Psychology 100 Final Exam Study Guide
Psychology 100 Final Exam Study Guide 100
Long Beach State
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Stephanie Notetaker on Monday May 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 100 at California State University Long Beach taught by Dr. Angela deDios in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 84 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at California State University Long Beach.
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Date Created: 05/09/16
Chapter 1 – Research Methods Understand the different research methods we Naturalistic Observation covered and be able to identify which method ➔ The process of observing and recording a research participant’s behavior and mental would be appropriate in a given situation. processes in his or her natural setting, Understand what makes an experiment different from other research methods. without interfering. Survey ➔ A research technique that questions a large sample of people to assess their behaviors and mental processes. Case Study ➔ An indepth study of a single research participant or a small group of individuals. Archival Research ➔ A descriptive research approach that studies existing data to find answers to research questions. Correlational Research ➔ Research that measures the direction and strength of a relationship (if any) between two or more variables in order to determine how well one variable predicts another. Experimental Research ➔ A carefully controlled scientific procedure that involves the manipulation of variables to determine cause and effect. Define an independent variable and dependent Independent Variable ➔ The variable that is manipulated to variable and identify them in a research scenario. determine its causal effect on the dependent variable; also called the treatment variable. Dependent Variable ➔ The variable that is observed and measured for change; the factor that is affected by (or dependent on) the independent variable. IV (texting or not texting while driving) DV (number of simulated traffic accidents) Chapter 2 – Neuroscience and Biological Foundations Understand how communication within a neuron Step 1 works. Communication within a neuron ➔ Neuron is at resting potential ➔ Receives signals from dendrites ◆ Excitatory or inhibitory ➔ Triggers neural impulse/action potential/firing ◆ Electrical signal Understand how communication between neurons Step 2 works. Chemical signal to go from 1 neuron to another 1) Action potential in sending neuron 2) Travels to axon terminals and bursts synaptic vesicles 3) Neurotransmitters travel across the synapse to the receiving neuron 4) Neurotransmitters attach and send a signal (excitatory or inhibitory) Clean up: 1) enzymes 2) synaptic reuptake Know the lobes of the brain and their functions. Frontal Lobe ➔ motor strip location, impulsivity, short term memory, emotion, voluntary movement, social functioning, creativity, expressive language. Parietal Lobe ➔ sensory strip location, perception, touch(pain & temperature), ability to draw, reading and writing, calculations. Temporal Lobe ➔ hearing, long term memory, verbal and written recognition memory, receptive memory, music, initiation of verbal. Occipital Lobe ➔ perception, vision Cerebellum ➔ coordination, balance, ability to judge distance, muscle tone including the muscles required for speech. Brain Stem ➔ Connects with the spinal cord, reticular activating system, thalamus, hypothalamus, heart rate and blood pressure, smell and taste, eye movement, appetite, vision, balance Chapter 3 – Stress and Health Understand the 3 ways to approach conflict as ApproachApproach discussed in your book. ➔ The forced choice between two options, both of which have equally desirable characteristics. AvoidanceAvoidance ➔ The forced choice between two options, both of which have equally undesirable characteristics. ApproachAvoidance ➔ The forced choice within one option, which has equally desirable and undesirable characteristics. Know the difference between acute and chronic Acute Stress stress and how it can impact people. ➔ A shortterm state of arousal, in response to a perceived threat or challenge that has a definite endpoint. ➔ Repeated media coverage of tragedies, like the boston marathon bombings, can lead to more acute stress in viewers, than in those who had direct exposure to the tragedy. Chronic Stress ➔ A continuous state of arousal, in which demands are perceived as greater than the inner and outer resources available for dealing with them. ➔ Chronic stress can even suppress sexual desire and damage testicular cells in male rats. Also, persistent environmental noise is associated with measurable hormonal and brain changes. Chapter 4 – Sensation and Perception Be able to identify the different parts of the eye and discuss their functions. Cornea ➔ transparent bulge in the front of the eye, curved, begins refraction; Iris ➔ colored portion of the eye; smooth muscle; causes dilation and constriction of the pupil; by doing so it regulates the amount of light entering the pupil, first ring of tissue from pupil; Pupil ➔ space or black hole through which the light passes; can be elliptical in nature; Lens ➔ transparent and elastic, continues refraction and focusing onto the retina; held in place by the suspensory ligaments which are operated by the ciliary body; has a convex shape Retina ➔ third part of the eye wall; contains rods and cones; photoreceptor cells; light rays are focused on it Fovea ➔ part of the retina; found in the center of the macula lutea; a place for daytime, color and distinct vision; contains only cones Optic Nerve ➔ cranial nerve II (2); carries the nerve impulse to the thalamus and then to the occipital lobe of the cerebrum, where vision is located Be able to identify the different parts of the ear and discuss their functions. Cochlea ➔ The cochlea has little hairs around it that send sounds to the auditory nerves. Stirrup, Anvil, Hammer ➔ The hammer, anvil, and stirrup transmit sound waves from the eardrum, to the inner ear. Ear Drum ➔ The ear drum captures sounds and sends it down to the hammer. Ear Canal ➔ The ear canal directs the sound to the middle ear. Chapter 5 – Consciousness Understand all the aspects of REM sleep. ➔ Heart rate and breathing speeds up ➔ High frequency waves (beta waves) ➔ Rapid eye movements ➔ Hard to wake up ➔ Skeletal muscles show paralysis ➔ Paradoxical sleep ➔ Dreams Know the stages of sleep, what happens in each stage, and how people progress through the stages. Chapter 6 – Learning Understand how classical conditioning works. Be able to identify whether a person is being positively or negatively reinforced or punished. Positive and Negative Reinforcement ➔ Always increases the likelihood of the response being repeated ➔ Negative reinforcement does not equal punishment Punishment ➔ A lot of potential for bad ➔ Use of reinforcement is more effective ◆ Punishment: what not to do ◆ Reinforcement: what to do ➔ Consider extinguishing bad behavior Know whether a behavior has been shaped by either classical conditioning or operant conditioning. Chapter 7 – Memory Know the information processing model and how it explains memory. Fully understand how forgetting can happen at each stage of memory. Chapter 8 – Intelligence Know the three tests of a good test and be able to Standardization identify examples of them. ➔ A set of uniform procedures for treating each participant in a test, interview, or experiment or for recording data. Reliability ➔ The degree to which a test produces similar scores each time it is used; stability or consistency of the scores produced by an instrument. Validity ➔ The degree to which a test measures what it is intended to measure. Know Spearman, Gardner, Sternberg, and Binet, Spearman ➔ Intelligence and athleticism and their thoughts on intelligence. ➔ Crystallized and Fluid ➔ Crystallized(increases across lifespan/experience): amount of knowledge that one accumulates over the years ➔ Fluid(decreases across lifespan): idea that one can think things quickly (speed), think abstractly and one can solve unfamiliar problems quickly Gardner ➔ 9 intelligences ➔ Linguistic ➔ Spatial ➔ Bodilykinesthetic ➔ Intrapersonal ➔ Logicalmathematical ➔ Musical ➔ Interpersonal ➔ Naturalistic ➔ Spiritualexistential Sternberg ➔ 3 intelligences ➔ Analytical ➔ Creative ➔ Practical Binet ➔ Several tasks ➔ Mental age ➔ IQ no longer used today Chapters 9 and 10 – Lifespan Development Identify the different styles of attachment that Secure Ainsworth discussed and how this relates to Anxious/Ambivalent Anxious/Avoidant attachment styles later in lif . Disorganized/Disoriented Understand and be able to identify the stages of Sensorimotor stage Piaget’s stage theory on cognitive development. ➔ (birth2 yrs) ➔ Main goal=object permanence Preoperational stage ➔ (27 yrs) ➔ Problems with conservation ➔ Egocentrism ➔ Animistic thinking Concrete Operational stage ➔ (711 yrs) ➔ Achieves conservation ➔ Can think logically about concrete objects ➔ Cannot think abstractly Formal Operational stage ➔ (11 and up) ➔ Abstract thinking ➔ Hypothetical thinking ➔ Imaginary audience ➔ Personal fable Know the three levels of Kohlberg’s theory on Preconventional moral thinking and be able to identify what a ➔ (Stages 1 and 2 birth to adolescence) person might say in each level. ➔ Moral judgment is selfcentered ➔ What is right is what one can get away with, or what is personally satisfying. ➔ Moral understanding is based on rewards, punishments, and the exchange of favors. Conventional ➔ (Stages 3 and 4 adolescence and young adulthood) ➔ Moral reasoning is othercentered ➔ Conventional societal rules are accepted because they help ensure the social order. Postconventional ➔ (Stages 5 and 6 adulthood) ➔ Moral judgments based on personal standards for right and wrong. ➔ Morality also defined in terms of abstract principles and values that apply to all situations and societies. Chapter 13 – Personality Understand and be able to identify the different Repression defense mechanisms discussed. ➔ Preventing painful or unacceptable thoughts from entering consciousness ➔ Ex: forgetting the details of a tragic accident Sublimation ➔ Redirecting socially unacceptable impulses into acceptable activities ➔ Ex: redirecting aggressive impulses by becoming a professional fighter Denial ➔ Refusing to accept an unpleasant reality ➔ Ex: alcoholics refusing to admit their addiction Rationalization ➔ Creating a socially acceptable excuse to justify unacceptable behavior ➔ Ex: justifying cheating on an exam by saying “everyone else does it” Intellectualization ➔ Ignoring the emotional aspects of a painful experience by focusing on abstract thoughts, words, or ideas ➔ Ex: discussing your divorce without emotion while ignoring underlying pain Projection ➔ Transferring unacceptable thoughts, motives, or impulses to others ➔ Ex: becoming unreasonably jealous of your mate while denying your own attraction to others Reaction Formation ➔ Not acknowledging unacceptable impulses and over emphasizing their opposite ➔ Ex: promoting a petition against adult bookstores even though you are secretly fascinated by pornography Regression ➔ Reverting to immature ways of responding ➔ Ex: throwing a temper tantrum when a friend doesn’t want to do what you’d like Displacement ➔ Redirecting impulses from the original source toward a less threatening person or object ➔ Ex: yelling at a co worker after being criticized by your boss Know the differences between the various perspectives on personality we discussed and how each perspective views personality.
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