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Study Guide for Final

by: Kelsey Bishoff

Study Guide for Final SOC 110

Kelsey Bishoff
GPA 4.0

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Completed study guide for the final on 5/12/16
Introduction to Sociology
Ashley Leschyshyn
Study Guide
Introduction to Sociology
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kelsey Bishoff on Monday May 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 110 at University of North Dakota taught by Ashley Leschyshyn in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at University of North Dakota.

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Date Created: 05/09/16
Final Exam Study Guide th Your final exam will be held on Thursday, May 12 from 1:00-3:00 in Gamble 1. Ch. 7- Family > What are the definitions of family? o Substantive definition: based on blood, related by law o Sociological definition: group consisting of 2 or more people who live together in a committed relationship and care for one another > Identify the varying patterns of marriage. o monogamy: 1woman and 1 man get married (90%) o serial monogamy: several spouses in a lifetime, but only 1 at a time (85% remarry) o polygamy: practice of having multiple partners at 1 time  polygyny:1 husband and multiple wives  reproduction purposes  financial success  polyandry: 1 wife and multiple husbands  reduce population  usually fraternal-husband and his brothers > How do we choose a significant other? Do opposites attract? o monogamy: select mate with personal characteristics and interests similar to one's own o propinquity: spacial nearness, we are around the people with a similar status > Analyze the major changes to family as an institution. o teenage pregnancy has increased in the past 20 years o cohabilitiation (2 people in committed relationship that share financial resources) decreases the likelihood of divorce o most children live in a 2 parent household o children do not increase marital satisfaction o 15% of all American's never marry > Apply sociology’s major theories to family. o Functionalist: family contributes to society's stability  reproduction  protection  socialization  provision of social status (wealth is passed down, remain in same social class born in) o Conflict: perpetuate social stratification  passed on generationally o Interactionalist: family is socially constructed (fluid-gay marriage) > Why do people get divorced? What insulates couples from divorce? o jobs with high rates of divorce-bartenders o jobs with low rates of divorce-optometrists o age affects divorce-younger marriage higher divorce rates o no fault divorce laws-no longer need a reason for divorce > Define machismo and familism. How are these related to race/ethnicity? o machismo: a strong sense of manliness o familism: placing the interest of the family before those of the individual  parenting differs by race and ethnicity Ch. 14- Health > What is culture bound syndrome? How does this relate to an interactionist perspective? o a disease or illness that cannot be understood apart from some specific social context o how people interact and their beliefs contribute to the problem > What is brain drain? o the immigration to the US and other industrialized nations of skilled workers, professionals, and technicians who are needed in their home countries > What is the difference between health and medicine? o health: human condition measured by physical, mental social, and spiritual  *social becomes more important with age o medicine: society's standard ways of dealing with injury and illness > What is meant by the term “medicalization of society”? o the process of medicalization involves redefining new areas of social life as the legitimate domain for medical expertise by converting them into treatable medical conditions  Ex: childbirth, aging, sex, mental health, sexuality, addictions, etc. > Discuss the three approaches to health in the United States. o A historical view  industrialization of health care caused medical professionals to gain control over the market for its services and the organizational hierarchies that govern the practice, financing, and policy making o The role of the government  most Americans are required to purchase some form of health insurance  other regulations in healthcare are set by the government o Complementary and alternative medicine  use of holistic medicine and analysis of sociological/psychological being > Discuss the importance of the American Medical Association in the United States. o most powerful organization in healthcare o responsible for identifying legitimate healthcare professionals > What is defensive medicine? How do doctors practice it? o medical practices to protect physicians  ordering many labs  consulting with colleagues > Explain the concept of holistic medicine. What are some examples? o therapies in which the health care practitioner considers the person's physical, mental emotional and spiritual characteristics  Ex: massage, chiropractics, acupuncture, herbs, remedies, etc. > Apply all concepts, theories and terms discussed for each of the three foundational perspectives of sociology. o Functionalist: healthy to perform normal roles  The sick role:  not responsible for illness  exempt from duties  don’t like role  receive help and return to duties  Criticisms:  ambiguous: hard to define and clarify  gatekeepers: parents and doctors determine if sick  gender: women more apt to claim sick role (more acceptable for women to be sick and feel pain) o Conflict: social stratification illness  those with more money are healthier because they have access to more resources  Industrialization greater life expectancy  better diets/nutrition and sanitation  advancements in medical technology  Life expectancy: number of years people in a pop. can except to live, depends on culture (average 78 years) (average age)  Life Span: biological without environmental influences (can't live past 122) (max age) o Interactionalist: social construction  hyena cure: being controlled by "demon", put in small space with a hyena in hope the demon will be scared out Ch. 4 (back of chapter) Age > How do we define the elderly? o 65 years and older (55+ for inmates)  Young old: 65-74  Old old:75-84  Oldest old: 85+ > Explain the Graying of America. What accounts for this trend? o industrialization increased life expectancy and reduced family sizegrowing elderly population (13-14% pop is 65+) > Discuss the biological and social aspects of aging. o Biological:  primary aging: biological deterioration of body (cell breakdown) life span  secondary aging: accelerated version of primary aging  life expectancy o Social:  cultural expectations: norms, values, and roles > Why has life expectancy increased in industrialized nations? o due to advances in health care, nutrition, and working conditions, etc. > Apply the functionalist, conflict and interactionist perspectives to age. o Functionalist:  Disengagement Theory: negative; views that society and the aging individual mutually cut ties with each other preparing individual for death  Activity Theory: aging individuals remain active in society which will improve quality of life (can take on new roles) o Conflict:  Age stratification: social class/gender/age  Ageism: discrimination/prejudice based on age  being "too young" or "too old"  targets everyone at a point in your life o Interactionalist:  socially constructed  stereotypes reinforce ageism:  unemployable, mentally incompetent, unintelligent, unattractive, asexual > Define the ‘sandwich generation. o the generation of adults who simultaneously try to meet the competing needs of their parents and their children Not in textbook- Lookism / Ableism › What is lookism? How does it relate to weightism and heightism? o lookism: discrimination/prejudice about physical appearance  more attractive individuals are more likely to get hired, make more money, and be given a lesser sentence o weightism: discrimination/prejudice based on body size (small size) o heightism: discrimination/prejudice based on height (shorter women and taller men) › Why are appearances becoming increasingly important in a capitalistic society? o service sector: attractive employees selling products › Consider the intersectionalities of gender and weight based discrimination. How does the obesity pay gap affect women? o obese women get paid 10-12% less o obese men get paid 1-3% less › How do attitudes reinforce weight based stereotypes and stigma? o perception weight is controllable o American values: personal responsibility, self-discipline › What influence / importance does height have in the workplace? Relationships? o Workplace: height pays  average height for men in CEO positions is 6'2  average height for women in CEO positions is 5'9 o Relationships: men are more accepting of dating taller female, and women are less likely to date someone shorter than them › How does “attractiveness” apply to the Civil Rights Act of 1964? o right to employment free from discrimination  includes race, religion, sex, or national origin  does not include attractiveness (must be linked to one of the protected categories) › Explain the concept of ableism. o ableism: prejudice/discrimination against individuals/groups of people with disabilities › Analyze the history of sterilization in the United States and how it relates to ableism. o pre-industrial: mentally ill were "possessed by the devil because of sins"  Infanticide and adults were tortured o 18th century: societal curiosity, religion to science, medicalization  physically impaired seen as freaks  looked at as less than human electric shock, removing part of brain, or teeth  segregation o Eugenics movement: improve quality of human gene pool  laws barring disabled immigrants  forced sterilization › What is the difference between impairment and disability? o Disability: person with impairment  functional limitations of the body  physiological/psychological o experiences impairment  results of physical and social barriers › How might a disability be invisible? How does this relate to one’s master status? o if it is non-physical therefore it will be less likely to affect master status Ch. 14- Immigration / Population > What does the United States rely on in order to maintain its population? o migration, birth rate, and death rate > How is immigration different today than 100 years ago? o there has been an "explosive growth" of immigration > What is migration and what are its two components? o migration: movement of people from 1 region to another  Immigration: individual going to an area  Emigration: individual leaving an area > Identify the requirements for becoming a US citizen. What is this process called? o Naturalization: process of becoming a citizen if foreign born o Requirements:  18 years old  5 years continuous residency  read, write and speak English  "person of good moral character"  pass government and history test > What three variables impact population changes? o fertility rate o mortality rate o migration > Explain the Malthusian trap including all key concepts discussed in lecture. What did Malthus propose in order to reduce population growth? o As population grows exponentially there will not be enough food  preventative checks: "moral restraint" (refrain from sex) and wait longer to get married  positive checks: eliminate members of society (war, starvation, diseases) > Explain the demographic transition theory. Be able to identify each stage by number, as well as its associated name. How is this theory related to population growth? o industrialization is related to population growth  Pre Industrial: high CBR, high CDR  majority of members here  Early Industrial: high CBR, low CDR  *population explosion  advancements in medicine, sanitation, etc.  Post Industrial: low CBR, low CDR  USA, Canada, Japan, Australia  women's rights, controlling reproduction, etc.


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