Final Study Guide for 5/10/16
Final Study Guide for 5/10/16 PSY 100-005
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauren on Sunday May 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 100-005 at Colorado State University taught by Hillary Wehe in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 81 views.
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Date Created: 05/08/16
Final Exam Study Guide: Thinking and Language: How does our mind quickly solve problems? Through heuristics= Representative heuristics Heuristics are “prototypes” that our mind creates These prototypes represent the best example of a category/situation that we have in our mind Ex: Which one is a random coin flip? HHTTHTHTHHT or HHHHHHHHH BOTH are random, but we assume that the first is random because it’s the prototype we create in our mind Through categorizing people or through categorizing situations Our mind likes to sort things through categories Example of this is stereotyping Availability heuristic = estimating the likelihood based on ease of recall Ex: If you were asked to recall words that begin with a “K” vs. words that have “K” as the third letter, it would be easier to remember words that start with a “K”= ease of recall Mental Fixation limits our thinking Tunnel Visioning It is important to overcome functional fixedness and think outside the box What is Language? Spoken, written, and signed symbols that are combined in a way that communicates meaning Purpose= to transfer info from one mind to another How do we learn language? Noam Chomsky Said that language is innate Ex: Children can say things that they have never heard before— such as “I hitted the ball” or “We goed home”these sentences were not taught to them Idea of a universal grammar structure, readily learned B.F Skinner = behaviorist approach We learn language through operant conditioning: associationimitationreinforcement Language in the Brain Lateralization Language is activated in the left hemisphere Right hemisphere picks up emotional tune and humor Broca’s Area= manages motor movement to produce speech Wernicke’s area= for speech comprehension Aphasia= difficulty communicating due to damage in speech areas of the brain Broca’s aphasia= patients can comprehend what they are saying, but have trouble physically speaking Wernicke’s aphasia=patients can speak but cannot comprehend what they are saying—“Word salad” Personality: Psychodynamic perspective Freud’s conscious mind vs. subconscious mind ID, Ego, and Superego ID= “devil” on your shoulder telling you what you want to do Ego= decides between ID and Superego, or “devil and angel” Superego= “angel” on shoulder, is your moral side, tells you what your ideals are Defense mechanisms—the ego works to protect itself Repression—hiding information from the ego and pushing it below the surface (to protect itself) Personality Development Freud’s Psychosexual stages Have to conquer one stage to move on to the next stage 1) Oral Stage (0-18 months) Time of pleasure seeking and exploring Ego is developing Finding a balance between what they can and cannot have Oral Fixation: If this stage is not passed Nail biting, chewing on pens, smoking 2) Anal Stage (18-36 months) Seeking control Ego has developed in this stage Struggle in coping with the ID Potty training= first start to adhere to societies rules Anal Retentiveness: Did not pass stage, too strict of a home environment results in a sarcastic or very controlling personality Anal expulsive: too lax of a home environment, results in a person with overly liberal emotions 3) Phallic Stage (3-6 years) Noticing gender differences Superego emerges Start to notice the opposite sex is different Oedipus/Electra complex: develop crush on opposite sex parent, in order to pass this stage this conflict needs to be resolved Conflicts unresolved: castration/penis envy, or a fixation of mother/father so your lovers represent your parents 4) Latency (6-puberty) Stability begins 5) Genital Stage (puberty-on) Maturity/ start to develop relationships Uncovering your hidden personality: Freud and psychoanalysis (1890s) Hypnosis begins Idea of a “talking cure” Trying to help with defensive mechanisms and projection by making the ID “feel safe” Catharsis= the process of releasing strong or repressed emotions Projective tests: Structured psychoanalysis Purpose is to tab into perceptual representations Rorschach Ink Blot Test Thematic Apperception Test (1930s) Validity: Lots of room for error, everyone interprets things differently, can only ever be 82% accurate Determining Personality Traits: Psychoanalytic approach: says that development and the unconscious determines personality Personality traits: characteristic patterns of behavior, dispositions, actions, and feelings Idea that consistent reoccurrence of traits determine personality Minimum number of traits you can use to describe someone? Eysenck—2 traits? Introversion vs. extroversion Stability vs. instability Big Five Personality traits C.A.N.O.E C= Conscientiousness, responsibility, dependability Life outcomes: academic success, positive health Balance: organization in the work place Low: absenteeism, drug use A= Agreeableness, warmth, likeability Balance: good relationships Low: high earning leadership Too high: chronic stress N=Neuroticism Too high: work burnout, high stress, pessimistic Low: higher happiness, more confident Balance with conscientiousness: good health O=Openness, individualistic, down to earth High: curiosity, artistic, good learner Low: prefer familiarity, very traditional E=Extraversion, social, outgoing, assertive Balance: Leaders High: higher self-reported happiness Low: struggle with academics Social Thinking: Self-serving bias We believe that our own outcomes will be better than others We view ourselves/ our skills as “better” Fundamental Attribution Error When we make an error: situational/context is highlighted, we make excuses for ourselves When others make an error: we blame their personality, and are more quick to tear down their personality Obedience: Stanley Milgram: If someone is putting pressure on you to do something, you will do it How much control do we really have? We will overcome our good nature if we think that it is for the greater good The Wisdom of Crowds Francis Galton Researched the benefits of listening to others—as a group, people can be more accurate Conformity can be a good thing—makes us follow rules and regulations Positive Benefits of Social Groups We naturally want to be around others—it helps with emotional stability Ex: Solitary confinement increases anxiety and depression If we have an increased rate of anxiety, we want to be around others more Conformity Mimicry is learning Our feelings can mimic others Explains empathy “gut reactions” A sense of belonging= higher warmth, is more comforting Aspects of Conformity Conformity is not always a good thing—we naturally trust the group but the group can be wrong Psychology at Work: Hawthorne Effect: People will change their behavior if they are being monitored Industrial/ organizational psychology Personnel (industrial) psychology Organizational Psychology Human factors psychology Social Relations: Prejudice= Attitude A negative attitude towards a social group and its members based solely on group membership Involves stereotypes beliefs, a predisposition to discriminate, and negative feelings Stereotype: Cognition A representative heuristic We use heuristics to be quick and make decisions, can lead to errors Limited exposure can influence out stereotypes because information can be limited Discrimination: Behavior The manifestation of negative thoughts Involves treating someone differently Roots of Prejudice: In-group= the group you identify with and are loyal to, creates a sense of belonging Out-group= the “others”, creates an out-group bias which can create negative predispositions In-group bias= the tendency to favor one’s own group Ex: favoring CSU vs. CU Out-group homogeneity effect and own-race bias: Underestimating own-group differences Relate more to your own group What attracts us to others? Pro-social relations Proximity principle: The idea that the close you are to someone, the more you will like them and treat them favorably We want positive environments We weigh rewards vs. costs Proximity in the digital age and relationships: Common social circles= prior cohesion Online matches= more favorable associations with online chatting Proximity: the mere exposure effect The more you see someone, the more likely you are to like them Ex: likeability for other students increases the more classes you have with them Physical attractiveness: Physical traits that make people “more attractive” = facial similarity, facial symmetry, and jaw lines Equality: looking at long-term potential, and similar goals in life Helping Others: Sometimes too much trust is negligent “Geneovese Syndrome” = the thought that there will be someone else to help, so you don’t help Bystander effect: inverse relationship between the number of bystanders and the likelihood that someone will help Psychological Disorders: Psychological Disorders: Dysfunctional Maladaptive—interferes with ability to function Distressing The Medical Approach: Philippe Pinel Started “moral treatment” of people with psychological disorders Biomedical Approach: Everything psychological is biological (you can treat psychological problems physically) Bio-psycho-social If it is all biological, it would be difficult to explain the placebo effect Why do placebo effects still show results? Integrated view Biological factors psychological factors social factors How we diagnose psychological disorders? DSM-V Lists all common symptoms Generally accepted treatments Gives info as to how far along the disorder is Affective Mood Disorder Emotional Extremes 2 types: major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder Major Depressive Disorder: 2 or more weeks of depressed moods Effects 350 million people Symptoms: Significant weight loss Change in sleep—hypersomnia or insomnia Lethargy/fatigue Feelings of worthlessness or guilt Thoughts of death or suicide Problems thinking/concentration Bipolar disorder: Effects 2-5 million people Equal rates with males and females Onset=early 20s Depression followed by maniafrantic, energized, impulsive, lasts 1+ weeks Each mood change is drastic Biological implications Anxiety Disorders Cognitive and physical elements “free floating” anxiety—cant narrow down what is triggering the anxiety More common in women Phobia= a fear in response to something very specific—consumes people’s lives Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: (OCD) Anxiety disorder More common in males Two parts: Obsessions=repetitive thoughts Compulsions=repetitive actions Effects 2-3 million people Is excessive, time consuming, and distressful Schizophrenia: Marked by psychosis= loss of contact with reality Symptoms: Positive (increases in) Hallucinations Delusions Thought disorders Movement disorders Word salad Negative symptoms Apathy Amotivation—no motivation Neglect Alogia—they stop speaking *changes over time positive symptoms early on but can switch to negative symptoms Types: Paranoid schizophrenia—paranoid allusions Catatonic—disturbance in motor movement Undifferentiated—neither paranoia or catatonia are prevalent Schizoaffective—mood disorder + other types of psychosis Causes: Genetic= 50% Fragmented thinking, disordered cognitive thinking, structural brain differences Dopamine hypothesis—too much dopamine in brain Environmental—stress, virus exposure, toxoplasmosis Dissociative Disorders: Identity or “fugue” (can’t remember your identity) Controversial Multiple personality disorder Therapy: Psychotherapy, behavioral therapy, cognitive therapy (teaching more adaptive ways of thinking) Biomedical therapy Behavioral therapy: focuses on classical and operant conditioning techniques= “counter-conditioning” Exposure therapy: increasing exposure to anxiety provoking situations Token therapy: operant conditioning, modification through rewards/points----Ethical?? Cognitive-behavioral-therapy: embraces the most effective aspects of both cognitive and behavioral therapies Other Disorders: Personality disorders: chronic, patterns of behavior, not distressing to the individual Anxiety Clusters: 1) Avoidant personality disorder Isolation and mistrust 1-2% prevalence Goes with OCD Social inhibition Sensitive of critique 2) Obsessive compulsive personality disorder Excel in work environment Different than OCD Dramatic or Erratic Clusters: Problem in emotion regulation 1) Narcissistic personality Grandiose, needs admiration, strong sense of entitlement More common in men 2) Antisocial personality disorder Often associated with serial killers Marked by: disregard for others, excessive lying, impulsiveness, aggression Can change over time 3) Sociopathy and psychopathy Sociopathy considered less severe Affective/interpersonal factors: Negatively correlated with more success (less empathy=more success) Manipulative Antisocial behavior DO people with ASPD Feel emotions?? Psychopaths don’t show activation of pain or empathy Is Psychopathy a bad thing? Prisoners dilemma: best interest is to cooperate, have to be willing to trust and get equal payoff Business: 4% of CEO’s have higher rates or psychopathy Leadership: EX Charles Manson Genetic Predisposition: X-Linked? Smaller frontal lobes Lowered activity in: Frontal lobes, amygdala, and autonomic system Stressful or traumatic childhood events
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