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Psychology 100 Final Exam Study Guide

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by: Stephanie Notetaker

Psychology 100 Final Exam Study Guide 100

Marketplace > California State University Long Beach > Psychlogy > 100 > Psychology 100 Final Exam Study Guide
Stephanie Notetaker
Long Beach State

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About this Document

This is the completed study guide for the spring final.
General Psychology
Dr. Angela deDios
Study Guide
Intro to Psychology
50 ?




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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Stephanie Notetaker on Monday May 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 100 at California State University Long Beach taught by Dr. Angela deDios in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 84 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at California State University Long Beach.


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Date Created: 05/09/16
  Chapter 1 – Research Methods    Understand the different research methods we  Naturalistic Observation  covered and be able to identify which method  ➔ The process of observing and recording a  research participant’s behavior and mental  would be appropriate in a given situation.  processes in his or her natural setting,  Understand what makes an experiment different  from other research methods.  without interfering.  Survey     ➔ A research technique that questions a  large sample of people to assess their  behaviors and mental processes.  Case Study  ➔ An in­depth study of a single research  participant or a small group of individuals.  Archival Research  ➔ A descriptive research approach that  studies existing data to find answers to  research questions.   Correlational Research   ➔ Research that measures the direction and  strength of a relationship (if any) between  two or more variables in order to determine  how well one variable predicts another.  Experimental Research  ➔ A carefully controlled scientific procedure  that involves the manipulation of variables  to determine cause and effect.    Define an independent variable and dependent  Independent Variable   ➔ The variable that is manipulated to  variable and identify them in a research scenario.    determine its causal effect on the  dependent variable; also called the  treatment variable.  Dependent Variable  ➔ The variable that is observed and  measured for change; the factor that is  affected by (or dependent on) the  independent variable.  IV (texting or not texting while driving)   DV (number of simulated traffic accidents)  Chapter 2 – Neuroscience and Biological    Foundations  Understand how communication within a neuron  Step 1  works.   Communication within a neuron   ➔ Neuron is at resting potential   ➔ Receives signals from dendrites  ◆ Excitatory or inhibitory  ➔ Triggers neural impulse/action  potential/firing  ◆ Electrical signal   Understand how communication between neurons  Step 2  works.   Chemical signal to go from 1 neuron to another  1) Action potential in sending neuron   2) Travels to axon terminals and bursts  synaptic vesicles  3) Neurotransmitters travel across the  synapse to the receiving neuron  4) Neurotransmitters attach and send a signal  (excitatory or inhibitory)  Clean up: 1) enzymes   2) synaptic reuptake   Know the lobes of the brain and their functions.  Frontal Lobe    ➔ motor strip location, impulsivity, short term  memory, emotion, voluntary movement,  social functioning, creativity, expressive  language.  Parietal Lobe  ➔ sensory strip location, perception,  touch(pain & temperature), ability to draw,  reading and writing, calculations.  Temporal Lobe  ➔ hearing, long term memory, verbal and  written recognition memory, receptive  memory, music, initiation of verbal.  Occipital Lobe  ➔ perception, vision  Cerebellum  ➔ coordination, balance, ability to judge  distance, muscle tone including the  muscles required for speech.  Brain Stem  ➔ Connects with the spinal cord, reticular  activating system, thalamus,  hypothalamus, heart rate and blood  pressure, smell and taste, eye movement,  appetite, vision, balance Chapter 3 – Stress and Health    Understand the 3 ways to approach conflict as  Approach­Approach  discussed in your book.   ➔ The forced choice between two options,  both of which have equally desirable  characteristics.  Avoidance­Avoidance  ➔ The forced choice between two options,  both of which have equally undesirable  characteristics.    Approach­Avoidance  ➔ The forced choice within one option, which  has equally desirable and undesirable  characteristics.  Know the difference between acute and chronic  Acute Stress  stress and how it can impact people.  ➔ A short­term state of arousal, in response  to a perceived threat or challenge that has    a definite endpoint.  ➔ Repeated media coverage of tragedies,  like the boston marathon bombings, can  lead to more acute stress in viewers, than  in those who had direct exposure to the  tragedy.  Chronic Stress  ➔ A continuous state of arousal, in which  demands are perceived as greater than the  inner and outer resources available for  dealing with them.  ➔ Chronic stress can even suppress sexual  desire and damage testicular cells in male  rats. Also, persistent environmental noise  is associated with measurable hormonal  and brain changes.  Chapter 4 – Sensation and Perception      Be able to identify the different parts of the eye and  discuss their functions.    Cornea  ➔ transparent bulge in the front of the eye, curved, begins refraction; Iris ➔ colored portion of the eye; smooth muscle; causes dilation and constriction of the pupil; by doing so it regulates the amount of light entering the pupil, first ring of tissue from pupil; Pupil ➔ space or black hole through which the light passes; can be elliptical in nature; Lens ➔ transparent and elastic, continues refraction and focusing onto the retina; held in place by the suspensory ligaments which are operated by the ciliary body; has a convex shape Retina ➔ third part of the eye wall; contains rods and cones; photoreceptor cells; light rays are focused on it Fovea ➔ part of the retina; found in the center of the macula lutea; a place for daytime, color and distinct vision; contains only cones Optic Nerve ➔ cranial nerve II (2); carries the nerve impulse to the thalamus and then to the occipital lobe of the cerebrum, where vision is located Be able to identify the different parts of the ear and  discuss their functions.        Cochlea   ➔ The cochlea has little hairs around it that  send sounds to the auditory nerves.  Stirrup, Anvil, Hammer  ➔ The hammer, anvil, and stirrup transmit  sound waves from the eardrum, to the  inner ear.  Ear Drum  ➔ The ear drum captures sounds and sends  it down to the hammer.  Ear Canal  ➔ The ear canal directs the sound to the  middle ear.  Chapter 5 – Consciousness              Understand all the aspects of REM sleep.  ➔ Heart rate and breathing speeds up  ➔ High frequency waves (beta waves)    ➔ Rapid eye movements  ➔ Hard to wake up  ➔ Skeletal muscles show paralysis  ➔ Paradoxical sleep   ➔ Dreams   Know the stages of sleep, what happens in each  stage, and how people progress through the  stages.      Chapter 6 – Learning      Understand how classical conditioning works.      Be able to identify whether a person is being  positively or negatively reinforced or punished.      Positive and Negative Reinforcement  ➔ Always ​increases ​the likelihood of the  response being repeated  ➔ Negative reinforcement does not equal  punishment      Punishment  ➔ A lot of potential for bad  ➔ Use of reinforcement is more effective  ◆ Punishment: what not to do  ◆ Reinforcement: what to do  ➔ Consider extinguishing bad behavior  Know whether a behavior has been shaped by    either classical conditioning or operant  conditioning.      Chapter 7 – Memory      Know the information processing model and how it  explains memory.      Fully understand how forgetting can happen at    each stage of memory.    Chapter 8 – Intelligence      Know the three tests of a good test and be able to  Standardization  identify examples of them.  ➔ A set of uniform procedures for treating  each participant in a test, interview, or    experiment or for recording data.    Reliability  ➔ The degree to which a test produces  similar scores each time it is used; stability  or consistency of the scores produced by  an instrument.  Validity  ➔ The degree to which a test measures what  it is intended to measure.  Know Spearman, Gardner, Sternberg, and Binet,  Spearman  ➔ Intelligence and athleticism  and their thoughts on intelligence.    ➔ Crystallized and Fluid   ➔ Crystallized(increases across  lifespan/experience): amount of knowledge  that one accumulates over the years  ➔ Fluid(decreases across lifespan): idea that  one can think things quickly (speed), think  abstractly and one can solve unfamiliar  problems quickly  Gardner  ➔ 9 intelligences  ➔ Linguistic  ➔ Spatial  ➔ Bodily­kinesthetic  ➔ Intrapersonal  ➔ Logical­mathematical  ➔ Musical  ➔ Interpersonal  ➔ Naturalistic  ➔ Spiritual­existential   Sternberg  ➔ 3 intelligences  ➔ Analytical  ➔ Creative  ➔ Practical  Binet  ➔ Several tasks  ➔ Mental age   ➔ IQ no longer used today    Chapters 9 and 10 – Lifespan Development    Identify the different styles of attachment that  Secure  Ainsworth discussed and how this relates to  Anxious/Ambivalent  Anxious/Avoidant   attachment styles later in lif . Disorganized/Disoriented  Understand and be able to identify the stages of  Sensorimotor stage  Piaget’s stage theory on cognitive development.  ➔ (birth­2 yrs)    ➔ Main goal=object permanence  Preoperational stage  ➔ (2­7 yrs)  ➔ Problems with conservation   ➔ Egocentrism  ➔ Animistic thinking  Concrete Operational stage  ➔ (7­11 yrs)  ➔ Achieves conservation  ➔ Can think logically about concrete objects  ➔ Cannot think abstractly  Formal Operational stage  ➔ (11 and up)  ➔ Abstract thinking  ➔ Hypothetical thinking  ➔ Imaginary audience  ➔ Personal fable  Know the three levels of Kohlberg’s theory on  Preconventional   moral thinking and be able to identify what a  ➔ (Stages 1 and 2­ birth to adolescence)  person might say in each level.  ➔ Moral judgment is self­centered  ➔ What is right is what one can get away    with, or what is personally satisfying.  ➔ Moral understanding is based on rewards,  punishments, and the exchange of favors.  Conventional   ➔ (Stages 3 and 4­ adolescence and young  adulthood)  ➔ Moral reasoning is other­centered  ➔ Conventional societal rules are accepted  because they help ensure the social order.  Postconventional   ➔ (Stages 5 and 6­ adulthood)  ➔ Moral judgments based on personal  standards for right and wrong.  ➔ Morality also defined in terms of abstract  principles and values that apply to all  situations and societies.   Chapter 13 – Personality      Understand and be able to identify the different  Repression  defense mechanisms discussed.  ➔ Preventing painful or unacceptable  thoughts from entering consciousness    ➔ Ex: forgetting the details of a tragic  accident  Sublimation  ➔ Redirecting socially unacceptable impulses  into acceptable activities  ➔ Ex: redirecting aggressive impulses by  becoming a professional fighter      Denial  ➔ Refusing to accept an unpleasant reality  ➔ Ex: alcoholics refusing to admit their  addiction  Rationalization  ➔ Creating a socially acceptable excuse to  justify unacceptable behavior  ➔ Ex: justifying cheating on an exam by  saying “everyone else does it”  Intellectualization  ➔ Ignoring the emotional aspects of a painful  experience by focusing on abstract  thoughts, words, or ideas  ➔ Ex: discussing your divorce without  emotion while ignoring underlying pain  Projection  ➔ Transferring unacceptable thoughts,  motives, or impulses to others  ➔ Ex: becoming unreasonably jealous of your  mate while denying your own attraction to  others  Reaction Formation  ➔ Not acknowledging unacceptable impulses  and over emphasizing their opposite  ➔ Ex: promoting a petition against adult  bookstores even though you are secretly  fascinated by pornography  Regression   ➔ Reverting to immature ways of responding  ➔ Ex: throwing a temper tantrum when a  friend doesn’t want to do what you’d like  Displacement   ➔ Redirecting impulses from the original  source toward a less threatening person or  object   ➔ Ex: yelling at a co worker after being  criticized by your boss  Know the differences between the various    perspectives on personality we discussed and how  each perspective views personality.     


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