GOV FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE
GOV FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE P SC 1113 050
Popular in American Federal Government
Popular in Political Science
This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by sarahrichmondOU on Monday May 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to P SC 1113 050 at University of Oklahoma taught by Glen Krutz in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 321 views. For similar materials see American Federal Government in Political Science at University of Oklahoma.
Reviews for GOV FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 05/09/16
FINALEXAMSTUDYGUIDE CONGRESS CONTINUED o Tradeoff between representation and responsiveness (the two hats that MCs/Sens must wear) o There is a tradeoff for legislators as they decide how to vote or spend their time. o It is more motivating to be individually responsiverather than collectively responsible, so members of the Senate seek assignments to committees considering the overlapping goals of gettingreelected, influencingpolicy, and wieldingpower and influence. They can promote the interests of their constituencies through committee service and at the same time help their chances at reelection. o Dyadic representation o refers to the connection between individual Members of Congress and their constituents o Collective representation o group-heldmeaningsthatexpresssomethingsomewhatimportantaboutthegroupitself; religious beliefs and rituals are examples o Public opinion on Congress o People tend to like their own House/Senate member OK as a representative BUT they despise Congress as a collective institution. o Division of labor (committees) and party caucuses as organizing rubrics for Congress o Division of labor the division of power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government. System of checks and balances prevents government from becoming too powerful o The entire organization of Congress along with its leadership is centered around political parties. Party caucuses are made up of party members who gather to discuss strategy, agendasandlegislativepriorities.Ifapoliticalpartycanshowthedisciplinetoacttogether their power in the legislative chamber is usually enhanced greatly. o Key House vs. Senate differences o House: 435 voting members, 2 year terms, initiate revenue bills, more formal committee rules o Senate: 100 voting members, six year terms, tries impeached officials, approves treaties, looser rules o *Classic legislative process (Bill on Capitol Hill) vs. the “real” legislative process o Classic—bill passed to a house of congress; bill gets majority of votes in both houses; president can then pass bill into law or veto it. If vetoed, bill must attain 2/3 majority in both houses to become law. o “real” legislative process—alternative methods to making laws (including omnibus legislating) Examples: referrals to more than one committee, use of special rules on the House floor (closed vs. open rules), omnibus (or packaged) bills, and tacking policy riders onto budget bills PRESIDENCY o *The Electoral College o Process used to elect the President. The Electoral College consists of 538 electors, a majorityof270electoralvotesisrequiredtoelectthePresident.Astate'sentitlednumber of electors equals the number of members in its Congressional delegation. Electors are normally elected by their political party and usually vote according to the popular vote in their state. o *Proposals for Electoral College reform o An amendment to the Constitution that would eliminate the Electoral College and make the popular vote the determining factor o has been proposed but it has never been voted on o Battleground state o also called "swing states", refers to those states in a presidential election that are closely contested o Caucuses vs. Primaries (open vs. closed primary types) o Primaries Open—any registered voter may cast a vote Closed—only voters registered as members of a political party may vote o Caucuses—a meeting of supports or members of a specific political party or movement o Tone of the general election compared to the primary phase o After the primaries are over the two parties have nominated their nominees, both nominees move to the center and attempt to sound more moderate o Constitutional powers of presidency (express powers) o Financial (Tax and borrow) o Legal (regulate bankruptcy laws, patent) o Institutional (Organize judicial and executive branch) o National defense (Declare war, regulate prisoners) o Other formal powers of the presidency (including some unilateral) o military action for 60 days (war power resolution) o executive orders o executive agreements o agenda setting in budget process o *Executive agreements vs. treaties o Executive agreements between US and foreign country do not have to be approved by the Senate. o Executive treaties between US and foreign country negotiated need approval from Senate. o *Neustadt’s theory of presidential power & the 5 constituencies o “presidential power is the power to persuade” o In a system of separated institutions sharing power, the most powerful presidents persuade the 5 constituencies to get things done: o congress, public party, world leaders, and the bureaucracy. POLICY o What is public policy? o the fundamental policy on which laws rest, especially policy not yet enunciated in specific rules. The principle that injury to the public good or public order constitutes a basis for setting aside, or denying effect to acts or transactions o Forms of policy o foreign and domestic o *Types of public policy areas (Lowi typology) o Distributive diffuse costs (pay through taxes) concentrated benefits to a particular group or sector.Agriculture policyisdistributive.We allpayfor agprogramsthrough taxes but only farmers and farming companies get the benefits directly o Regulatory concentrated costs and diffuse benefits. Regulated industry pays the costs while the public benefits from the regulations i.e. clean air, safe toys for your kids, etc o re-distributive most controversial involved redistributingmoneyfrom one group ofpeopleto another. Welfare and other need-based programs are redistributive in that well to do and middle class funds the programs for the needy citizens who don't make enough money to pay taxes. o Policy advocates vs. policy analysts o Policy advocates begin like internal groups do, with a strong position on what should be, then they gather evidence to bolster their case o Policy analysts like to study a problem carefully with date to see what is going on with the problem and why o *The policy process o Agenda setting—these become part of the policy agenda when they are seen as requiring government attention and action.the media move a subject onto the policy agenda when they give it extensive coverage and frame it as a problem demanding a response by policymakers o Policy enactment—must be adopted by the relevant institutions of government. the media can be a forum inwhich various sides argue their cases for policy adoption.but coverage is sometimes one-sided. when favorable, it enhances a policy proposal's likelihood of adoption. when unfavorable, it can undermine a proposal. o Policy implementation—congress relies on the bureaucracy to develop the specific standards and procedures that fulfill the intent of the policy. the media can be a significant force at this stage of the policy process. o Policy evaluation—assessing a policy's effectiveness. Can be complicated. Many public policies have broad conceptual goals (ex: healthy air quality) and may have multiple objectives that aren’t necessarily compatible. o *Redistributive policy—entitlements o Obligations the government has incurred and must pay for: Welfare; Need-based health care (e.g. Medicaid), social security, veteran benefits, interest payments on national ebt o these are obligations the government has incurred and must pay for, such as social security, need-based heal care such as Medicaid & Medicareveteran benefits, and interest payments on the national debt o Defense policy o dealing with international security and the military. compromises the measures and initiatives that governments do or do not take in relation to decision making and strategic goals, such as when and how to commit national armed forces o Foreign policy o a government's strategy in dealing with other nations o Mutually assured destruction & détente o Mutually assured destruction (MAD) doctrine of military strategy and national security policy in which a full-scale use of high-yield weapons of mass destruction by two or more opposing sides would cause the complete annihilation of both the attacker and the defender o Détente A new approach introduced by Nixon for the purpose of easing tensions with communist nations by using diplomacy rather that military intimidation to try to work out differences. Literally means “easing of tensions” in French o Isolationism o A policy of national isolation by abstention from alliances and other international political and economic relations o Realism vs. idealism o Realismisbehavior or thought based on a conceptionofthingsastheyare,regardless of how one wants them to be, with a tendency to be practical and pragmatic o Idealism is behavior or thought based on a conception of things as they should be, or as one would wish them to be, with a tendency to be imaginary or visionary o Liberal internationalism o President Woodrow Wilson's foreign policy that called for active intervention to remake the world in America's image and asserted the view that increased American investment and trade abroad would lead to greater freedom worldwide o Neo-conservatism o Political movement born in the US during the 1960s among Democrats. o Neoconservatives advocate the promotion of democracy and American national interest in international affairs by means of military force, and are known for promoting contempt for communism and political radicalism. Battleground state a state of the U.S in which Democratic and Republican candidates both have a good chance of winning (the swing states of Ohio and Indiana) *Bureaucratic discretion The idea that government agencies are given flexibility to implement programs and budgets, given that they are the experts. Partly required because legislators and the president put together very general laws and budgets, so it requires bureaucrats to fill in the details *Spoils system the practice of a successful political party giving public office to its supporters *merit systems is the process of promoting and hiring government employees based on their ability to perform a job, rather than on their political connections Overhead democracy same as controlling bureaucratic power. The elected branches are at the top of the chain and overseethebureaucraciesthat arebelowthembecause they havediscretion and thebureaucratsaren't elected. so you have to watch them. (relates to bureaucratic discretion in that elected leaders worry that unelected bureaucrats will do their own thing in implementation so the elected branches keep a watchful eye on the administrative process) Public policy the fundamental policy on which laws rest, especially policy not yet enunciated in specific rules. The principle that injury to the public good or public order constitutes a basis for setting aside, or denying effect to acts or transactions forms of policy foreign and domestic *types of public policy areas Lowi typology *Lowi distributive diffuse costs (pay through taxes) concentrated benefits to a particular group or sector. Agriculture policy is distributive. We all pay for ag programs through taxes but only farmers and farming companies get the benefits directly *Lowi regulatory concentrated costs and diffuse benefits. Regulated industry pays the costs while the public benefits from the regulations i.e. clean air, safe toys for your kids, etc *Lowi re-distributive most controversial involved redistributing money from one group of people to another. Welfare and other need-based programs are redistributive in that well to do and middle class funds the programs for the needy citizens who don't make enough money to pay taxes. Policy analyst like to study a problem carefully with date to see what is going on with the problem and why? then after they study in systematically, then and only then would an analyst want to venture a suggestion of what should be policy advocate begin like internal groups do, with a strong position on what should be, then they gather evidence to bolster their case *policy process agenda setting, policy enactment, policy implementation, and policy evaluation *agenda setting these become part of the policy agenda when they are seen as requiring government attention and action. the media move a subject onto the policy agenda when they give it extensive coverage and frame it as a problem demanding a response by policymakers Policy enactment must be adopted by the relevant institutions of government. the media can be a forum in which various sides argue their cases for policy adoption. but coverage is sometimes one-sided. when favorable, it enhances a policy proposal's likelihood of adoption. when unfavorable, it can undermine a proposal, adoption of a policy legitimizes is *policy implementation congress relies on the bureaucracy to develop the specific standards and procedures that fulfill the intent of the policy. the media can be a significant force at this stage of the policy process. but most policy implementation and administration take place out of the media's view and are time consuming to find and expose, even with investigative reporting. thus media coverage is sporadic and focused on a few policies. *Policy evaluation assessing a policy's effectiveness, can be complicated. many public policies aim to achieve broad conceptual goals such as "healthy air quality." or a policy may have multiple, not necessarily compatible, objectives. *entitlements these are obligations the government has incurred and must pay, such as for social security, medicare, medicaid, veteran benefits, and interest payments on the national debt welfare chapter 16 healthcare chapter 16 War powers resolution this resolution effectively allows the president ninety days to wage war without congressional approval defense policy dealing with international security and the military. it compromises the measures and initiatives that governments do or do not take in relation to decision making and strategic goals, such as when and how to commit national armed forces containment it held that the united states did not need to engage in a war to defeat the soviet union. instead it could adopt a policy of constant vigilance and the creation of alliances in which american power would be used to contain and counter soviet aggressive moves. (has to do with stopping spread of communism during the cold war) foreign policy a government's strategy in dealing with other nations mutually assured destruction a major concern of policymakers in the united states was that the soviet union not be allowed to gain a significant advantage over the united states in the size of its nuclear inventory. because soviet leaders shared the same goal, the result was an arms race detente goal was to create a framework of limited cooperation between the two superpowers within the context of ongoing competition and conflict realism behavior or thought based on a conception of things as they are, regardless of how one wants them to be, with a tendency to be practical and pragmatic idealism behavior or thought based on a conception of things as they should be, or as one would wish them to be, with a tendency to be imaginary or visionary liberal internationalism is a foreign policy doctrine that argues that liberal states should intervene in other sovereign states in order to pursue liberal objectives. such intervention can include both military invasion and humanitarian aid neoconservatism in american politics is someone presented as a conservative but who actually favors big government, interventionism, and a hostility to religion in politics and government. Neocons support attacking and even overthrowing foreign governments. constitutional powers of presidency executive budget and expanded wars powers Neustadt's theory of presidential power and the 5 constituencies presidential power is the power to persuade. In a system of separated institutions sharing power, the most powerful presidents persuade the 5 constituencies to get things done-- congress, public party, world leaders, and the bureaucracy. opposite of the unilateral theory of presidential power Proposals for electoral college reform eliminating electoral college and going to straight popular vote, making our electoral college proportional and the national popular vote interstate compact toneofelection post primary idea that aftertheprimariesareover thetwo partieshavenominated theirnominees, both nominees move to the center and attempt to sound more moderate controlling bureaucratic power executive agreements are forged by the president directly, while treaties has to go through the senate and get a 2/3 vote. 95% of international agreements that the US enters these days are EAs while only 5% are treaties ways to control bureaucratic power basic idea is that the president has budgets and appointments to use, while congress uses investigative subcomittees Two presidencies thesis Wildavsky. Foreign affairs and domestic affairs. Presidents are more successful in foreign affairs because congress is more likely to agree with them.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'