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Chapter 9, 10, 11, 12 Key Terms

by: Morgan King

Chapter 9, 10, 11, 12 Key Terms GEOG 1101

Marketplace > University of Georgia > Geography > GEOG 1101 > Chapter 9 10 11 12 Key Terms
Morgan King

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These are the Key Terms for our last test, with definitions from the book and the lectures!
Human Geography
Daniela Aiello
Study Guide
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Morgan King on Monday May 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOG 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Daniela Aiello in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 80 views. For similar materials see Human Geography in Geography at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 05/09/16
Chapter 9 (Geographies of Food and Agriculture) Key Terms 1. Agriculture – a science, an art, and a business directed at the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance and profit. 2. Agrarian –an adjective used to describe the way of life that is deeply embedded in the demands of agricultural production. 3. Subsistence agriculture – a system in which agriculturalists consume most of what they produce. 4. Commercial agriculture – a system in which farmers produce crops and animals primarily for sale rather than direct consumption by themselves and their families. Became the dominant agricultural system in core countries in the 20 thcentury. 5. Crop rotation – a method of maintaining soil fertility in which the fields under cultivation remain the same, but the crops planted are changed to balance the types of nutrients withdrawn and delivered to the soil. 6. Pastoralism – involves the breeding and herding of animals to satisfy the human needs of food, shelter, and clothing. Usually practices in the cold and/ or dry climates of savannas, deserts, and steppes (lightly wooded, grassy plains), where sustenance agriculture is impractical. 7. Agricultural industrialization – part of the 3 agricultural revolution (happening now); because of advancements in science and technology, the farm has moved from being the centerpiece of agricultural production to being one part of an integrated multilevel (vertically organized) industrial process that includes production, storage, processing, distribution, marketing, and retailing. 8. Green Revolution – in the late 1960’s, core countries sent out machines and institutions to periphery countries, all designed to increase global agricultural activity. 9. Aquaculture – the growing of aquatic creatures in ponds on shore or in p ens suspended by water. Brought on by the blue revolution. 10. Biorevolution – involves the genetic engineering of plants and animals and has the potential to outstrip the productivity increases in the Green Revolution. 11. GMO – a genetically modified organism. It is any organism that has had its DNA modified in a laboratory rather than through cross-pollination or other forms of evolution. Supporters of GMO’s say it allows more resistance to diseases, drought tolerance, and great advances in agriculture. Opponents say there could be irreversible negative effects of GMO’s on human and environmental health. 12. Globalized agriculture – the incorporation of agriculture into the world economic system of capitalism. Modern agriculture is increasingly dependent on an economy and set of regulatory practices that are global in scope and organization. 13. Agribusiness – a system rather than a corporate entity. It is a set of economic and political relationships that organizes food production from the development of seeds to the retailing and consumption of the agricultural product. 14. Food supply chain – composed of five central and connected sectors ( Agricultural inputs [fertilizer, technology, energy, machinery], Farm production [farm size, type, labor], Product processing [washing, freezing, slaughtering, transforming], Food distribution [wholesalers, retailers, catering trade], and Food consumption [population and growth, dietary preferences, purchasing power, employment]). There are four contextual elements act ing as external mediating forces (Physical environment [space, time, soil, climate], Credit/Financial Markets [mortgages, agricultural market, clearing banks, pension funds, credit companies], State’s farm policies [influence: on inputs, product prices, fa rm securities; fiscal policies, land inheritance], and International food trade [competitive/non-competitive products, export subsidies, food aid]). 15. Food Sovereignty – the rights of peoples, communities, and countries to define their own agricultural, labor, fishing, food, and land policies that are ecologically, socially, economically, and culturally appropriate to their unique circumstances. 16. Food justice – enabling communities to enact the principles of simply being able to grow, eat, and sell healthy food and care for the well-being of the local ecosystem in culturally appropriate ways. 17. Food desert – geographic area where access to affordable and nutritious food is highly limited, especially for individuals without automobiles. Neighborhoods t hat have little or no retail food outlets. Most likely to occur in low -income urban neighborhoods and rural areas with low population density. 18. Malnutrition – the condition that develops when the body does not get the right amount of vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients it needs to maintain healthy tissues and organ function. A person with malnutrition can be chronically hungry or not chronically hungry. 19. Famine – acute starvation associated with sharp increase in mortality. Tends to be shorter in duration and more contained geographically than chronic hunger (under nutrition) 20. Food security – assured access to enough food at all times to ensure active and healthy lives. 21. Biofuels – renewable fuels derived from biological materials that can be regenerated. Chapter 10 (Political Geography) Key Terms 1. geopolitics – the state’s power to control space or territory and shape international political relations. 2. boundaries – enable territoriality to be defined and enforced and allow conflict and competition to be managed and channeled. The creation of boundaries is important in making political territories. They are constructed to regulate and control specific sets of people and resources within them. 3. Borders – a social construction, the experience of a border differs by who you are; borderlands often constitute a grey area of jurisdiction 4. territory – the area surrounded by a boundary – which may include land and water – over which a state exercises control and which is recogniz ed by other states 5. frontier regions – occur when boundaries are weakly developed; zones of undeveloped territory (the last frontier = Antartica) 6. dejure territory – De jure means “legally recognized”; describes nested hierarchies (country, state, county, city, community) and overlapping systems of legally recognized territories. 7. state – independent political unit with recognized boundaries, although some of these boundaries may be in dispute. 8. statelessness – the lack of nationality, or the absence of a recognized link between an individual and state. In today’s world, no citizenship or nationality is a huge problem. 9. state theory - Althusser’s theory = (operations of the state); state is an ideological force in our lives that conforms citizens with its many institutions; Repressive State Apparatus would be things like courts, prison, police, things that use force to compel citizens; Ideological State Apparatus is when power governs through ideology like school, the media, the family, and religion , people to go school because it’s the norm and “good” to do ), relies on the power of expectations. Foucault’s theory – (how the state’s operation of institutions effect/shape people); the production of knowledge is how we make large numbers of individual’ s function as a group and produce subjectivity; citizens growing up in a society develop governmentality, and the citizens start to govern their own actions, but power comes from our actions! Power comes from the people; but we govern ourselves based on wh at we have learned in the institutions provided to us. Discourse is made through the rules, identities, practices, exclusions, and a range of other elements that form a way of thinking about something. 10. nation – a group of people sharing certain eleme nts of culture, such as religion, language, history, or political identity. Members recognize a common identity. Not necessarily tied down to a permanent geographic location (Kurdish nation) 11. nation-state – an ideal form consisting of a homogenous group of people governed by their own state. Pure nation-state = No significant group exists that is not part of the nation, and no significant portion of the nation is left outsid e of its territorial boundaries (very rare) 12. sovereignty – the exercise of state power over people and territory; that power is recognized by other states and classified by international law. 13. government – the body or group of persons who run the administration of a country. Various forms of government exist. 14. governance – refers to the norms, rules and laws that are invoked to regulate a people or a state. 15. citizenship – a category of belonging to a state that includes civil, political, and social rights. After monarchies switched to democracies, citizenship came to be bas ed on a framework of civil, political, and social rights and responsibilities. 16. multinational states – states composed of more than one regional or ethnic group. These are the norm (as opposed to pure nation-states) 17. nationalism – the feeling of belonging to a nation, as well as the belief that a nation has a natural right to determine its own affairs. 18. biopolitics – the extension of state power over the physical and political bodies of a population. The key objective to biopolitics is to regulate the national population – the social body – by shaping the individuals that constitute it. Biopolitics operates through monitoring, recording, categorizing, and policing to optimize the vitality of the population and ensure a healthy workforce. The census produces data and people’s differences for measurement by government. 19. Terrorism – is the treat or use of force to bring about political change 20. self-determination – the right of a group with a distinctive politico -territorial identity to determine its own destiny through the control of its own territory. Chapter 11 (Urban Geography) Key Terms 1. urbanization – one of the most important geographic phenomena in today’s world; increases the proportion of a country’s population living in cities (as opposed to villages or rural settlements); implies a size increase of cities, implies changes in economic structure and ways of life. 2. urban system – (aka city system) – any interdependent set of urban se ttlements within a given region; they reflect the increasing numbers of people living in ever -larger towns and cities, and changes in size of cities, changes in functional relationships with one another, changes in employment base and population composition. 3. urbanism – describes the way of life foster ed by urban settings, in which the number, physical density, and variety of people often result in distinctive attitudes, values, and patterns in behavior. 4. Colonial City – a city that was deliberately established or developed as administrative or commercial centers by colonial or imperial powers. Some formed on unoccupied land, some were grafted onto a existing settlement. 5. World city – control centers for the flow of information, cultural products, and finance that collectively sustain the economic and cultural globalization of the world. Concerned with transnational corporate organization, international banking and finance, supranational government, and the work of international agencies. 6. overurbanization – occurs when cities grow more rapidly th an they can sustain jobs and housing. This could produce urban slums. Main contributor to the development of megacities. 7. Mega city – come from overurbanization, the decline in agriculture, desire of modernization. This fast rate of urbanization characte rizes the periphery countries. (the growth of populations in cities in peripheral countries is faster than in core countries.) 8. Counterurbanization – occurs when cities experience a net loss of population to smaller towns and rural areas. 9. regeneration – involves the physical redevelopment of land where the existing buildings are no longer useful or profitable. 10. public-private partnerships – partnerships between city governments and private businesses, like real estate developers (this partnership c an be made with the goal of urban regeneration) 11. overaccumulation – too much capital is produced, so it must be reinvested 12. spatial fix – one solution to the problem of overaccumulation. Overaccumulation can be relieved by moving capital or labor to a different territory and beginning new production. This solution relieves the surplus by moving it into a region that has a higher demand for it. 13. built form – fixed capital in a built environment, cant be moved unless destroyed. The built environment is difficult and expensive to run. 14. contradiction of capitalism in the context of processes of urbanization – should we preserve the value of past fixed capital (built form of something made from capital)? Or destroy it for more space and opportunity? Capital needs to be able to flow but also needs to be fixed. Chapter 12 (Urban Geography) Key Terms 1. sprawl - the migration of a population from populated towns and cities to low density residential development over more and more rural land. The end re sult is the spreading of a city and its suburbs over more and more rural land. Because of this, we are dependent on the automobile. 2. central cities – the original, core jurisdictions of metropolitan areas, organized around a traditional downtown, AKA central business district, the nucleus of commercial land uses. 3. segregation (spatial segregation) - as minority racial groups grow, there is a tendency for their neighborhoods to become more homogenous. 4. gentrification – involves the renovation of housing in older, centrally located lower-income neighborhoods through an influx of more affluent households seeking character and convenience of less expensive but well -located residences. This tends to displace poorer households as the rent and house prices go up, increased property taxes, prompts the closing of specialty stores. 5. redlining – involves marking off bad-risk neighborhoods on a city map and then using the map to determine lending policy. Results in a bias against minorities, female -headed households, and other vulnerable groups. 6. squatter settlements – residential developments on land that is neither owned nor rented by its occupants (technically illegal). Often, but not always, slums. Overcrowding, lack of adequate sanitation, and lack of maintenance lead to high levels of ill health and infant mortality. 7. slum clearance programs – bulldozing slums for other developments or to ‘clean up’ the city; most cities cannot evict and demolish fast enough to keep pace with the growth of slums caused by in-migration. The thinking now is that informal -sector housing (slums/squatter settlements) should be seen as a rational response to poverty. Federal Housing Administration – FHA was created in the 1930’s and its key task was to stimulate the labor-intensive construction industry by guaranteeing fixed-rate mortgages with low down payments. However, the FHA refused to insure mortgages on older houses in older urban neighborhoods and openly recommended that subdivision developers prevent the sale of homes to minorities by use of restrictive contracts. The FHA established the framework for future urban growth: a future with a bias toward detached single -family owner-occupied housing in the suburbs, for white houeholds. 1956 Interstate Highway Act (and its i nfluence on urbanization and urban form) – this act created a 41,000-mile interstate highway system that transformed the American metropolis that was unexpected. Their intention was to relive traffic congestion in cities and facilitate high -speed long-distance travel in between them. However, the construction of these roadways devastated many urban neighborhoods and the new peripheral beltways became shortcuts to sprawl. white flight – when segregation laws were changed, white people fled to the suburbs (1 960’s – 1970’s); this contributed to the draining of cities tax bases (because middle class people left)=(Urban decay); abandoned properties attracted criminals and street gangs (more urban decay)


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