconscious mind  ID, Ego, and Superego  ID= “devil” on your shoulder telling you what you want to do  Ego= decides between ID and Superego, or “devil and angel”  Superego= “angel” on shoulder, is your moral side, tells you what your ideals are  Defense mechanisms—the ego works to protect itself  Repression—hiding information from the ego and pushing it below the surface (to protect itself) Personality Development  Freud’s Psychosexual stages  Have to conquer one stage to move on to the next stage 1) Oral Stage (0-18 months)  Time of pleasure seeking and exploring  Ego is developing  Finding a balance between what they can and cannot have  Oral Fixation: If this stage is not passed  Nail biting, chewing on pens, smoking 2) Anal Stage (18-36 months)  Seeking control  Ego has developed in this stage  Struggle in coping with the ID  Potty training= first start to adhere to societies rules  Anal Retentiveness: Did not pass stage, too strict of a home environment results in a sarcastic or very controlling personality  Anal expulsive: too lax of a home environment, results in a person with overly liberal emotions 3) Phallic Stage (3-6 years)  Noticing gender differences  Superego emerges  Start to notice the opposite sex is different  Oedipus/Electra complex: develop crush on opposite sex parent, in order to pass this stage this conflict needs to be resolved  Conflicts unresolved: castration/penis envy, or a fixation of mother/father so your lovers represent your parents 4) Latency (6-puberty)  Stability begins 5) Genital Stage (puberty-on)  Maturity/ start to develop relationships Uncovering your hidden personality:  Freud and psychoanalysis (1890s)  Hypnosis begins  Idea of a “talking cure”  Trying to help with defensive mechanisms and projection by making the ID “feel safe”  Catharsis= the process of releasing strong or repressed emotions  Projective tests:  Structured psychoanalysis  Purpose is to tab into perceptual representations  Rorschach Ink Blot Test  Thematic Apperception Test (1930s)  Validity: Lots of room for error, everyone interprets things differently, can only ever be 82% accurate Determining Personality Traits:  Psychoanalytic approach: says that development and the unconscious determines personality  Personality traits: characteristic patterns of behavior, dispositions, actions, and feelings  Idea that consistent reoccurrence of traits determine personality  Minimum number of traits you can use to describe someone?  Eysenck—2 traits?  Introversion vs. extroversion  Stability vs. instability  Big Five Personality traits  C.A.N.O.E  C= Conscientiousness, responsibility, dependability  Life outcomes: academic success, positive health  Balance: organization in the work place  Low: absenteeism, drug use  A= Agreeableness, warmth, likeability  Balance: good relationships  Low: high earning leadership  Too high: chronic stress  N=Neuroticism  Too high: work burnout, high stress, pessimistic  Low: higher happiness, more confident  Balance with conscientiousness: good health  O=Openness, individualistic, down to earth  High: curiosity, artistic, good learner  Low: prefer familiarity, very traditional  E=Extraversion, social, outgoing, assertive  Balance: Leaders  High: higher self-reported happiness  Low: struggle with academics Social Thinking: Self-serving bias  We believe that our own outcomes will be better than others  We view ourselves/ our skills as “better” Fundamental Attribution Error  When we make an error: situational/context is highlighted, we make excuses for ourselves  When others make an error: we blame their personality, and are more quick to tear down their personality Obedience:  Stanley Milgram:  If someone is putting pressure on you to do something, you will do it  How much control do we really have?  We will overcome our good nature if we think that it is for the greater good The Wisdom of Crowds  Francis Galton  Researched the benefits of listening to others—as a group, people can be more accurate  Conformity can be a good thing—makes us follow rules and regulations Positive Benefits of Social Groups  We naturally want to be around others—it helps with emotional stability  Ex: Solitary confinement increases anxiety and depression  If we have an increased rate of anxiety, we want to be around others more Conformity  Mimicry is learning  Our feelings can mimic others  Explains empathy  “gut reactions”  A sense of belonging= higher warmth, is more comforting Aspects of Conformity  Conformity is not always a good thing—we naturally trust the group but the group can be wrong Psychology at Work:  Hawthorne Effect: People will change their behavior if they are being monitored  Industrial/ organizational psychology  Personnel (industrial) psychology  Organizational Psychology  Human factors psychology Social Relations: Prejudice= Attitude  A negative attitude towards a social group and its members based solely on group membership  Involves stereotypes beliefs, a predisposition to discriminate, and negative feelings Stereotype: Cognition  A representative heuristic  We use heuristics to be quick and make decisions, can lead to errors  Limited exposure can influence out stereotypes because information can be limited Discrimination: Behavior  The manifestation of negative thoughts  Involves treating someone differently Roots of Prejudice:  In-group= the group you identify with and are loyal to, creates a sense of belonging  Out-group= the “others”, creates an out-group bias which can create negative predispositions  In-group bias= the tendency to favor one’s own group  Ex: favoring CSU vs. CU  Out-group homogeneity effect and own-race bias:  Underestimating own-group differences  Relate more to your own group What attracts us to others?  Pro-social relations  Proximity principle:  The idea that the close you are to someone, the more you will like them and treat them favorably  We want positive environments  We weigh rewards vs. costs  Proximity in the digital age and relationships:  Common social circles= prior cohesion  Online matches= more favorable associations with online chatting  Proximity: the mere exposure effect  The more you see someone, the more likely you are to like them  Ex: likeability for other students increases the more classes you have with them  Physical attractiveness:  Physical traits that make people “more attractive” = facial similarity, facial symmetry, and jaw lines  Equality: looking at long-term potential, and similar goals in life Helping Others:  Sometimes too much trust is negligent  “Geneovese Syndrome” = the thought that there will be someone else to help, so you don’t help  Bystander effect: inverse relationship between the number of bystanders and the likelihood that someone will help Psychological Disorders: Psychological Disorders:  Dysfunctional  Maladaptive—interferes with ability to function  Distressing The Medical Approach:  Philippe Pinel  Started “moral treatment” of people with psychological disorders Biomedical Approach:  Everything psychological is biological (you can treat psychological problems physically) Bio-psycho-social  If it is all biological, it would be difficult to explain the placebo effect  Why do placebo effects still show results?  Integrated view  Biological factors psychological factors social factors How we diagnose psychological disorders?  DSM-V  Lists all common symptoms  Generally accepted treatments  Gives info as to how far along the disorder is Affective Mood Disorder  Emotional Extremes  2 types: major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder Major Depressive Disorder:  2 or more weeks of depressed moods  Effects 350 million people  Symptoms:  Significant weight loss  Change in sleep—hypersomnia or insomnia  Lethargy/fatigue  Feelings of worthlessness or guilt  Thoughts of death or suicide  Problems thinking/concentration Bipolar disorder:  Effects 2-5 million people  Equal rates with males and females  Onset=early 20s  Depression followed by maniafrantic, energized, impulsive, lasts 1+ weeks  Each mood change is drastic  Biological implications Anxiety Disorders  Cognitive and physical elements  “free floating” anxiety—cant narrow down what is triggering the anxiety  More common in women  Phobia= a fear in response to something very specific—consumes people’s lives Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: (OCD)  Anxiety disorder  More common in males  Two parts:  Obsessions=repetitive thoughts  Compulsions=repetitive actions  Effects 2-3 million people  Is excessive, time consuming, and distressful Schizophrenia:  Marked by psychosis= loss of contact with reality  Symptoms: Positive (increases in)  Hallucinations  Delusions  Thought disorders  Movement disorders  Word salad  Negative symptoms  Apathy  Amotivation—no motivation  Neglect  Alogia—they stop speaking  *changes over time positive symptoms early on but can switch to negative symptoms  Types:  Paranoid schizophrenia—paranoid allusions  Catatonic—disturbance in motor movement  Undifferentiated—neither paranoia or catatonia are prevalent  Schizoaffective—mood disorder + other types of psychosis  Causes:  Genetic= 50% Fragmented thinking, disordered cognitive thinking, structural brain differences  Dopamine hypothesis—too much dopamine in brain  Environmental—stress, virus exposure, toxoplasmosis Dissociative Disorders:  Identity or “fugue” (can’t remember your identity)  Controversial  Multiple personality disorder Therapy:  Psychotherapy, behavioral therapy, cognitive therapy (teaching more adaptive ways of thinking)  Biomedical therapy  Behavioral therapy: focuses on classical and operant conditioning techniques= “counter-conditioning”  Exposure therapy: increasing exposure to anxiety provoking situations  Token therapy: operant conditioning, modification through rewards/points----Ethical??  Cognitive-behavioral-therapy: embraces the most effective aspects of both cognitive and behavioral therapies Other Disorders: Personality disorders: chronic, patterns of behavior, not distressing to the individual Anxiety Clusters: 1) Avoidant personality disorder  Isolation and mistrust  1-2% prevalence  Goes with OCD  Social inhibition  Sensitive of critique 2) Obsessive compulsive personality disorder  Excel in work environment  Different than OCD Dramatic or Erratic Clusters: Problem in emotion regulation 1) Narcissistic personality  Grandiose, needs admiration, strong sense of entitlement  More common in men 2) Antisocial personality disorder  Often associated with serial killers  Marked by: disregard for others, excessive lying, impulsiveness, aggression  Can change over time 3) Sociopathy and psychopathy  Sociopathy considered less severe  Affective/interpersonal factors: Negatively correlated with more success (less empathy=more success)  Manipulative  Antisocial behavior DO people with ASPD Feel emotions??  Psychopaths don’t show activation of pain or empathy Is Psychopathy a bad thing?  Prisoners dilemma: best interest is to cooperate, have to be willing to trust and get equal payoff  Business: 4% of CEO’s have higher rates or psychopathy  Leadership: EX Charles Manson Genetic Predisposition:  X-Linked?  Smaller frontal lobes  Lowered activity in: Frontal lobes, amygdala, and autonomic system  Stressful or traumatic childhood events


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