Final Exam Study Guide
Final Exam Study Guide PSYCH 270
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Pamela Crockett on Monday May 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 270 at University of North Dakota taught by Rachel Kramer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 138 views.
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Date Created: 05/09/16
What therapy has been found to be most effective for treatment of Panic Disorder? Panic Control Therapy In treating Specific Phobia, what is the shortest amount of time that a person may expect to go through therapy for it? 1 Day What disorder is considered to be the most common disorder in the US? Specific Phobia What is fear? Intense immediate effect, that is present-oriented and involves the sympathetic nervous system. Generalized Anxiety Disorder is marked significant levels of general __________. Worry What is the French term(s) used to describe what a person may feel like if they have conversion disorder? La Belle Indifference Charlie reported that he cannot stop worrying about the tingling he has in his hands or the headaches that he has been experiencing. The Doctors do not have an explanation. Charlie is convinced his symptoms are real AND he worries a lot about them. What disorder MIGHT he have? Somatic Symptom Disorder When a person endures significant stress and forgets the trauma and wanders to a different area with little awareness of who/where they are, this is known as… Dissociative Amnesia On average, how many alters/personalities does a person with Dissociative Identity Disorder? 15 What is considered to be the main cause for the development of Dissociative Identity Disorder? Child Abuse Continued worry about an intrusive thought, image, or impulse leads someone to feel anxious and potentially carry out __________ if they have a diagnosis of OCD. Compulsions The most common form of obsessions/compulsions relate to… Symmetry Which disorder is considered to be related to a perceived flaw in one’s body and appearance and cause significant concern about others noticing? Body Dysmorphic Disorder This is considered to be a protective factor against the development of PTSD. Social Support What is the technique whereby therapists try to teach the individual to discontinue compulsions to hopefully slow obsessions? Exposure and Ritual Prevention What type of episode is marked by low mood, sleep, appetite, concentration, energy, levels of movement, and anhedonia (to name a few) and must last at least 2 weeks for most of the day, nearly every day? Major Depressive Episode How many days do you need to have less of a need to sleep, flight of ideas, less need for sleep, pressured speech to meet diagnostic criteria for a hyper manic episode? 4 Days SSRI stands for… Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor What specifier can only be given if there is a significant pattern of mood changes around the same time of year for 2 years or more? Seasonal Affective Disorder _______ is the treatment that can cause seizures and minor memory loss and given to people for treatment-resistant depression. Electroconvulsive Therapy _________ is the theory/hypothesis that too little serotonin will enable other neurotransmitters to become dysregulated. Permissive Hypothesis What does the APA stand for (if we are using the acronym for the organization that regulates citations)? American Psychological Association The best predictor of suicide is… A previous attempt What is the treatment used to treat many of the disorders we’ve talked about in class? Cognitive Behavioral Therapy This is the first aim of treatment when working with an individual with anorexia nervosa. Weight Restoration This criterion was used to diagnose anorexia nervosa in the DSM-IV, but not used to diagnose anorexia nervosa in DSM-V. Bridge job What is the most common form of purging? Self-Induced vomiting _______ is the BMI considered to be obese. 30 ________ is the treatment that is considered to be most effective in treating bulimia CBT-E THE SUPERNATURAL TRADITION Demons and Witches Stress and Melancholy Treatments for Possession Mass Hysteria Modern Mass Hysteria The Moon and the Stars THE BIOLOGICAL TRADITION Hippocrates and Galen The 19th Century The Development of Biological Treatments Consequences of the Biological Tradition THE PSYCHOLOGICAL TRADITION Moral Therapy Asylum Reform and the Decline of Moral Therapy Psychoanalytic Theory Humanistic Theory The Behavioral Model THE PRESENT: THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD AND AN INTEGRATIVE APPROACH A psychological disorder is (1) a psychological dysfunction within an individual that is (2) associated with distress or impairment in functioning and (3) a response that is not typical or culturally expected. All three basic criteria must be met; no one criterion alone has yet been identified that defines the essence of abnormality. NEUROSCIENCE AND ITS CONTRIBUTIONS TO PSYCHOPATHOLOGY The Central Nervous System The Structure of the Brain: know roughly what brain regions are The Peripheral Nervous System Neurotransmitters: Serotonin, Norepinephrine, GABA, Glutamate, Dopamine Implications for Psychopathology Psychosocial Influences on Brain Structure and Function * Early environment effects Interactions of Psychosocial Factors and Neurotransmitter Systems Psychosocial Effects on the Development of Brain Structure and Function BEHAVIORAL AND COGNITIVE SCIENCE Conditioning and Cognitive Processes Classical and Operant) Learned Helplessness Social Learning Prepared Learning Cognitive Science and the Unconscious (i.e. stroop) and Blind sight EMOTIONS The Physiology and Purpose of Fear Emotional Phenomena The Components of Emotion: what are the three parts? Anger and Your Heart Emotions and Psychopathology CULTURAL, SOCIAL, AND INTERPERSONAL FACTORS Voodoo, the Evil Eye, and Other Fears Gender Social Effects on Health and Behavior Global Incidence of Psychological Disorders STRUCTURE FUNCTION Central nervous system Consists of the brain and spinal cord Medulla and pons Breathing, pumping of heart, digestion Cerebellum Motor coordination Midbrain Coordinates movement with sensory input Reticular activating system Processes of arousal and tension Limbic system Emotional experiences/basic drives of sex, aggression, hunger/thirst Caudate nucleus Controls motor behavior Cerebral cortex Contains over 80% of neurons in the central nervous system Left hemisphere Verbal and other cognitive processes Right hemisphere Perceiving surrounding events and creating images Temporal lobe Recognizing various sights and sounds Parietal lobe Recognizing various sensations of touch Occipital lobe Integrates various visual input Frontal lobe Thinking and reasoning abilities Peripheral nervous system Coordination with brain stem to ensure body is working properly Somatic nervous system Controls our muscles Autonomic nervous system Regulates the cardiovascular system and endocrine system Endocrine system Releases hormones into the bloodstream Sympathetic nervous systemMobilizes body during times of stress Parasympathetic nervous system Renormalizes body after arousal states Pituitary gland Master or coordinator of endocrine system ASSESSING PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS Key Concepts in Assessment The Clinical Interview Physical Examination Behavioral Assessment Psychological Testing Neuropsychological Testing Neuroimaging: Pictures of the Brain Psychophysiological Assessment DIAGNOSING PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS Classification Issues Diagnosis Before 1980 DSMIII and DSMIIIR DSMIV and DSMIVTR DSM5 Creating a Diagnosis Beyond DSM5: Dimensions and Spectra TYPES OF RESEARCH METHODS Studying Individual Cases Research by Correlation Research by Experiment SingleCase Experimental Designs GENETICS AND BEHAVIOR ACROSS TIME AND CULTURES Studying Genetics Studying Behavior over Time Studying Behavior across Cultures The Power of a Program of Research Replication Research Ethics AN OVERVIEW OF SEXUAL DYSFUNCTIONS Sexual Desire Disorders Sexual Arousal Disorders Orgasm Disorders Sexual Pain Disorder ASSESSING SEXUAL BEHAVIOR Interviews Medical Examination Psychophysiological Assessment PARAPHILIC DISORDERS: CLINICAL DESCRIPTIONS Fetishistic Disorder Voyeuristic and Exhibitionistic Disorders Transvestic Disorder Sexual Sadism and Sexual Masochism Disorders Pedophilic Disorder and Incest Paraphilic Disorders in Women Causes of Paraphilic Disorders CLUSTER A PERSONALITY DISORDERS Paranoid Personality Disorder Schizoid Personality Disorder Schizotypal Personality Disorder CLUSTER B PERSONALITY DISORDERS Antisocial Personality Disorder Borderline Personality Disorder Histrionic Personality Disorder Narcissistic Personality Disorder CLUSTER C PERSONALITY DISORDERS Avoidant Personality Disorder Dependent Personality Disorder ObsessiveCompulsive Personality Disorder PREVALENCE AND CAUSES OF SCHIZOPHRENIA Development Cultural Factors Genetic Influences Neurobiological Influences Psychological and Social Influences TREATMENT OF SCHIZOPHRENIA Biological Interventions Psychosocial Interventions Treatment across Cultures Prevention K EY T ERMS schizophrenia, 477 delusional disorder, 486 catatonia, 478 shared psychotic disorder hebephrenia, 478 (folie a deux), 487 paranoia, 478 substanceinduced psychotic dementia praecox, 478 disorder, 488 associative splitting, 478 psychotic disorder associated psychotic behavior, 480 with another medical positive symptoms, 480 condition, 488 delusion, 480 brief psychotic disorder, 488 hallucination, 482 attenuated psychosis negative symptoms, 483 syndrome, 488 avolition, 483 schizotypal personality alogia, 483 disorder, 488 anhedonia, 483 prodromal stage, 490 flat affect, 484 schizophrenogenic mother, disorganized speech, 484 498 inappropriate affect, 484 double bind communication, catatonic immobility, 485 498 schizophreniform disorder, expressed emotion (EE), 498 486 token economy, 502 shizoaffective disorder, 486 autism spectrum disorder (ASD) attentiondeficit/hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) prosody, 525 phenylketonuria (PKU), 534 copy number variants, 517 naturalistic teaching specific learning disorder, 520 strategies, 529 fragile X Syndrome intellectual disability (ID), 530 language disorder, 522 Down syndrome, 534 Tourette’s disorder, 522 amniocentesis, 535 chorionic villus sampling (CVA) civil commitment laws, 571 diminished capacity, 578 competence, 581 dangerousness, 573 duty to warn, 581 deinstitutionalization, 574 expert witnesses, 581 transinstitutionalization, 574 clinical efficacy axis, 584 criminal commitment, 577 Delirium, 544
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