Earth Science Final Exam Study Guide
Earth Science Final Exam Study Guide ESCI 1101 - 002
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Vani Singh on Monday May 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ESCI 1101 - 002 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Terry Ray Shirley in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Earth Science - Geog in Earth Science at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.
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Date Created: 05/09/16
Earth Science Final Exam Study Guide Water on Earth Quantity Equilibrium: net input/output of water creates a steady balance Hydrologic Cycle: atmospheric components Most of Earth’s water is located in the Southern Hemisphere Water: 97% oceanic (salt) 2.7% fresh water 80% surface 99.7% glacial water 0.3% lakes, rivers, groundwater (potable water) Planet’s Unique Location: water can exist in all 3 states at the same time and temperature Heat Properties: Ice Water Water Vapor Deposition Ice Water Vapor Sublimation Condensation: Warming process Evaporation: Cooling process Water Snow: a depositional process as it is water vapor being converted into ice Gas: contains the highest energy Solids: contain the lowest energy Latent Heat of Vaporization: heat required for evaporation cooling process Latent Heat of Condensation: released heat for condensational warming amountof H O∈theair 2 Relative Humidity: totalwatertheair can potentiallyhold (denominator controlled by temp) 6gal(howmuchis∈thetank) 12 gal Atmospheric Relativity: saturation Ex. Gas tank: 12gal(howmuchthetankcanhold) (50%) 12 gal (100%) OverSaturation: once this occurs in the atmosphere, it causes the formation of condensation in the form of clouds, fog, and dew point in order to try & balance 13gal Ex. 12gal Dew Point: how much the temperature has to drop in order for condensation to occur **Relative Humidity: *Humidity Patterns: inversely related warmer air holds more water because it High temperature = low humidity Low temperature = high humidity expands, therefore more room to hold water (water vapor) Vapor Pressure: weight of water in the air (more in the summer b/c of influence of temp) Measured How? Sling Psychrometer Clouds & Fog Cloud Types & Identification: precipitation (where in atmosphere? L,M,H Fog Advection: fog that moves or rollsin (spooky fog that moves in cemeteries) – coasts & mountains Evaporation: over water bodies Upslope/Valley (Mtn.): cold, dense air that sinks into the valley (reduces visibility) **Radiation: dominant fog on earth (after rain clears out) Atmospheric Stability Adiabatic Processes: Pressure is zero in outer space; rising air expands (balloons); the air is physically doing work to expand & requires energy (heat energy, kinetic energy) – therefore it cools as expansion occurs Descending/Sinking Air: compresses and heats up Adiabatic: change of temperature from expansion and compression ONLY Dry Rate: 10°/km No Condensation Moist Rate: 6°/km with Condensation Environmental Lapse Rate (ELR): Real temperature in the atmosphere Stability in the atmosphere: clouds develop in an unstable atmosphere when air is moved upward the air will return to that position, whereas in an unstable environment there is no balance (similar to a positive feedback system) As the height increases the temperature decreases as the atmosphere thins out and the air pressure drops. **Tropical air masses are hot, yes, but who knows if they are humid. ***All images have been taken from Google Images*** Global Climate Systems Climate: statistical average of weather parameters over a significant period of time Variables influencing the climate: Latitude Seasonality Air Circulation Maritime/ Continental: Coastline vs. Inland Climate Components: these components will dictate which ‘region’ we’re in Insolation: solar radiation Temperature: of air Pressure: barometers measuring low vs. high Air Masses: wind, wind speed, direction, humidity, & dew point Precipitation: snow & rain Not part of the atmosphere Internal vs External Components Greenhouse gases Volcanoes Terrestrial radiation People (cars) Space Precipitation controls factors Temperature & pressure patterns Air Mass types Orographic life (mountains) Energy Availability (latitude) 6 Major Climate Regions Tropical Polar Mesothermal (Charlotte) Desert (Arid & Semiarid) Microthermal Highlands Tropical Rainforests: rainy all year Monsoon: 6 – 10 months of rain Savannah: < 6months of rain (Australia) Mesothermal (Charlotte) Humid Subtropical: moist all year; hot summers, mild winters Microthermal (New York, Chicago) Hot summers, freezing winters Subarctic: mild summers, subzero winters Polar Tundra: temperatures below freezing 8 – 10 months (Alaska) Ice Cap (high altitude) & Ice Sheet ( high latitude): ALL YEAR below freezing Ex. Arctic Circle & Greenland, mountain tops Dry, Arid, & Semiarid (rainfall determines whether desert region or not) Steppe: between 10 – 20 in/year Desert: <10 in/year Wetland: any land area saturated with water, supporting plants that grow 2 types: Salt marshes (from below freezing) & Mangrove marshes (tropical plant right out of the salt water; salt & water resistant. But not cold resistant) Geomorphology: science of landforms (origin, form, distribution) Denudation: any process that wears away or rearranges landforms Weathering, mass movement, erosion, transportation Weathering: surface & subsurface rock disintegrates or dissolves in water Regolith: upper surface, that undergoes continuous weathering Influences: Type of Bedrock Hard vs Soft Soluble vs Insoluble Broken vs Unbroken Joints: fractures in rocks that occur without displacement of sides, such as water freezing Geographic Orientation: whether the slope faces N, S, E, & W Vegetation reduces and enhances weathering because the roots act as an anchor to the soil and plants give off acidic material and their decomposition is acidic, therefore it breaks down the rock Physical (Mechanical) Weathering: doesn’t change the chemical components of the rock; breaks apart or fractures (frost action) Rockslides: the cold seasons, below freezing at night & above freezing during the day – over & over Sheeting: rock top layer peels off the parent rock (exfoliation) Chemical Weathering: refers to actual decomposition & decay of rock Oxidation Carbonation: acidic weather breaking down rock formations (water dissolves many many chemicals, such as carbon dioxide) Karst Topography: Caves, Caverns, Sinkholes Area underground made mostly of limestones & when acidic water infiltrates the ground & percolates through…it dissolves the limestones Cold Fronts: vertically orientated, moving towards the front Warm Fronts: shallow slope, up & over the front, elongated clouds, rain, & air is moving away from the front Warm &Cold Advection: something moving Cold front: temperature goes down Warm front: temperature goes up Basic Stages to Thunderstorm Development: Stage 1: Cumulus clouds, updrafts Stage 2: Mature, clouds expand upward & water droplets begin to accumulate at top of the cloud (precipitation loading); microburst: evaporation occurs as rain falls to the ground (updrafts & downdrafts) Stage 3: Dissipation: clouds fall apart, all downdrafts *This entire process takes about an hour to occur Lightning: created by difference in charges up in the clouds created by differences in precipitation types (rain, snow, hail) Thunder is caused by separation of lightning, this creates large pressure waves Regions of the U.S. that see the most thunderstorm days per year: Florida, Mississippi, Alabama, and Louisiana warm & moisture 2 : New Mexico & Colorado (mountainous areas) Mesocyclone: areas of tiny upward rotations What role does wind shear play in forming tornadoes? Wind direction and speed is changing: blowing in different directions Causes the air to rotate Lift & intense rotations upwards create tornadoes Flash Flooding: thunderstorms that rain a whole bunch – sudden Training Storm: one moves in after another Hail: forms up in the clouds and as its size increases it finally falls when it overcomes the updraft in clouds Precipitation loading is the buildup of precipitation in the top of the cloud Precipitation loading leads o microbursts when the rain droplets are heavy enough to fall out of the clouds onto the ground Hurricanes develop in these conditions: warm water, warm sea surface temperatures 80°F, low wind shear, high moisture, and away from the equator Hurricanes do not form at the equator because there’s no rotational force in that area 5° below and above Latent Heat is heat generated from condensation Sensible Heat is heat given off by the ocean, transported into atmosphere 4 stages of hurricane development: 1. Area of Disturbance 2. Depression 3. Tropical Storm (when the storm is given its name) 4. Hurricane The eye of the storm is the center of the storm, very calm & clear skies, lowest pressure & highest temperature The eyewall has the heaviest winds, most destructive part, outside this is the rainbands A tropical storm receives its name at stage 3 of hurricane development Storm surge is ocean water being pushed on shore by the strong winds Fresh water flooding is from rivers & rainfall Hurricanes have counterclockwise rotation while traveling overseas and oceans. The eye makes landfall to the right of it, this is where the most damage occurs (Right Front Quadrant) September and August is when you see the most hurricanes in the Atlantic because that is when the ocean is warmed up to 80° Climate is the average measurement of weather over time Climate regions are areas that have similar weather, does not have to be within the same country Primary components that control global precipitation: How close to the ocean, north vs south, topography (altitude) External Climate Forces: not part of the atmosphere (sun, volcanoes, people) Internal Climate Forces: part of the atmosphere (clouds) Primary things that control global precipitation: oceans, how close to a body of water, mountains, Hadley cell (ITCZ) Different tropical climate systems Rainforest: rains all year long Monsoon: rains 90% of the year, with a couple months break: short dry periods Savannah: mostly dry, brief rain period Difference between tundra, icecap, and ice sheet climate. Tundra: below freezing majority of the year (ex. Canada) Ice Caps: form on mountain tops Ice sheets: always below freezing (Antarctica, Greenland, & North Pole) How are a desert and steppe defined? Total amount of precipitation Desert: < 10 in of rain Steppe: 10 – 20 in of rain Two primary pathways for surface water: infiltration (soil) and percolation Infiltration: water soaks into the ground through the soil Percolation: once in the ground, the water continues to trickle underground The 3 types of soil moisture and how are they different? Hygroscopic: not enough water, tiny veins (plants can’t use this water) Gravitational: saturated & plants can use Soil Moisture Capillary: in between & plants can use as well Zone of Aeration: pore spaces in the ground that are filled with air Zone of Saturation: pore spaces within the ground filled by water Permeable Layer: materials are able to travel through the layers (soil) Impermeable Layer: cannot get through the layer at all (bedrock) An aquifer is a permeable underground water storage and an aquiclude is impermeable bedrock beneath the water table. Water Table: level below which the ground is saturated with H2O An effluent stream is a source of the water from groundwater. Influent Stream: losing or disappearing stream, loses water as it flows downstream Instream Water Usage: not removing the water from the source, but still using it (swimming, water skiing, navigation) Nonconsumptive (withdrawal): use the water and then immediately put back (rare) Ex. Power plants, factories Consumptive: use water & don’t return it dominant type Which sector uses the most water in the U.S.? Industry & Manufacturing; The world? Farming Hydrology: study of water; Fluvial Processes: river processes Ultimate Base Level: sea level Drainage Divide: a mountain; Watershed: where water ends up being collected Internal Drainage: water in rivers evaporates or sinks into the ground; dry areas Base Flow: average natural flow Bankfull: maximum amount of water flow, anymore and flooding occurs Perennial Streams: all year long flow Ephemeral Streams: seasonal flow Sources of stream water: groundwater, precipitation water & ice, springs Dissolved Load: salt in water, chemicals & minerals Suspended Load (gives water its color): dirt & debris, leaves, tree branches, cars Bed load: rocks, riverbed (downstream) Nickpoint: when the topography of a land drops off, rocks (waterfall) – abrupt change Friction between the wind & the ocean surface generates undulations of water waves Stormy area at Sea is called a ‘generating region’ Wave Interference: waves interacting with each other and waves that align create much larger waves and produce killer waves because the clashing of the energy from both or multiple waves Wave Refraction: the bending of waves and over time with erosion, the waves try to straighten the coastline out (Coastal Straightening) Types of Coastline: Erosional: typically rugged, high relief (vertical elevation difference – between altitude of places), tectonically active Depositional (east coast): gentle relief, sediments from different areas are deposited & available Barrier Spits: deposits build up in areas that jut out into the ocean (don’t last very long) Bay Barrier: body of water trapped by sand deposits (lagoon) Tombolo: sand bridge, enough sand accumulates between island and land Jetty: a breakwater constructed to protect or defend a harbor, stretch of coast, or riverbank (Cred to Google for definition) Groins: smaller versions of Jetty Beach: sediment (depositional material) in motion and an average picture of how big a beach is about 16 feet over tide Barrier Islands: long, narrow, depositional features; generally made of sand Coral Reefs (biological processes): simple marine animals with small bodies – related to many invertebrates Largest Coral Reef is over a 1000 miles in length and 90 miles in width near Australia Coral reefs need warm waters which are located near the equator and shallow water, so they form near land (sunlight)
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